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IAMES THE FIFT.

AFTER the death of that woorthie prince king Iames the fourth, slaine at Branxton (as before ye haue heard) his sonne Iames the fift succéeded him: for after the returne of those that escaped from the said field, the queene assembled the lords and estates of the
An assemblie at Striueling. 1513. The king crowned, and the quéene appointed regent. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 13. realme togither at Striueling, where the 21 day of September 1513, hir sonne the foresaid Iames the fift, a child of one yéere, fiue moneths, & ten daies of age, by vniuersall aduise and consent was crowned king, and his mother the quéene appointed regent of the realme, vsing the counsell of the reuerend father Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Angus, and Arrane. *This gouernement the queene obteined by reason of hir husbands testament, who making his last will (before that he went to the warres) did appoint thereby that the whole administration of all things should remaine with hir, so long as she continued a widow: the which though it were against the custome of the countrie (being the first example of a womans gouernement amongest the Scots) yet it séemed tolerable to most men (giuen to peace) especiallie since there were not men sufficient at that time for honor and experience to take that charge in hand, by occasion of the great slaughter of the nobles at Floddon field, which gouernement she did not long inioy.]

For shortlie after they fell at variance amongest themselues, about the bestowing of those A debate. benefices which were vacant by the deaths of those persons which had béene slaine at the field; by reason whereof, some of them writ letters secretlie into France to lohn duke of The duke of Albanie is sent for. Albanie, willing him to come into Scotland to be tutor to the king, and gouernor of the realme, as he that was next of bloud to the king, and neerest to the crowne, in case the kings children deceassed without issue. He therefore sent monsieur de la Bautie into Monsieur de la Bautie is sent into Scotland. Scotland, who in companie of the earle of Arrane, the lord Fleming, and Lion the herald (which long had béene in France) landed on the west coast the third of Nouember. And shortlie after, the said monsieur de la Bautie deliuered his letters to the queene and lords, who therevpon met at saint Iohns towne, and there by vniuersall consent it was accorded, that An assemblie had at Striueling. the duke of Albanie should be admitted tutor and gouernor to the king & realme, and that the same should be confirmed in parlement by the thrée estates which should be kept at Edenburgh, the thirtéenth day of March next, for the same intent.

To rehearse the troubles and great disquietnesse that chanced, during the minoritie of The great disquietnesse reigning in Scotland during the minoritie of Iame the fift. this king, thorough lacke of due administration of iustice, and by discord & variance dailie rising amongest the lords & péeres of the realme, a man might haue iust cause greatlie to woonder thereat, and in weieng the same throughlie, no lesse lament the oppression doone to the poore commons in that wicked and most miserable time, when iustice séemed to sléepe, and rapine with all the other sorts and rabble of iniurious violence inuaded hir emptie seat, triumphing ouer all as a conqueror. * During the times of which disorder, Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 12. there was (amongest those which preied and spoiled others) a great capteine of the same faction, called Macrobert Struan, who (ouerrunning Atholl and the adioining places) was accompanied for the most part with eight hundred théeues, and sometime more. Which Struan was at length (whilest he spoiled euerie man at his owne pleasure, and at that time remaining with his vncle Iohn Creichton) taken by wait laied for him, and inforced to depart with his life.]

The quéene sent louing letters vnto the king of England hir brother, requiring him of peace. Wherevpon a truce was taken betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, for the space of one yéere and a day. In the beginning of Februarie, the king of England, hearing that a parlement should be holden in Scotland, for the bringing in of the duke of The king of England writeth to his sister. Albanie to be tutor, wrote to his sister that she should in anie wise impeach and staie his comming thither; declaring how dangerous it was, not onelie for hir, but also for hir sonne to haue him gouernor, which was to succéed, if hir son were once out of the way. But the chiefest cause that mooued the king of England to lahour, that the duke should hauo nothing to doo in Scotland, was (as manie thought) for that he knew how the duke, in fauour of the king of France, would shew himselfe an enimie against England, with all the force he might make or procure.

Now shortlie after that the peace was concluded betwixt him and the king of France, he sent a letter also, requiring him not to suffer the duke to passe into Scotland, for the reason first alleged. But notwithstanding the labor that king Henrie made to the contrarie, it The duke of Albanie confirmed tutor by parlement. was concluded by the states in parlement assembled in Edenburgh, at the time prefixed, that sir Patrike Hamilton, and Lion king of armes should be sent into France, to procure the duke to come into Scotland, being now confirmed tutor and gouernor, according to the lawes of the realme in such cases prouided. Wherevpon, in Aprill then next following they tooke the seas, and passed into France, accordinglie as by the states had béene deuised.

This yéere came a legat into Scotland from the pope, with certeine priuileges granted to 1514. A legat from Rome. The quéene deliuered of hir second son Alexander. the king and realme. The thirtith of Aprill was the queene deliuered of a prince in the castell of Striueling, which was baprished by the postulat of Dunfirmling, and the archdeane of saint Andrewes, and instantlie confirmed by the bishop of Cathnesse, by the name of Alexander. During the time that the quéene lay in childbed, great discord fell out betwixt the lords of the west parts, and the other lords of the realme: but shortlie after the quéene called an assemblie at Edenburgh the twelfth of Iulie, where they were all well agréed. And heerewith two of the cleargie were sent into England for peace. And the 28 of the same moneth, maister lames Ogiluie abbat of Driburgh, and sir Patrike Hamilton, and Lion the herald came foorth of France with articles in writing from the king there, and the duke of Albanie; by the which the dukes comming was excused, because the king could not want him, till some end were had touching the warres betwixt him and the king of England, which was concluded in October next insuing.

This yéere, the sixt of August, the quéene maried Archembald Dowglasse earle of Angus, The mariage of the quéene mother. The great seale taken from the bishop of Glascow. and immediatlie after in saint Iohns towne tooke the great seale from the bishop of Glascow, that was chancellor of the realme. Whervpon the said bishop got him to Edenburgh, where manie lords assisted him, and kept out the quéene and hir new husband, so that they might not enter there: whereof great discord rose within the realme amongest the nobles and péeres of the same. In the peace contracted betwixt Lewes the twelfth of that name, A peace concluded betwixt England & France. king of France, and Henrie the eight king of England, no-mention was made of the realme of Scotland: for the which the Scotishmen thought great falt in the French king, seeing that for his cause the warre had béene attempted betwixt them and England. The same yéere, about the twentie fift of October, William Elphingston bishop of Aberden, and lord The deceasse of the bishop of Aberden. kéeper of the priuie seale departed this life at Edenburgh. He had béene a faithfull councellor to Iames the third & to Iames the fourth, by whose helpe he founded and indowed the college in the old towne of Aberden, for the increase of learning & vertue, which hath florished with good wits of students euer since, till these our daies. The 20 of Nonember, Le sire de la Bautie receiued the castell of Dunbar in the name of the duke of Monsieur de la Bautie. Albanie, at the hands of the deane of Glascow brother to the bishop of Murrey, called Forman. Shortlie after, Iohn Hepborne the prior of saint Andrews then elect archbishop of that sée, besieged the castell of saint Andrews, and wan it by force from the kéepers of it, which were appointed to defend it in the name of Gawin Dowglasse, wherewith the quéene and the earle of Angus were highlie offended. The twelfth of lanuarie, being a verie darke & windie 1514. The castell of Dunbreton taken. night, the earle of Lennox, and the maister of Glencarne vndermined the nother groundsoile of the castell gate of Dunbreton, & entered thereby into the castell, & so tooke it, puting out thereof the lord Erskin. Shortlie after (that is to say) the fiftéenth of that moneth, a great assemblie was made betwixt the earles of Angus and Arrane, the one to haue fought with the other, which was the cause and beginning of great trouble that insued.

The same day in Edenburgh were the buls published, which Forman the bishop of The popes bule published. 1515. Lesle. Murrey had purchased at Rome, for the obteining of the archbishoprike of saint Andrews, the abbasies of Dunfirteling, and Arbroeth, through supplication of the quéene and duke of Albanie. From which buls the prior of saint Andrews appealed, pretending title Contention about the inioieng of the sée of saint Andrews. to the archbishops sée by election and generall gift of the lords of the realme, and her, vpon got togither his friends in Edenburgh, as the maister of Hales and others. And on the other part, the lord chamberleine, and diuerse of the bishop of Murreis friends got the kings letters, by vertue whereof they proclamed the said maister of Hales, and the prior of saint Andrews rebels, with all their assistants, putting them to the hornc: wherevpon they were constreined to depart out of Edenburgh. And in Maie following, the prior went vnto Rome, there to-iustifie his appeale.

The foure and twentith of Februarie, a parlement was assembled at Striueling; but because the lords could not agrée amongst themselues, it was proroged till the comming of the duke of Albanie, which was looked for to be in Scotland, in Aprill; or at the furthest in Maie next insuing, as he had sent word by sir Iohn Striueling of the Keir, that was latelie come from him with letters vnto the lords and péeres of the realme. The fiftéenth of Maie, 1515. Truce betwixt England and Scotland. truce was proclamed betwixt England and Scotland, to indure for three yeares, or three moneths (as saith Lesleus) but the same day at six of the clocke in the afternoone, the Englishmen entered the borders of Scotland vpon the water of Rule, and forraied the countrie, dooing great hurt therein, notwithstanding the truce. The seuentéenth day of Male, The duke of Albanie his arriuall in Scotland. Iohn duke of Albanie, tutor and gouernor of Scotland, arriued at the towne of Aire, with eight ships well appointed, and furnished with men and all kind of necessarie prouision for his estate.

From thence taking the sea againe, he sailed alongst the coast till he came to Dunbreton, and there came on land, & on the next day passed foorth to Glascow, were all the westland lords receiued him with great semblance of reioising for his arriuall. The The duke of Albanie receiued into Edenburgh. six and twentith day of Maie, he was receiued into Edenburgh, a great number of lords méeting him on the way. The quéene also came from hir owne lodging and met him, to doo him honor. Sundrie conceipts, pageants, & plaies were shewed by the burgesses, to honor his entrie in the best maner they could deuise. Shortlie after his comming to Edenburgh, there came thither foorth of all parts of the realme, the lords and barons, where they being assembled in councell, he tooke vpon him the gouernement of the realme, which he promised to vse by their aduise, so that they would assist him in setting foorth of iustice and good orders, which they vndertooke to doo.

Herevpon was the parlement, which had béene proroged till his comming, summoned A parlement summoned. to be kept at Edenburgh the twelfth of Iulie, in the which diuerse acts were concluded and made; and the lord Drummond was adiudged in the dukes mercie, for striking Lion king of armes. The duke pardoned him of life and honor, but his lands and goods remained in the kings hands: notwithstanding, he was afterwards restored to the same againe. In this parlement also, the duke of Albanie was confirmed by the three estates of the realme tutor and gouernor to the king, the scepter and sword being deliuered to him: his oth also was taken by the lords, and theirs giuen to him, that each of them should be faithfull to others, and namelie to their king and souereigne lord, and also should mainteine iustice to the vttermost of their powers, for the aduancement of his honor, and suertie of the realme.

In the meane time, whilest this parlement was in hand, the gouernor was aduertised that the king should haue béene conueied foorth of the realme secretlie into England: wherevpon he suddenlie departed in the night time from Edenburgh, with his men of warre in good order, & came to Striueling, where the king, with his brother Alexander, laie with the quéene; which castell, togither with the kings person, and the other within it, were deliuered to him the third day of August: wherevpon he committed them and the The king deliuered to the kéeping of certeine lords. The lord Hume denounced a rebell. castell to the keeping of foure lords of the realme, whereof the earles of Eglenton and Montrosse were two. The lord Hume, because he had assisted the earle of Angus and the quéene against the gouernor, was denounced a rebell; and the earles of Lennox & Arrane, with manie others, were sent to his houses to seize the same into the kings hands. In the castell of Hume was laid gunpowder by a traine, wherby diuerse of them that entered first into the castell were burned.

The lord Hume himselfe got him into England, and sore disquieted the marches, so that no day of truce was holden, neither on the east nor middle marches. The twelfth of August, the quéene, the earle of Angus, and his brother George Dowglas, went from Temptallon vnto Berwike, and from thence passed to the nunrie of Caudstreame; wherevpon aduertisement being giuen to the K. of England, and his pleasure therein knowne, the six and twentith of that moneth she was receiued by the lord Dacres, & conueied to Harbottell castell, where she remained till she was deliuered of a daughter, called Margaret The birth of the countesse of Lennox. Dow afterwards maried to the earle of Lennox, as in place conuenient it shall further appeare. There was no Scotishman at this time receiued into England with hir. The gouernor perceiuing the rebellion of the lord Hume, passed to the borders with his Frenchmen, where the sixt of October, the said lord Hume came & submitted himselfe to the gouernors The lord Hume submitted himselfe. pleasure, and his brother Alexander shortlie after did the same, and they were both deliuered to the earle of Arrane, who was appointed to keepe them in safetie within the towne of Edenburgh.

But the twelfth of October next insuing, the said earle of Arrane departed from thence The earle of Arrane stealeth away. in the night season, with those his prisoners, stealing their waies on foot. Herevpon, the gouernor causing the parlement to be holden that was summoned to begin the foure and twentith of October, the said lord Hunme, maister William Hume, and Dauid Hume, were The lord Hume and other conuicted of treason. conuict of treason by all the states, to lose their liues, lands, and goods. This parlement was proroged till fifteene daies after, within which time the earle of Arrane was appointed to make appearance, or else it was agreed that they should proceed against him in like maner, And in that meane space, the gouernor went to besiege the castell of Hamilton, where that noble aged ladie, the old countesse of Arrane, daughter to king lames the second, & The old countesse of Arrane purchaseth hir sons pardon. mother to the earle of Arrane, and aunt to the duke by his fathers side, caused not onelie the castell to be surrendered at the dukes pleasure, but procured also the earle of Arrans peace, which earle, the twelfth of Nouember next insuing, came with the bishop of Glascow vnto Edenburgh, and there submitted himselfe to the dukes will.

About the same time, certeine lords tooke part with the earle of Murreie the kings A commotion betwixt the earles of Murreie and Huntleie. bastard brother, and the earle of Erroll, against the erle of Huntleie, and raised a commotion; so that being got into Edenburgh, there was much adoo, & the towne greatlie disquieted. The gouernor lieng in the abbeie, came into the towne, and tooke the earles of Huntleie, Erroll, Murreie, and others; and committed them to ward within the castell, while he tried the cause: and finding that maister William Haie being with the earle of Murreie had raised that sturre, he sent the same Haie into France, there to remaine during his pleasure, and foorthwith the said earles were set at libertie. Lion king of armes appointed to go into England with letters to king Henrie, was stopped at Caldstreame by the lord Hume, who tooke Lion king of armes staied by the lord Humes. his letters from him, and kept him prisoner, till Alexander Humes mother, that remained prisoner in Dunbar, was exchanged for him. The eightéenth day of December, Alexander duke of Rosseie the kings brother departed this life at Striueling.

The seuentéenth day of Ianuarie, a truce was taken betwixt England and Scotland, till A truce concluded betwixt England & Scotland. the feast of Pentecost next. This truce was agréed vpon at Coldingham, by certeine commissioners, appointed on either part there, to treat for peace. For the realme of Scotland were these: Monsieur de Planes the French ambassador, archdeacon of saint Andrews, maister Gawin de Dunbar, and sir William Scot of Baluerie knights. The Englishmen comprised for their part, the earle of Angus and the lord Hume within the compasse of this truce. In the meane time, the earle of Arrane departed from the gouernor againe, and repaired to The earle of Arrane eftsoones reuolteth from the gouernor. The earle of Lennox furnisheth Dunbreton. the west parts, where he confederated himselfe with certeine lords, notwithstanding that sir lames Hamilton, and the lord of Cauder remained pledges for his good demeanor within the castell of Edenburgh. The earles of Lennox, Glencarne, and other caused the castell of Dunbreton and diuerse other to be furnished, and tooke the castell of Glascow with the kings great artillerie that laie within it, and spoiled the same.

The gouernor aduertised thereof, raised an armie & went to Glascow, where, by the labor of the bishop of that place, an appointment was taken, so that the castell was deliuered into the bishops hands. The earle of Lennox came in to the gouernor, and tooke a new respit, The earles of Lennox and Arrane take a respit. Forman resigneth his title to the archbishops sée. and about the beginning of March next following, the earle of Arrane and the lord Hume did the like. Forman the archbishop of saint Andrews, against whome the prior of saint Andrews did stand (as ye haue heard) for that same benefice, to the great disquiering of the realme, by such partakings as chanced thereabout among the lords, came now to the towne of Edenburgh, and resigned all the thrée benefices, whereof he had purchased buls of the pope, that is to say, the archbishoprike of saint Andrews, the abbasies of Arbroth and Dunfirmeling in the gouernors hands, to bestow the same at his pleasure: who by the counsell of certeine lords, to satisfie such as claimed interest to the same, and pacifieng of all debates, bestowed them as followeth.

First, the said archbishoprike he gaue to the said Forman with the abbasies of Bestowing of benefices. Dunfirmeling, and to maister lames Hepborne he gaue the bishoprike of Murrey, and benefices woorth a thousand marks by the yeare vnto the prior of saint Andrews for a recompense; the abbasie of Driburgh he gaue vnto maister lames Ogiluie, and the bishoprike of Aberden (then vacant) vnto Alexander Gurdon, and to the archbishop of Glascow called Beton he gaue the abbasie of Arbroth, assigning to the earle of Murrey a large pension out thereof. One of the Hamiltons was made abbat of Kilwinning [and George Dundasse was made prior of the Fr. Thin. knights of the roads.] And thus he bestowed the benefices which had béene vacant euer since Floddon field, vnto diuerse lords, or to their kinsmen, that by such liberalitie vsed towards them, all debates and discords might ceasse, which had happened amongest them, speciallie about the bestowing of the same benefices. This was doone in the moneth of Februarie.

Shortlie after, the gouernor, by counsell of the lords, to the end the realme might come to 1515. The earle of Angus and others receiued into fauor. a perfect quietnesse, and the noble men vnited togither, receiued into fauor the earle of Angus, & maister Patrike Pantoun secretarie, who for his cause had béene kept as prisoner in Insche gaile. He likewise receiued the lord Hume, and his brother, pardoning them all their offenses past. And in parlement holden the fift of Maie, they were restored to all their lands, heritages, fées, and honors. About that time, the lord of Strawen in Atholl committed diuerse great offenses and crimes, for the which he was taken by the earle of Atholl, and beheaded at Logiraith by the gouernors commission.

All this while, the parlement was not dissolued but vpon prorogation, and so the same The parlement began againe. The king of Englands letters to the lords. began againe the first day of Iulie, at what time the king of England, at request of his sister the queene of Scotland, wrote letters to the lords now assembled in parlement, requesting them to expell the gouernor foorth of the realme. But all the lords and states with vniuersall consent sent Albanie the herald with letters to the said king, excusing them, that they might not in anie wise satisfie his desire therein, the same being against reason and the lawes of their countrie.

In the moneth of September, the gouernor commanded the lord Hume, with his brother The lord Hume and other arrested and committed to ward. maister William Hume, and Dauid Kar of Fernihurst, to be arrested and bestowed in seuerall places, that better rule might be kept vpon the borders: but they lieng now in ward, sundrie informations were giuen vp against them: and therevpon, the eight of October, the said lord Hume and his brother were conuict of treason, for assisting and mainteining of the théeues vpon the borders, and other crimes; for the which he was beheaded: and on the morrow after, his brother the foresaid William Hume was likewise beheaded, and their heads The lord Hume beheaded. were set vpon the Tolbuith in Edenburgh: Dauid Kar was spared.

* Alexander lord Hume left yet three brethren in life, who were all by the iniuries of Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. those times gréeuouslie afflicted with diuerse misfortunes. For George, being banished for the slaughter of a man, remained in England amongest his friends. Iohn abbat of ledwoorth was banished beyond Taie. Dauid the yoonger brother, which was prior of Coldingham two yeares after the death of his brethren, was (by Iames Hepborne, the husband of his sister) slaine by a traine, vnder color of a meeting and parlée, wherevnto he was called; whome all men did pittie, because he was a harmelesse yoong gentleman, of a singular wit, and fowlie betraied by those of whom he ought not so to haue bin intrapped.

Shortlie after, the duke rode to Iedwoorth with a great companie of men, & staied the The duke of Albanie visiteth the borders. Another parlement. The duke of Albanie second person of the realme. great robbing & reauing which had béene vsed on the borders, & left there good wardens to kéepe good rule in those parts, and so returned to Edenburgh. The third of Nouember, another parlement was holden, in which it was decréed, that the gouernor should be déemed and reputed for second person of the realme, notwithstanding the claime made by his elder brother Alexander Steward, that was begotten on the daughter of the earle of Orkeneie, which was alleged to haue béene first maried to their father the duke of Albanie, before he was maried to the earle of Bullognes daughter, on whome he begot the gouernor. Wherevpon this Alexander made protestation to be heire to his father; but they were afterward agréed, and Alexander renounced his title in his brothers fauor, and was made bishop of Murreie, and abbat of Scone. At this parlement, the gouernor required licence to go into The gouernor asketh licence to go into France. France, and to be absent there six moneths: but this sute was not granted till Aprill following.

At the same time was the earle of Lennox put in ward within the castell of Edenburgh, The earle of Lennox in ward. till he had caused the castell of Dunbreton to be deliuered vnto one Alane Steward in the constables name, & then he was set at libertie. In the moneth of December, Monsieur de Monsieur de la Bautie made warden of the marches. la Bautie was made warden of the east marches in stead of the lord Hume, and kept daies of truce: which procured such hatred, that it cost him afterwards his life. In the moneth of Ianuarie, the gouernor went to saint Iohns towne, and there held his seat of iustice, where the lord Fleming for the time was made great chamberlaine of Scotland, with all the fées thereof. In the yeare 1517, there came ambassadors from Francis the new French king, to 1517. Ambassadors from France. desire, that the ancient league might be renewed betwixt him and the king of Scotland, their realmes, dominions, and subiects.

For this cause, all the lords of the realme were assembled at Edenburgh, where, by them An ambassage into France. it was concluded, that the gouernor himselfe should passe the seas into France; and also that the bishop of Dunkeild, the secretarie, and the maister of Glencarne as ambassadors should go thither: the which the thirtéenth of Maie, went a shipboord, and by the east seas sailed thither, and the gouernor tooke ship at Newmarke beside Dunbreton the seuenth The gouernor goeth into France. of June, taking his course by the west seas, and so passed into France, where it was agreed, that he should haue remained but onelie foure moneths, he hauing appointed the bishops of saint Andrews and Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Angus, and Arrane, to gouerne in his place, whilest he was absent. Also he ordeined Anthonie Darcie, or Monsieur de la Bautie lieutenant of the borders.

He also had caused the king to be brought into Edenburgh castell, within the which he Gouernors appointed to the kings person. should remaine in the kéeping of the earle Marshall, die lords Erskin, Borthwike, Rithuen; of the which, two at least should be alwaies present. The quéene that remained as then in England, after she vnderstood that the gouernor was departed towards France, returned to Edenburgh the seuentéenth of Iune, but she was not suffered to sée the king till August following: at what time, for feare of the pestilence to be crept into the castell, he The king remoued. The doubt which the Scots had in the quéene. was remooued to Cragmiller, where the queene oftentimes came vnto him; but at length, through some suspicion conceiued, least the quéene might conueie him away from thence into England, he was eftscones brought vnto the castell of Edenburgh, in which he was kept after, according to the order taken in that behalfe.

* Much about this time in the which these things were doone, Iohn Gordon (the eldest Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 336. sonne of that Alexander earle of Huntleie, which for the praise of his singular goodnesse obteined the surname of good) returning out of France (whither a little before he had sailed with the gouernor) was singularlie welcomed and interteined of all men, who going vnto his owne people (in the north parts) was vrged with such grieuous sickenesse that he died therwith, and by his father (to whom he should by course of nature execute the same office) shortlie after buried in the abbeie of Kilrosse, with a goodlie toome erected on him by his said father. The death of which Iohn gaue (for manie causes) manie griefes vnto manie persons: but amongst other the chiefest to his father, who liued not long after his sonne. Which Alexander when he died, left the said earledome to his nephue, sonne of his sonne Iohn; who bicause he was but ten yéeres old, was committed to the earle of Angus, to be instructed in all goodnesse of maners answering to the excellencie of that wit wherewith he was indued.

This earle Huntleie adorned with excellent swéetnesse of maners and pleasantnesse of wit, the earle of Angus would neuer or verie hardlie suffer to depart out of his companie. For which cause when the erle of Angus, for certeine suspicions of treson was banished Scotland into England, he attempted by all deuises and persuasions to intise the child to haue gone with him: but the yoong boie could not be allured with anie flatteries or persuasions to submit himselfe to the least note of reproch, in forsaking his king and countrie. Wherefore when the earle of Angus was departed into England, the child lifting vp his crauing hands to the king, did grant himselfe and all he had to the king and his countrie, whome the king receiued with all kind of humanitie; and prouided that he should be instructed in euerie sort of vertue and learning, that was to be desired in such a prince; bicause the said child was borne of his sisters mariage.

The lords and other nobles highlie offended (as well for the death of the lord Hume, as Buchan. lib. 14. for that they saw Anthonie Darcie lord Bautie the French aduanced to greater credit than themselues, and not onelie to be made warden of the marches, but also capteine of Dunbreton the strongest fort of Scotland) began to raise tumults in the land. For William Cockborne (yncle of Comarch Lancton) who (expelling the gardians of the pupill) did keepe the castell of Lancton, assisted with the helpe of Dauid Hume lord of Woodburne (whose sister the said Cockborne had maried) first began a commotion in those parts. For when they saw that all means were taken from them openlie to reuenge the same, and to set vpon Bautie, they determined to performe the same (with some secret deuise) by lieng in wait for him.

For the castel of Langton or Lancton, being kept in the possession of Woodburne (and Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 387. such as tooke his part against the king) he the said Woodbune appointed subtill fellows secretlie to enter the castell, and to reteine it in the kings name. After which, this Woodburne feining a counterfeit anger (for he was a man full of all subtiltie) that this castell was so iniuriouslie taken from him, and kept to the kings behoofe, he laid siege to the castell (as though he went about to recouer the same with all the power he could) to the intent that Bautie might be intised to come thither to raise the siege. For which cause Bautie ( 1517. Monsieur de la Bautie slaine by the lord of Woodburne. Fr. Thin. supposing in truth that the castell had bene kept to the vse of the king) hastening the rescue thereof, came foorth of the castell of Dunbar to assemble the men of the countrie to raise the siege, as lieutenant of the borders, he was chased by the said lord of Woodburne and other so fiercelie, that in the end he was slaine, and foure Frenchmen with him: his head was cut from the shoulders, and set vp in the towne of Duns [vpon the castell of Hume] the ninetéenth of Ianuarie.

The lords regents were herewith meruelouslie offended, & chose the earle of Arrane to be warden of the borders in de la Bauties place, who was also chosen to be prouost of Edenburgh: wherewith the earle of Angus was highlie displeased. But the erle of Arrane, not séeming to passe much thereof, tooke George Dowglas the said earle of Angus his brother, and Marke Kar, committing them to ward within the castell of Edenburgh, bicause of the fauor he bare vnto the said lord of Woodburne & his complices. Moreouer, for due punishment of the murther A parlement called. of the foresaid de la Bautie, there was a parlement called the ninteenth of Februarie next, in the which, Dauid Hume lord of Woodburne, and his thrée brethren, William Cockborne & The lord of Woodburne indicted. Iohn Hume, with diuerse other their partakers, were indicted for the besieging of the castell of Langton, the slaughter of Monsieur de la Bautie, and for the setting vp of his head, intercommuning with the Englishmen, and diuers other misdooings.

Immediatlie after the end of this parlement, the earle of Arrane came into the Mers, with The earle of Arrane commeth into the Mers. a great armie, and hauing with him the kings great artillerie, ment to haue besieged such places as would haue resisted him. But at his being in Lowder, the keies of the castell of Hume were brought vnto him, which on the next morrow he receiued, and put men within it to keepe it, as he did in Langton and Woodburne, which he receiued at the same time. The master of Hales was also sought for at that time, that hée might haue bene The maister of Hales. apprehended to answer the slaughter of Dauid Hume, prior of Coldingham, whom he had slaine traitorouslie. A litle before this parlement, the bishop of Dunkeld was returned from the The bond of league betwixt Scotland & France. Capteine Moores. French king with a bond of the league renewed betwixt Scotland and France. And at that same time was one capteine Moores a Frenchman sent foorth of France, with a certeine number of men, to receiue the castell of Dunbar into his kéeping, which accordinglie he did, the same béeing deliuered vnto him.

The earle of Lennox, who had béene with the gouernor in France, returned home 1518. into Scotland, & with him came a French herald from the king with letters, and maister Walter Steward abbat of Glenluce came likewise from the gouernor. And about that time, The abbat of Glenluce. bicause the queene and lords were aduertised that the French king had contracted new bonds of peace and amitie with the king of England, without making mention of Scotland, they thought themselues euill vsed, being his confederat friends, and thervpon sent sharpe The Scots euill vsed at the French kings hands. letters to the king of France, and to the gouernor, by Albanie the herald. In the moneth of Iune, maister Gawen Dunbar, archdeane of saint Andrews, and clearke of the register, was preferred to the bishops sée of Abberden that was vacant by the death of Alexander Gourdon.

This Gawen founded an hospitall in Abberden, and ińdowed the same with lands for The bishop of Aberden a builder. sustenance of twelue poore men, with a prouost to haue care ouer them. He also builded a faire bridge, with seuen arches ouer the water of Dee beside Abberden, and purchased lands for the perpetuall vpholding thereof. He also builded two steeples in the cathedrall church, with halfe of the crosse church, and a faire palace for the small prebendaries, called the chapleins. Moroouer, he bestowed manie rich & pretious ornaments vpon the same church of Abberden, as copes, chalices, and other such like things, which remained there long after. Manie right commendable works were accomplished by this diligent prelat, greatlie to his praise and high renowme; for he sent not the fruits of his benefice in vaine, but on such maner of buidings.

The seuentéenth of Iune, there rose great stur in Edenburgh, by the falling out of the Contention betwixt the erle of Rothes and the lord Lindsey. earle of Rothes, and the lord Lindsey, about the inioieng of the shiriffewike of Fife, by reason whereof, they were put in ward, the one in Dunbar, and the other in Dunbreton. About the beginning of August, the quéene remaining in Edenburgh, vnderstood that The cause of the hatred betwixt the quéene and hir husband. 1519. Lesle. the earle of Angus hir husband, as then soiourning in Dowglas dale, had taken a faire gentlewoman in those parts, and kept hir as his concubine; for the which act she conceiued such hatred against him, that there was neuer no perfect loue betwixt them afterwards. In the beginning of Februarie, there came a clearke as ambassador from the French king with letters, concerning the concluding of the truce betwixt Scotland and England, which message the lords made small account of, bicause the king had omitted to comprehend Scotland in the league which he lastlie made with England. The seuenth of June, a mad man 1519. A mad man. in Dundee slue in his mad fit a ladie of inheritance, a nun, with two other women, the one of them being great with child, and also two men.

The king of England wrote letters vnto the French king, desiring him to staie the duke The king of England séeketh to kéepe the duke of Albanie foorth of Scotland. of Albanie, that he might not come into Scotland; and furthermore, he laid ships of warre in the pase vpon the seas to watch for his comming, and to take him by the waie as he should passe. In September the king was remooued foorth of the castell of Edenburgh vnto Dalkith, for doubt of the pestilence, which was suspected to be in the castell of Edenburgh. And from Dalkith the erle of Arrane rode to Edenburgh to haue bin eftsoones The earle of Arrane. elected regent & prouost of that towne: but he missed his purpose, for the townesmen would not suffer him to enter, but repelled him backe, so that diuerse were hurt on both sides.

Herevpon, great dissention rose betwixt the said earle of Arrane, and the earle of Angus, Dissention betwixt the earles of Arrane and Angus. bicause of his repulse in that sute: whereby the whole realme was diuided into partakings, so that sundrie slaughters thereof insued, as of the prior of Coldingham, and six of his men murthered, by the lord of Woodburne at Lamerton, the sixt of October. About the same time, the king returned to the castell of Edenburgh, and in the towne there were remaining at the same time the earles of Angus, Erroll, and Crawford; the lord Glames, and other; the bishops of saint Andrews, Abberden, Orkenie, and Dublane, with diuerse abbats and other prelats. And in the towne of Glascow was the bishop of Glascows chancellor, with the earles of Arrane, Lennox, Eglenton, and Cassels; the lords Rosse, Sempill, the abbat of Pasley, the bishop of Galloway, and other noble men of the west. Thus the lords were diuided, and would not take anie order for the good gouernment of the commonwealth.

In December, monsieur de la Faiot, and a French clearke called Cordell, with an English Monsieur de la Faiot. herald called Clarencieux, came from the kings of France and England, with an ambassador also from the gouernor, with a conclusion of peace taken for one yéere, betwixt Scotland and England: who comming to Edenburgh, were receiued by the earle of Angus, and the other lords there with him, the which sent for the chancellor & the earle of Arrane to come thither; but they would not come anie néerer than to Linlithgo. The ambassador therefore tooke in hand to persuade, that an assemblie might be had in Striueling: but the earle of Angus would not come there. Neuerthelesse, the said ambassadors went thither, where the earle of Arrane and his partakers, as the chancellor and others, receiued them thankfullie, and proclamed the peace, according to the treatie which they had brought, and so The peace proclamed. with courteous answer and great rewards licenced them to depart. But in their returne toward England, the earle of Angus with a great number of men met them at Carlauerok, reproouing them sharpelie for their demeanor, and for taking their answer of the chancellor, so that they were not a litle afraid, least the earle in his displeasure would haue vsed some outrage towards them, which otherwise than in woords it should appéere he did not.

In Ianuarie, about the kéeping of a court at Iedworth, there was raising of people betwixt 1520. Variance betwixt the earle of Angus and the lord of Fernihurst. the earle of Angus on the one part, and Andrew Kar the lord of Fernihurst; in whose aid, Iames Hamilton came with foure hundred Mers men: but the lord of Sesseford then warden, assisting the earle of Angus his part, met Hamilton at Kelso with a great companie, and when they were lighted on foot, and should haue foughten, the Mers men left sir Iames Hamilton, the bastard of the earle of Arrane, in all the danger, with a few of his owne men about him, so that with much paine he was horssed, and escaped in great danger vnto Hume, with losse of foure of his seruants which were slaine: and on the other part, there was an Englishman slaine called Rafe Kar, that came in aid of the warden. On the morrow after, the lord of Fernihurst, as baliffe to the earle of Arrane, of that regalitie, held his court at the principall place of the forrest of Iedburgh, and the earle himselfe held his court likewise in an other part of the same land, thrée miles distant from the other.

The thirtieth day of Aprill, the lord of Woodburne, and maister William Dowglasse, newlie made prior of Coldingham, with their partakers in great numbers, came to Edenburgh to aid the earle of Angus, who was within the towne, against the earle of Arrane, and Iames Beton the chancellor, who were also there. But now by the comming of these succors, which entered by force at the neather bowe, and slue the maister of Mountgomerie, sonne of the earle Eglenton, and sir Patrike Hamilton knight; the earle of Arrane, and the chancellor, were constreined to forsake the towne, & to passe through the north loch. [To reuenge this contumelie, the Hamiltons besieged the cell of Marnocke (which is the Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 14. castell of Cuningham) but they shortlie returned backe without dooing anie thing against them.]

The one and twentith of Iulie, the earle of Angus being in the towne of Edenburgh, George Hume, brother to the late lord Hume beheaded, came thither with the abbat of Coldingham, brother to the earle of Angus, and Dauid Hume of Woodburne, and a great companie of gentlemen, and others, and passed to the Tolbuith, where they remained, till the heads of the lord Hume, and of his brother William were taken downe beside the The lord Humes head taken downe. place where they were fastened on a iauill, and this was doone in presence of the prouost for the time being. The next day they went to Linlithgo, and from thence to Striueling, in hope to haue found the chancellor, and some other of that faction there. But missing of their purpose, they returned to Edenburgh againe, and causing solemne funerall obsequies to be kept in the blacke friers, for them that owght those heads, with offerings and bankets, they afterwards returned home to their owne dwellings, without attempting anie other thing for that present.

In Nouember, the duke of Albanie arriued in Scotland on the west parts, at an hauen The duke of Albanie returneth into Scotland. 1521. Buch. called Grawrach, the nineteenth of the same moneth; and on the thrée and twentith he came to Edenburgh, accompanied with the queene, the archbishop of Glascows chancellor, the earle of Huntleie, and manie other lords, knights, barons, and gentlemen; and within six daies after their comming thither, the prouost and bailiffes were deposed, because they The prouost & bailifies of Edenburgh deposed. A parlement summoned. had beene chosen in fauour of the earle of Angus, and other appointed in their roomes. Then was there a parlement summoned to be kept at Edenburgh, the six and twentith of Ianuarie next following; and on the ninth of Ianuarie, a generall summons of forfalture was proclamed at the market crosse in Edenburgh, wherin were summoned the earle of Angus and his brother, the prior of Coldingham, the lord of Woodburne, the lord of 1521. Dalehousie, Iohn Summerweli of Cawdstreme, and William Cockborne of Langton, with their complices, to make their appeerance in the said parlement, to be tried for sundrie great offenses by them committed.

Maister Gawin Dowglasse bishop of Dunkeld, hearing of this proclamation, fled into Gawin Dowglasse bishop of Dunkeld fléeth into England. England, and remained in London at the Sauoie, where he departed this life, and is buried in the church there. He was a cunning clearke, and a verie good poet: he translated the twelue bookes of the Aeneidos of Virgill in Scotish méeter, and compiled also The palace of honor, with diuerse other treatises in the Scotish language, which are yet extant. The earle of Angus fearing the sentence of forfalture to be laied against him at the parlement, The earle of Angus feareth the sentence of forfalture. procured his wife (although there was small liking betwixt them) to labor for his pardon to the gouernor. Wherevpon it was agreed, that the earle, and his brother George Dowglasse should passe out of the realme into France, and there to remaine during the gouernors He and his brother basished. pleasure: and so they departed into France, and remained there all the next yéere following.

The king of England, hearing that the duke of Albanie was arriued in Scotland, and had taken the rule vpon him, doubting least he should persuade the Scotishmen to assist the French king, against whome, by persuasion of the emperor he ment shortlie to make warre, sent his herald Clarencieux into Scotland, to require the duke to depart from thence, Clarencieux an English herald sent into Scotland. alledging, that it was promised by the king of France at the last enteruiew betwixt them, which chanced the summer before, that he should not come into Scotland. And moreouer, whereas the king of England was vncle vnto the king of Scots, he considered with himselfe that by nature he was bound to defend his nephue, as he ment to doo; and therefore The king of England douteth to haue the duke of Albanie gouernor to the king his nephue. he thought it not reason, that the duke being next to the crowne to succéed, if ought came to the yoong king, should haue the gouernement of him, least he might be made awaie, as other yoong kings had beene. He further complained, that the earle of Angus should be sent out of the realme, so that he could inioy the companie of his wife, sister vnto the same king of England.

Clareneieux had therefore commandement, that if the duke refused to depart out of the Warre denounced by Clarencieux against the duke of Albanie. The dukes answer. realme of Scotland, he should intimate a defiance with open warre against him: which the said Clareneieux did, declaring his message vnto the duke from point to point at Holie rood house, as he had in commandement. To whome the duke answered, that neither the king of France, nor the king of England should staie him from comming into his countrie. And as touching the king, who was as yet yoong in yéeres, he loued him as his souereigne lord, and would keepe him, and defend both him and his realme against all other that would attempt to inuade the same, according to his conscience, honor, and dutie. And as touching the earle of Angus, he had vsed towards him all clemencie and mercie, notwithstanding his euill demerits, and that principallie for the quéenes cause, whome he would honor as mother to his souereigne lord. This answer being reported vnto the king of England, contented him nothing at all, and therefore prepared to make warre.

The tenth of Aprill, there came seuen great ships into the Forth, vnto Inchkeith, to haue 1522. spoiled the ships, and inuade the coast there: but they were so stoutlie resisted and kept off, that they were not suffered to doo anie great exploit, and so they returned without preie or prise. In this season, Andrew Forman bishop of saint Andrewes deceassed, and The death of the archbishop of saint Andrewes. Iames Beton succéeded him. A stur in Edenburgh. bishop Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow, chancellor of Scotland, was remooued to saint Andrewes, & made abbat also of Dunfirmling, and the archbishoprike of Glascow was giuen a yoong man one Gawin Dunbar, that was the kings schoolemaister. In the moneth of Maie, there was great adoo in Edenburgh, by the falling out of the seruants of the earles of Murrey and Erroll, with the seruants of the earle of Huntleie, by reason whereof, the whole towne fell to partakings; but the duke comming suddenlie from the abbeie of Holie rood house, staied the matter, and committed the said earles vnto ward within the castell.

The emperor came into England, and persuaded the king there to mooue warres against The emperor commeth into England. Scots and Frenchmen banished foorth of England. The earle of Shrewesburie inuadeth Scotland. the French king, and so not onelie the Frenchmen but also the Scots were commanded to auoid out of England, their goods confiscated, and they conueied foorth of the land, with a white crosse sowed vpon their vppermost garment. In Iulie, the earle of Shrewsburie was sent by the king of England vnto the borders, with commission, to raise the power of the north parts to inuade Scotland, who vpon the sudden entered and came to Kelso, where he burnt one part of the towne; but the borderers of the Mers and Teuidale, not being halfe so manie in number as the other, set vpon them, slue, and tooke manie prisoners, and so constreined them to returne into England with small honor.

* The gouernor after this (when he saw the English ouerrun all the borders of Scotland) Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 400. called a parlement at Edenburgh, the 9 kalends of August, to cure the same wound. Beside this, the French fearing themselues (because of a prepared and well furnished nauie of the English which did euerie waie couer and kéepe the sea) sent manie (and those wise and of excellent knowledge) vnto the gouernor, to request him that he would either by counseil persuade, or by authoritie inforce his Scots to take armor against the English. After which (the matter being with great consultation and manie reasons tossed in argument to and fro) it was decréed by common consent of the parlement, that a chosen number of souldiers should be prepared, to defend the borders from the inuasion of the enimie, & (the more stronglie to repell the English force) it was concluded, that the children of such as were slaine in that expedition, should be freed from all charges or troubles that might light on them during their minorite: and further, that the wiues of all such which had anie lands (during their liues & fell in that conflict) should after the death of their husbands kéepe the same for the terme of flue yeeres.)

The duke of Albanie, hearing of the great preparation that the earle of Shrewesburie made, to raise an armie of foure score thousand men to inuade Scotland, he likewise (as it was before decréed) sent vnto all the earles, lords, and nobles of the realme, wiling them to The duke of Albanie raiseth an armie to inuade England. raise all such power as they could make in defense of their countrie; which they did, And so being assembled, the duke with a mightie armie of Scotishmen and certeine Frenchmen, with great artillerie, marched forward, till he came to the water of Eske ouer against Carleill: and perceiuing that the English armie came not then forward, he did what he could to persuade the noble men to enter into England: but as they were in councell togither about that earnest motion made to them by the duke, a certeine graue personage said to them in this maner.

"My lards, hither we be come by the commaundement of my lard gouernor duke of The woords of a councellor. Albanie, and albeit we be readie to defend our awne natiue realme, contrarie the inuasioun of our auld enimies of Englaund, yet neuerthelesse it séemeth not guid, nor for the wéele of our realme of Scotlaund, to passe within Englaund with our armie to inuade the same at this time. And the earnest persuasiouns quhilk the gouernor makes to vs to doo the same, procéedes alanerlie for the pleasure of France. It appéereth to be sufficient inough for vs so lang as the king our souereigne lard is within age to defend our awn realme, and not to inuade: otherwise, we may put the haile countrie and nobilitie thereof in hazard of tintsall: for king Iames the fourth brought the realme of Scotlaund to the best that it euer was, and by the war it was brought to the woorst almost that might be: for by that warre, was he and his nobilitie tinte, quhilk Scotlaund sare laments. Wherefore by mine aduise, let vs go to the gouernor, and know of him the cause why he wauld persuade vs to inuade Englaund."

Then they all came to the gouernors tent, and the earle of Arrane, an auncient wise The earle of Arrane declareth to the gouernor the mind of the lords. man spake for them all, and said: "My lard gouernor, by your will and commaundement, héere is assembled the maist of the nobilitie of Scotlaund with their power, vpon a pretense to enter within Englaund. My lards héere wauld know the cause and quarrell why this warre is begun, gif it might please your goodnesse, it should well satisfie their minds." The duke studied a little space, and said: "This questioun wauld half bin The dukes answer to the earle of Arrane. demaunded yer now; for well you know, that I for verie lufe I beare to the realme of Scotlaund (of the quhilk I haue my name, honor, and lignage) haife passed the seas from the noble realme of France, into this realme of Scotlaund. And great cause there was for me so to doo, to bring you to a vnitie, when ye ware in diuisioun, by reasoun whereof, your realme was like to haue bin conquered and destroied. And also the king of Fraunce, by my suites and intercessioun, will ioine with you in aid against the English natioun: and when this warre was determinate in the parlement, you made me capteine, authorizing me to inuade Englaund with banner displaied. Then was no demaund made of the cause or quarrell, and that I haif doone, is by your assent and agreement, and that I will iustifie. But to answer your demaund, me thinke you haif iust cause to inuade Englaund with fire, swoord, and bloud, gif ye be not forgetfull, and without you will beare dishonor and reproch for euer. For ye know that this realme of Scotlaund is our inheritauace, as a portioun of the world allotted to our natioun and auncestors whome we succéed. Then where may there be better warre, than to mainteine this our naturall inheritance? Is it not dailie séene, the great inuasiouns that the Englishmen on vs make, the great manslaughters and murders, with thefts and spoiles that they doo dailie? Is not this one cause of warre? To defend the countrie is the office of a king, the honor of noble men, and the verie seruice of chiualrie, and the dutie naturall of the communalde: for I thinke it a iust quarrell, gif we might conquer the realme of Englaund, and annex it to our owne realme, for the great iniuries and wrongs doone by that natioun to vs and our predecessors. For séene the begining of our habitatioun in this Ile of Britaine, the Englishmen and we haue euer bin enimies, and vs haif they euer hated, and yet haue we euer withstand them. Suppose, we at the last battell of Floddoun field by chaunce lost our souereigne lard, & diuerse noble men, quhilk was rather by treasoun of the lard chamberlaine, than otherwise, who would not relieue the kings armie when he might. And yet I thinke we wan the field, quhilk murder all we noble men ought to reuenge. Therefore I wauld that you suld couragiouslie aduance your selues in this quarrell to get honor, and to be reuenged."

Then one wise man that was president of the councell, answered the gouernor, saieng: "My 1522. The replie of a wise councellor. lard, fortune of weir is led by him that all leides, and he striks the strake, we can warke na meracles, & heare are the lards of Englaund readie to incounter vs. And gif we inuade their realme, suerlie they will fight, for their power sall increase dailie, and ours will diminish. And gif God graunt vs the victorie (as I trust he sall) yet haue we not woon the field, for readie comming is the earle of Shrewesburie sa mikell dread in Fraunce (as ye knaw well) with an great puissant armie, and there is na doubt, but the king of Englaund will send or bring another armie gif we suld chance to get the first battell. And gif we get the secound field, that will not be without great losse of manie nobles, by reasoun whereof, the realme shall be weaker. And gif we be ouercommen how manie suld be slaine, God knawes. They that flée are woorthie to be reputed as traitors to the king, and so by wilfulnesse and fule hardinesse, the realme may be in ieopardie to be vndoone. I say, while the king is within age, we aught to mooue na weir, least by weir we may bring him to destructioun."

Then said the valiant gouernor: "Héere is an puissaunt armie of Scotlaund, gif we The gouernors words to the presidents replie. returne, we sall incourage our enimies. Therefore séene you thinke it not gude to inuade, my councell is that we campe still on the bordures, while we sée what the Englishmen pretends to doo against our relme." To the which the nobles consented, and laie still there in campe certeine daies after. After this conference had betwixt the nobles and the gouernor, the quéene as then being not with them, but aduertised of all the procéedings and determinations, sent woord to the gouernor, and desired him that there might be a treatie of peace Means made for peace. had, and she promised to get the warden of the English marches to come to the gouernors campe, vpon pledges, whervnto the gouernor condescended. Héerevpon, the lord Dacres, The lord Dacres. warden of the west marches of England [with Thomas Musgraue] came vnto the gouernors campe, and thither also at that time was the quéene hir selfe come, and so vpon the eleuenth of September, an abstinence of war was taken and couenanted, that in the meane time the duke and quéene should send ambassadors into England, to treat and conclude a resolute peace.

In the moneth of October next insuing, there were thrée ambassadors sent into England, according to the agreement in the last treatie, but there were so hard and extreame conditions proponed on the king of Englands behalfe, that the same could not be accepted, as being contrarie to the honor and weale of the realme of Scotland, as the Scotishmen tooke the matter. And so those ambassadors returned without agréement or conclusion of peace: wherevpon followed great trouble betwixt them of the borders of both realmes. The earle of The earle of Northumberland made lord warden. The earle of Surreie. The lord marques I orset. The lord Dacres. Northumberland was made warden of the whole marches, but shortlie after, he began to make sute to be discharged of that office, & ceassed not till he obteined it: and then was the earle of Surreie made generall warden, and the lord marquesse Dorset warden of the east & middle marches; the lord Dacres continuing still in his office of wardenship ouer the west marches.

About the sixt day of March, the said lords came to the borders, about which time, the duke of Albanie considering that the warres betwixt Scotland and England were irksome to the nobles of the realme, because the same wars were taken in hand chieflie to serue the French kings turne, therefore he passed by the west seas into France. And in the The duke of Albanie goeth ouer into France. His request. His vaine brag. beginning of March, where he was verie hartilie and gladlie receiued of the king, his request was onelie to haue fiue thousand horssemen, and ten thousand footmen of Almains, to be transported into Scotland: and doubted not, if he might haue this granted, but that with that power, and the assistance of the Scots, he should be able to ouerthrow the king of Egland in battell, or else to driue him out of his realme. But the French king neither beleeued this vaine brag, nor yet might spare anie such power, hauing warre at that time both against England, and the emperor: neuerthelesse, he promised him some aid, wherevpon the duke abode and waited for the same a long season. In the meane while, the lords of Scotland 1523. The borders watched. caused certeine noble men to lie vpon the borders monethlie, in defense of the same against the Englishmen, dailie looking for support from France. Euerie companie remained their moneths, and then departed home as the custome is, and thus they continued still till September following. Much hurt was doone on either part, and diuerse houses were ouerthrowne and destroied both in England and Scotland.

During which time, the king of France prepared certeine ships, with men, and munition, to passe with the duke of Albanie into Scotland. But the king of England, to catch him by the way, had laid a great nauie of ships in the pase on the seas, as he should make his course. But the duke embarquing himselfe with his people at Brest in Britaine, sailed by the west parts The duke of Albanie returneth into Scotland. of Scotland: and the one and twentith day of September landed at Kirkowbre in the west part of Scotland; he brought with him (beside a good number of Frenchmen) Richard de la Poole, a man of great parentage, borne in England, and banished his countrie. Whilest the duke was on the sea making saile toward Scotland, the earle of Surreie, with an armie of twentie thousand men, entered into Scotland, and comming to Edenburgh, burned the towne and the abbeie. [But Lesleus, lib. 9. pag. 407. saith it was Iedwoorth which the Fr. Thin. The earle of Surreie inuadeth Scotland. earle burnt.] It was thought they ment to haue passed further, but the Scotishmen assembling themselues against their inuasions, they were constreined to returne with losse (as some Scotishmen haue written.)

*In this place, Buchanan (before he commeth to the parlement assembled by the duke Fr. Thin. of Albanie after his returne out of France) writeth in this sort. We haue shewed (saieth Buchanan. lib. 14. he) how miserable the state of Scotland was the last summer (through the dissention which was amongest the nobilitie) by the English (with all kind of slaughter) spoiling the places bordering néere vnto them, and besetting the sea on euerie side, whereby we might be out of hope of all forren aid. For the deuise of the enimie tended to compell the fierce minds of the Scots (abated with such euils) to conclude a league with him; wherewith the Scots were not behind (by reason of the French faction) that by the means of the quéene there might be a perpetuall truce taken betwéene them. For when the lord Hume was (by death) taken away, the Dowglasse banished, and all the rest of the nobilitie rather méet for companions than leaders in battells; such as had withdrawen their mind from the French, applied themselues to the quéenes faction.

Wherevpon she (to gratifie hir brother, and to wrest all the gouernement into hir owne hands) did (dissembling hir gréedie desire to rule) persuade them, to deliuer their sonne (almost now past childish yeares) out of the hands of strangers, and them selues from the yoke of other mens bondage. For the queene did well forsée, that preparation and succor was made, and did come against hir husband, whome before she had begun to hate extreamlie. The king of England also did commend and prefer to the Scots the counsell of his sister, by manie letters sent, and with faire promises offered; because he had none other mind, but that a perpetuall friendship might alwaies remaine betwéene the adioined kingdoms; the which, as he had at other times desired; so now mostlie he wished it, not for anie commoditie to himselfe, but to the end that all men might well perceiue that he would imbrace, defend, and asmuch as rested within his abilitie, séeke the commoditie of his sisters sonne by all the means he might. And if the Scots would persuade themselues to breake the league with the French, and ioine in amitie with the English; they should shortlie well vnderstand, that the king of England did not seeke after souereingtie, glorie, power, or honor; but onelie studied for a concord amongst themselues, & a league betwéene their nations. For which cause, he would bestow his onelie daughter Marie vpon Iames the king of Scotland; by which mariage, the Scots should not be subiect to the gouernement of England; but contrarie, the English vnder the rule of the Scots. For by that means, besides the quenching of great hatred betweene the nations (and intercourse of merchandize, exchange of mutuall courtesies and ioinings in affinitie) there should be an indissoluble knot made for the honor of the whole Iland.

And with this, they (for England) remembred the profit and disaduantage that might rise to the one from other, by the friendship or hatred of either kingdome, and the benefit that they might looke for from their English neighbours, more than by anie possibilitie they might obteine from their French confederats. For on the one side, the English and they were borne in one continent, brought vp vnder the same influence of the heauen, and so like in all things, in toong, in maners, in lawes, in decrées, in countenance, in color, and in lineaments of bodie, as that they rather séeme one than two nations. On the other side, the French are not onelie different from them, by naturall soile and clemencie of the heauens; but more seuered from them in order and forme of liuing, being further such a people, as if they were enimies vnto them, they could not greatlie hurt them; and if they be their friends they can not greatlie helpe them. But the English are at hand with men, munition, and monie; when the French, being so far off, are onelie with allurements, inforcements, and for their owne commoditie drawen to take their part. Besides which, there can be no succor from France but by sea, which the enimie may easilie stop; and so the Scots not able to be succored by them. But from the English they may haue aid by land with speed, and no man can hinder them thereof. Wherefore they should consider how discommodious (for the dispatch of their affairs) and how vnapt (for the defense of themselues) it should be, to hang all the hope of their succor vpon the fauor of the wind, and to place the most suertie of their estate in the vnconstant friendship of the vncerteine elements. For (if neuer before) yet at this time the Scots might not onlie perceiue in thought but feele in déed what helpe is to be hoped (in present dangers) from absent friends, when that the English can not onelie helpe you now, but at this instant doo also kéepe away your promised and long expected aid, which they haue so besieged vpon the sea, that you can receiue no benefit or helpe from them.

After that these things were thus laid abroad for the knitting of the English league, as there were not a few which gaue consent to that motion, so were there manie that stiflie argued to the contrarie. For in that assemblie, there were manie pensioners of the French faction, who (increasing their priuat commoditie by the publike detriment) did vtterlie abhor from all peace; besides whome, there were also some, which suspected the facilitie of promise in the English: especiallie, since the whole estate of England did then chiefelie hang vpon the backe of Thomas Woolseie the cardinall, an euill and ambitious person, and who referred all counsels and consultations to the amplifieng of his owne priuat authoritie and dignitie; and for that cause, applied that and all other things to euerie blast of fortune. All our men although they were mooued by diuerse reasons (as the varietie of diuerse wits bred diuerse minds) did yet with like indeuor tend vnto one end, which was alwaies to defend the French league; for they denied, that the same sudden liberalitie of the enimie, could anie way sort to their benefit; since this was not the first time that the English had vsed that policie to intrap vnwarie men: as did Edward the first, who (swearing and binding himselfe with all bonds of law, when he was chosen an arbitrator to cease the strife of the kingdome of Scotland) did with great iniurie make a king of Scots at his pleasure: and of late also, Edward the fourth king of England (when he had promised his daughter Cecilie to the sonne of Iames the third) did (the maid being adie for the mariage) dissolue the same, by taking occasion of warre through our ciuill dissentions. According to which, the English doo now also seeke none other matter, than (casting a vaine hope before vs to gouerne them, to bring vs into right seruitude; and (when we are destitute of all forren helpe) to oppresse vs with all the power of their kingdome.

Neither is that true also (wherein the chiefest strength of their spéech consisteth) that the aid of our neighbors néere at hand, is better or surer to vs than further friendship. For how may we looke for anie good from those our neighbors, since commonlie amongest neighbors there neuer want occasions of dissention; which oftentimes chance bringeth foorth, and the stronger (hauing small or no occasion) will manie times seeke to offer: at what time, he which is greatest in armes, must & will appoint lawes of agréement as seemes best to his liking. Beside, there was neuer yet so sacred or firme a bond of amitie betwéene adioining Where the English haue killed one, the Scots haue murthered ten as the course of their histories will well prooue. kingdoms, which was not oftentimes broken, either by offered or sought occasions of displeasure & breach: neither is it to be hoped, that the English will absteine from offering violence vnto vs; that haue not spared the bloud of so manie of their owne kings. For the sanctitie of leagues, & the religion of an oth, and the faith of compacts and couenants, are in truth firme bonds of amitie amongest the good: but amongest the wicked, they are nets to intrap others, if occasion of commoditie be offered for breach of them. All which benefits and iniuries, doo dwell in people, whome neerenesse of bounds, conuersation of language, and not vnlike maner of life hath ioined togither.

And if all these things should be far otherwise, yet there be two things which we ought speciallie to foresée and prouide for; whereof, the one is, that we spend not our time in vaine by chiding and disagréement, as persons drawen into diuerse factions; the other, that we reiect not our old friends (for this new aliance) before we haue heard what they can say; especiallie in such a cause (as this) which may not be determined, but by the consent of the parlement. Vpon which, the French followers did earnestlie stand, that there should not anie thing be doone therein; and therefore sent certeine of the French aid as ambassadors about the cause. This thus ended, and the comming of the gouernour spread abroad, the same made manie glad, confirmed the doubtfull thereof, and withdrew others (that were inclined to the English part) from the same opinion they were of.]

The duke immediatlie after his arriuall came to Edenburgh, where he caused all the lords of the realme to assemble in that towne, where he declared the great loue and affection that the king of France bare to the realme of Scotland, insomuch as hearing of the slaughters, murthers and burnings, practised by the Englishmen, he thought that he felt the same doone vnto him, reputing himselfe one of their members. And for reuenging thereof, he would bée partner with them as their member: for more credit whereof, he shewed the kings letter, confirming his declaration. He therefore exhorted them to assemble an armie, in reuenge of iniuries & wrongs doone to them and their countrie; for he had brought with him monie, men, and artillerie to the furtherance thereof. Herevpon it was concluded, that the armie should assemble at Dowglas dale the eightéenth of October: the which conclusion they kept, and from thence they marched to Caldstreame vpon Tweed, and sent ouer the water certeine of their great artillerie, with a companie of Frenchmen and Scots, by the guiding of Dauid Car; and being got ouer, they lay siege to the Dauid Car. Warke castell besieged. castell of Warke, which was kept by sir William Lisle capteine thereof, hauing with him a strong garrison of English souldiors, and great prouision of artillerie, and all things necessarie: yet at the first assault, the vtter barnekin was woone, and the said companie of Scotishmen and Frenchmen lay within the same, indamaging the castell in all they might.

The earle of Surrie and diuerse others of the English nobilitie, with an armie of fortie The earle of Surrie with an armie of fortie thousand men. The marques Dorset appointed to kéepe Berwike. Warke assaulted. The Scots and French retire backe ouer the water. thousand men, were at Anwike, not far distant from Warke, and the marquesse Dorset was sent with a great companie to keepe the towne of Berwike, for doubt least the same should haue béene besieged. Also in the meane time, a new assault was made to the inner barnekin of Warke, and the same woone likewise as the other had béene before. After this was the castell assailed, and part of it beaten downe with the artillerie lieng on the Scotish side of the water of Twéed. At which breach, the assault was giuen, and the same continued, till that through darknesse and lacke of light, the assailants were driuen to retire. Great slaughter was made at that assault on both sides, but especiallie of them within the house. The assailants ment to haue giuen a fresh assault the next day, being the fourth of Nouember: but a sore and vehement storme and tempest of raine chanced that night, so that they were constreined to leaue off that enterprise, and to get themselues ouer the riuer againe vnto the armie, least by the rising of the water of Twéed, they might haue béene cut off by their enimies, before they could haue béene succoured.

In the meane time, whilest this siege continued, a number of Scotishmen made a road into the countrie of Glendale within the English marches, and burnt and spoiled diuerse townes, Glendale burned by the Scots. cast downe sundrie piles, and returned without anie resistance: for the earle of Surrie would suffer none of his people to depart from the armie, nor breake order, for feare of more inconuenience. The duke of Albanie lieng on the Scotish side of Twéed, sent an herald An herald sent. vnto the earle of Surrie, willing him to call to remembrance, how in his absence he had inuaded Scotland with fire and sword for the which cruell dealing, he required him vpon his honor to come forward, and he would méet him in the confines of both the realmes, and giue him battell. To the which message the earle answered, that he had no commission to inuade Scotland at that time, but it onlie to defend. And (as some haue reported) he caused a secret messenger to passe to the quéene, as then lieng a good way distant from the armie, to mooue for some abstinence and truce, and further to persuade the duke to retire home; which he did, so that by hir labor, a truce was taken for that instant, and afterward A truce. Sée more of this matter in England. 1524. confirmed for a longer time: and thus the duke returned with honor (as the Scotishmen report.) This truce was well kept all the next winter following, and no inuasion made, till the moneth of Maie: and then was the erle of Surrie sent againe to the English borders, and the lords of Scotland on the other part monethlie laie on their borders by quarters, for defense of their countrie, as the vse is.

On Trinitie sundaie, being the one and twentith of Maie, fiue hundred Scots entered Scots enter into England. England, to surprise the English merchants, and others, going that day vnto Berwike, where yéerelie on that day the faire is kept; and so by reason therof, they met with diuerse of them that went to this faire, and tooke to the number of two hundred prisoners, whom they led with them into Scotland. But Hall saith, that by the comming of the yoong lord of Fulberie to the succors of the Englishmen, the Scots were chased, and lost two hundred of their numbers. On the fift of Iulie, sir William Fenwike, Leonard Musgraue, & Bastard Heron, with diuers other, to the number of nine hundred Englishmen, entred into the Mers, Englishmen inuade Scotland. and began to spoile and rob the countrie: but they were shortlie compassed about with Scotishmen, & so hardlie assailed, that although they fought valiantlie a good while, yet by fine force they were compelled to giue ground, and séeke to saue themselues by flight, in Englishmen discomfited. Bastard Heron slaine. which two hundred of them were taken prisoners, and Bastard Heron with diuerse other slaine. Amongest the prisoners, were sir, Rafe Fenwike, Leonard Musgraue, and diuers other gentlemen of good calling.

On the seuententh of Iulie, the lord Maxwell, and sir Alexander Iordein, with diuerse 1524. Fourethousand saith Hat. The lord Maxwell inuadeth England. other Scotishmen in great numbers, entred England at the west marches by Caerleill, with displaied banners, and began to harrie the countrie, and burne diuers places. The Englishmen assembled on euerie side, so that they were farre more in number than the Scotishmen, and therevpon set fiercelie vpon their enimies, insomuch that for the space of an houre, there was a sore fight continued betwixt them. But the lord Maxwell like a right politike capteine (as of all that knew him he was no lesse reputed) ceassed not to incourage his people: & after that, by the taking of Alexander Iordein & diuers others, they had bin put backe, he brought them in araie againe, and beginning a new skirmish, recouered in maner all the prisoners, tooke and slue diuerse Englishmen, so that he returned with victorie, and led aboue thrée hundred prisoners with him home into Scotland.

After this iourneie, there was an assemblie of the lords in Edenburgh, with the duke of An assemblie of the lords. Albanie, where some of the lords were of mind that the warre should continue: other thought it not reason, that for the pleasure onelie of France, the realme should susteine such damage, as it had doone by those three last yéeres wars now passed, and therefore they persuaded peace. Moreouer, there was also much debating of the matter, touching the age and gouernement of the king; some of the lords holding that he was now of age to take the rule vpon himselfe, and that the gardianship or tutorie of a king expired sooner than of another person. The duke of Albanie perceiuing how the lords were diuided amongest themselues, and neither content with his gouernement, nor willing to mainteine the warres which he had so earnestle persuaded for the pleasure of France, hée declared to them that he wold returne into France, and so taking his leaue of the nobilitie, went to Striueling where the king was, of whome he tooke leaue, also giuing vnto him such louing and faithfull counsell, as to his knowledge séemed expedient, and so went into the west countrie, where he tooke the seas The duke of Albanie returneth into France. Fr. Thin. in September, and sailed foorth into France, [neuer to returne into Scotland.]

The king of England [before the rumor of the departure of the duke of Albanie] hauing in the moneth of Iune sent ouer into France, vnto Archembald earle of Angus, that remained there vpon the commandement of the duke of Albanie, persuaded him to come from thence secretlie into England, which accordinglie he did; and being safelie arriued in England, king The earle of Angus commeth into England. Henrie procured him to passe into Scotland, that with the assistance of such lords as would be readie to take his part, he might raise war against the duke of Albanie, which sought by all meanes (as the king of England was informed) to destroie him & his: but yer the earle could come into Scotland, the duke was departed toward France. On the six and twentith of Iulie, the king by the aduise of his mother, and certeine yoong lords, came from Striueling vnto Edenburgh; and thrée daies after, the quéene tooke the whole gouernment of the king vpon The quéene taketh the gouernment into hir hands. hir, and entered into the castell of Edenburgh with the king, where they soiourned the most part of the next winter. The prouost of Edenburgh was discharged, whom the towne had chosen, and the lord Maxwell was appointed by the queene, prouost in his place. For the performance wherof, there was a parlement also summoned to be holden at Edenburgh the A parlement summoned. Fr. Thin. third day of Februarie next insuing [and the bishop of saint Andrews and Aberden (as saith Buchanan li. 14.) were cast into prison, who after gathering armes (and curssing all others) within the space of a moneth following were reconciled to the king.]

The king of England glad to heare that the duke of Albanie was departed into France, sent into Scotland in ambassage one maister Iohn Magnus, and Roger Ratcliffe esquier, to declare vnto the quéene and lords, that he would be content that a truce might be accorded betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, now that the duke of Albanie was returned into France, who had beene the onlie procurer of the warres. Herevpon they agréed to take truce to indure for one yéere, and in the meane time they appointed to send A truce taken for one yeare. ambassadors into England to treat vpon a continuall peace, aliance, and amitie to be had betwixt both the realmes. In this meane while, the earle of Angus came into Scotland: and bicause of the displeasure which the quéene bare him, there insued occasions of great diuisions within the realme. Notwithstanding the quéene by aduise of certeine lords, sent the lord Gilbert earle of Cassels, Robert Cockeborne bishop of Dunkeld, and doctor Mille abbat of Ambassadors into England. Cambuskenneth, ambassadors into England, in the moneth of December; the which were receiued at Gréenewich by the king of England the foure and twentith of the same moneth: where the bishop of Dunkeld made an eloquent oration in Latine, declaring the cause of their comming, the which in effect was for intreatment of peace, loue, and amitie betwixt the two realmes: and for the more sure establishment thereof, they required that a mariage might be concluded betwixt their king & the ladie Marie, daughter to the king of England.

This request was well heard by the king, who therevpon appointed commissioners to common thereof with the said ambassadors. Diuerse articles were proponed by the said commissioners on the king of England his behalfe, and in especiall one; which was, that the king of Scotland should renounce the league with the king of France; and that further he should come into England, and remaine there till he came to perfect age to be maried. Bicause the ambassadors had not commission to conclude so farre, the earle of Cassels returned into Scotland, to vnderstand the minds of the lords and councell in these points, the other remaining at London till his returne to them againe. *Vpon All saints day there was a great Fr. Thin. 1525. Lesleus. lib. 9. pag. 414. motion of wind, with such stormes and tempests of thunder and lightning which suddenlie arose, that the same (ouerthrowing manie priuat houses in Edenburgh, and the pinacle of the tower of Dauid in the same castell) entered into the quéenes lodging with a great flame, which burnt so vehementlie, and went so farre, that it had almost consumed the same: which storme (ouerthrowing the buildings about the chamber of the bishop of Whitchurch) the bishops lodging did yet remaine safe not touched with the violence of the flame.)

Candida Casa. When the day of the parlement appointed to be holden in the Tolbuith of Edenburgh was come, the king, queene, and lords, fearing some tumult in the towne to be raised by the earle of Angus, would not passe foorth of the castell, but kept the parlement within the same. Archembald Dowglasse earle of Angus, and Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, with diuerse others, to the number of two thousand men, came in the night season vnto Edenburgh, bicause they durst not enter the towne in the day time, for feare of the gunnes that laie in the castell. The next day, being the fourtéenth day of Februarie, the said earles with the archbishop of saint Andrews, the bishop of Aberden, that by the quéenes appointment had béene kept before in ward, the bishop of Dublane, Calene Campbell, the earle of Argile, and diuerse other lords and barons being in the towne, sent to the castell, alledging that the king was kept as prisoner by the queene, and iustice suppressed, with great damage of the common wealth; and therefore he desired, that the king might be deliuered vnto The earle of Angus his request. them, to be gouerned by the aduise of the thrée states, and if they refused to deliuer him, they would besiege the castell, and if they wan it, all their liues within should rest at their pleasures, the kings onelie excepted.

The quéene, by the counsell of the earles of Arrane and Murrey, refused not onelie to deliuer the king, but sent them word, that except they did depart the towne, they would suerlie discharge all the artillerie of the castell against them. Héerevpon, great feare rose in the towne, speciallie among the burgesses, but by the diligence of certeine persons that trauelled betwéene the parties, an assurance was taken on either side for certeine daies. In the meane time, the earle of Angus caused the castell to be forset, that neither meat nor He foresetteth the castell of Edenburgh. The parties are agréed. other thing might be suffered to be conueied into it, except so much as might serue for the sustentation of the kings owne person. At length, all the parties were agréed, so that the foure and twentith day of Februarie, the king came vnto the parlement holden in the Tolbuith in most honorable wise, with the assistance of all the estates, hauing the crowne, scepter, and swoord borne before him, and from thence he was brought to the abbeie, where he remained.

In this parlement, there were eight lords chosen to be of the kings priuie councell, Councellors appointed. the which tooke the gouernement of the king and realme vpon them, as these: the archbishops of saint Andrews and Glascow, the bishops of Aberden and Dublane: the earles of Angus, Argile, Arrane, and Lennox: the quéene was adioined to them as principall, without whose aduise nothing should be doone. From this parlement also was the earle of Cassels sent, with answer to the king of England; who came to London the nintéenth of March. But bicause the king had knowledge that the French king was taken at the battell of Pauie, he would not procéed in the treatie of mariage betwixt the king of Scotland and his daughter, till he had the emperors aduise, whome he affirmed to be his confederat friend: and so renewing the truce for three yéers and six moneths, the ambassadors returned into Scotland Truce renewed. about the beginning of April next insuing, without anie contract of mariage at that time. The agréement betwixt the queene and lords continued not long, for anon after died the bishop of Dublane or Dunkeld (as saith Lesleus) whose benefice the earle of Angus Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 417. obteined of the king for his brother William Dowglas, without the aduise of the queene and other lords. Wherevpon the quéene departed and went vnto Striueling, leauing the king with the earle of Angus, who tooke the whole rule and gouernment of the realme and king vpon him, and made his vncle Archembald Dowglas treasuror of the realme, and bestowed benefices, offices, and all other things, by the aduise of his brother George Dowglas, and the earle of Lennox, who assisted him.

In this meane time, the archbishop of saint Andrewes, and the earles of Arrane, Argile, and Murrey, remaining with the quéene at Striueling, alledged that the king was withholden from them by the earle of Angus sore against his will: and therefore they sent vnto the earle, requiring him to deliuer him. But the earle caused the king to giue the answer The king not in his owne power. himselfe, that he would not come from the erle of Angus, albeit he would gladlie haue beene out of his hands if he might; as by secret messages sent to sundrie of the lords, and likewise at that time it appéered, for he willed them by priuie meanes to assemble an armie, and to come & fetch him out of their hands that thus deteined him. Herevpon shortlie after, The quéene mother in armes. they raised a power, and comming therewith to Linlithgew, purposing to passe into Edenburgh, that they might get the king out of the earle of Angus his hands: the said earle, with the earle of Lennox and other his assistants being thereof aduertised, came to the field with the kings banner displaied, and brought the king with him, although partlie against his will.

The queene and such lords as were with hir there in the armie, for the reuerence they bare vnto the kings person, and also fearing the danger that might chance to them if they buckled togither in a foughten field, they withdrew themselues to Striueling, and from thence the quéene went into Murrey land with the earle of Murrey, and there remained a long time after. The earles of Arrane and Argile went into the west countrie, and the bishop of saint Andrews to Dunfermling: and then the earle of Angus tooke vpon him more boldlie the gouernment of the king and realme, and sent to the bishop of saint Andrews (who was chancellor) for the great seale, which was deliuered to them that were The great seale deliuered. so sent for it. The nobles of the realme remaining thus at variance, and diuided among themselues, there was small obedience of lawes & iustice. Diuerse slaughters in sundrie parts were committed, great thefts & robberies made by the borderers vpon the inland countries. Moreouer, a diuorse this yéene, (as some haue said) was sued before the archbishop A diuorse betwéene the quéene and the earle of Angus. of S. Andrews, betwixt the quéene, and the earle of Angus hir husband, and then afterwards she tooke to husband one Henrie Steward, sonne to the lord of Auendale, the which Henrie was after created by the king lord of Methwen.

On the foure and twentith of Iulie, the king being accompanied with the earle of Angus, 1526. the lord Hume, the Karres & others, rode vnto Jedburgh, in purpose to haue reformed the misgouernance of the borderers; but after that they had remained there three daies with little obedience shewed towards them, they all returned. And vpon the 29 day of Iulie, at the bridge of Melrosse, the lard of Boclouth, accompanied with a thousand horssemen, The lard of Boclough his enterprise, to take the king from the earle of Angus. began to shew himselfe in sight, whose principall purpose was to haue taken the king from the earle of Angus and his assistants, being requested and commanded by the king himselfe so to doo. The earle of Angus incontinentlie sent an herald vnto the lard of Boclough, to know what his intention was to doo; who answered, that he came to doo the king honor and seruice, and to shew his friends and power as the vse is of the borderers.

The earle of Angus, with the lord Hume, and the rest, not being content with this answer, because of the great feud betwixt him and the Humes, and the Kars, sent vnto him a commandement in the kings name to depart, and not to approch néere to the kings presence, vnder paine of high treason. Whervnto he answered, that he knew the kings mind well inough & would not spare for this commandement to come to his graces presence. Which answer receiued from him, incontinentlie the earle of Angus, the lords Fleming and Ilume, the Kars, the lard of Sesseford, with their friends, alighted on foot; the king remaining on horsbacke, accompanied with the earle of Lennox, the lord Marwell, George Dowglasse, and Ninian Creichton, tutor of Sainquhar.

The lard of Boclough lighted also on foot, but because the most part of his men were of the theeues and outlawes of the borders, commonlie called broken men, vpon their first comming to ioining with their speares, they fled, leauing the lard of Boclough with a small number of his owne seruants about him in all the danger: yet they defended themselues verie manfullie, and slue the lard of Sesseford and diuerse other, on the earle of Angus The lard of Sesseford slaine. The lard of Boclough put to flight. his side: but finallie, oppressed with multitude, they were put to flight, and foure score of Bocloughcs men slaine in the chase. After this, the king returned to Jedburgh, and remained there the space of foure daies, and then returned to Edenburgh.

All this while, the king was gouerned and holden against his will, by the earle of Angus and his assisters, although he did not outwardlie shew so in countenance, but dissembled the matter as well as he might, yet perceiuing two énterprises to haue quailed that had béene attempted for his deliuerance, he thought to assaie the third; and héerevpon, procured the earle of Lennox to assemble an armie, with assistance of the quéene and hir friends, to helpe to deliuer him from the hands of his enimies. The earle of Lennox did so, and The earle of Lennox gathereth a power. came with such power as he could raise from the west parts vnto Linlithgo. The earle of Angus being aduertised, that the earle of Lennox was gathering men, sent to the earle of Arrane for aid, requiring him to come with such power as he could make, and to méet him at Linlithgo. The earle of Arrane immediatlie héerewith gathered a power, and with The earle of Arrane gathereth a power. the same came to Linlithgo before the earle of Lennox came thither, who shortlie after comming with his people, approched that towne, vnto whome the earle of Arrane sent a messenger, requiring him to turne and saue his enterprise, assuring him, that albeit he was his sisters sonne, he would not spare him, if he held forward vpon his iournie. The earle of Lennox héerewith answered in a great rage, that he would not staie, till he came to Edenburgh, or else die for it by the waie. The earle of Arrane therefore not staieng for the earle of Angus his comming from Edenburgh, issued foorth of Linlithgo at the west end of the towne, and incountered the earle of Lennox and his companie, where there was a cruell onset giuen on both sides, but suddenlie the earle of Lennox his companie fled, and The earle of Lennox slaine. he himselfe with the lord of Hunston and diuerse other gentlemen were slaine.

* The death of which Dowglas the king did greatlie lament, and hearing the clamor and Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. noise that was made in that conflict, did send foorth (but all too late) Andrew Wood (his familiar) to haue succored the Lennox, if by anie meanes he could. After this victorie, the faction of the Dowglasses (to the end that striking a feare in those that were enuious against them, they might make them alwaies to be in danger to them) began to mooue questions and sutes in law, against such as had borne armor against the king : for feare whereof some bought their peace with monie, some tooke part with the Dowglasses, some followed the Hamiltons, and some stiflie standing in the matter, were followed and called into the law. Of which number Gilbert earle of Cassiles (when he was earnestlie pressed by Iames Hamilton the bastard, to yéeld himselfe to the part of the Hamiltons) being a man of great stomach, gaue this answer, that the old league of friendship, which was betwéene their grandfathers (in which his grandfather was alwaies the more honorable and first named) should not make him now so forgetfull of the honor of his familie, that he would séeme to degenerat from his ancestors, and willinglie grant to be vnder defense (which is the next degrée of seruitude) of them, whose head in making an equall league and couenant was contented with the second place of honor.

Wherefore, when the said Gilbert appéered in the law at the day appointed, for the deciding of his cause: Hugh Kennedie his kinsman answered for him, that he was present in that battell, as sent thither by the king, and not as enimie to the king, and he would (if need required) bring foorth the kings letters therfore, notwithstanding the Hamiltons frowning and fretting against his boldnesse: for the king had written as well to Gilbert (going home) as to manie others, to ioine with Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, who séeing the battell at hand, and that he had not time left to call togither his friends and followers, did with his present companie (taking his iournie out of the waie) turne to Striueling. Wherfore (the power of the Hamiltons in that cause somewhat suppressed) Iames Hamilton The death of the earle of Cassiles. the bastard stirred with great hatred against Kennedie, did procure Hugh Campbell shiriffe of Aire to dispatch him out of the waie, which, he shortlie after did in his returne home. Afterward this Hugh, to the end he might dissemble his conscience or knowledge of this euill (the execution wherof he had committed to his fellowes) was remaining at the day and time of the same murther, with Iohn Areskine, whose sister was the wife of Gilbert Kennedie.

But she (as soone as she heard of that déed) did with manie bitter woords lay the fault vnto him, because by that fact the noble house of the Kennedies had almost béene brought to vtter subuersion, had he not left a yoong sonne behind him. This yoong earle, after the death of his father, fled to his kinsman Archembald Dowglasse then the kings treasuror, to whome he committed the defense of himselfe and his familie. This doone, Hugh Campbell was called into law for the said déed, who being manifestlie conuicted thereof, was banished into an other place. Neither did the Dowglasses with lesse bitternesse exercise their anger against Iames Beton, for bringing their power to saint Andrewes, which they spoiled, as after appéereth.)

In the meane time, the earle of Angus bringing the king with him, arriued, and had come to the battell, but that the king was not willing to come foorth of Edenburgh in that quarrell (as some haue written) and therefore made excuses, as he did also by the waie, faining himselfe sicke: but George Dowglas droue and called vpon his horsse verie sharpelie, and constreined him to ride foorth with faster pase than he would haue doone, giuing him manie iniurious woords, which he remembred afterwards, and would not forget them. They went that night to Striueling, and shortlie after passed through Fife, searching for the quéene, and the bishop of saint Andrewes; and because they were kept secretlie in their The quéene sought for. friends houses, so that they could not be heard of, they spoiled the abbeie of Dunfirmeling, and the castell of saint Andrewes, taking awaie all the moueables which the archbishop had within the same.

* In the north parts also, the two families of the Leslées and the Forboises, intangled Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 423. with mutuall hatred, raised great flames of tumults and parts taking: which enimities did after grow to be the greater, because there were dailie manie slaughters of the nobles & other people committed in Mar, Garreoth, and Aberden, whilest ech faction labored to 1526. defend it selfe against the others. For which cause (when the common-wealth was much deformed thereby, and all iustice seemed almost vtterlie ouerthrowne in those parts) the earle of Angus and other of the nobilitie (which were of the kings priuie councell) did not ceasse, vntill they had made vnitie betwéene those two families. But in the end (the heire of the Forboises, & the lord Lenturke, hauing by wait killed the noble baron Meldrume, which fauored the Leslées) those buried contentions began againe to be raised from the dead; whose enimities being once againe knowne to the nobilitie (and what hurt might insue thereof to the common state) they attempted all possible means once more to quench that deadlie flame, and afresh to ioine their minds togither in amitie, with this prouiso, that the murtherers of Meldrume should (for punishment of their offense) be banished into France, where the greatest part of them died, after manie miseries and reproches susteined in their pitifull life. Which last league so sincerelie vnited betwéene the Forboises and the Leslées, was imbraced with such faith ech to other, by renewing thereof with continuall mariages & other courtesies, that it continueth most firme euen vnto this day.

In which north parts also, the inhabitants (partlie following their naturall disposition, and 1520. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 423, 424, &c. partlie excited by the example of the former times long suffered so to be vsed) did in like sort ouerrun and spoile all things, by reason of ouermuch libertie. But of all other sturs raised in those parts, that was the greatest and most troublesome, which was raised by the Makintosches. Of which vnrulie people, the one familie was called the Glenchattens, and the other was surnamed Makintosches after the head of that kindred; in which, the chiefe was called Lachlane Makintosche a man of great possessions, and of such excellencie in singularitie of wisedome, that with great commendation he did conteine all his followers within the limits of their dueties, more than others did. Which constreints (when they could hardlie beare (as loth to liue in order) hauing so long passed their time licentiouslie) did withdraw the hearts of manie men from him. Amongest whome was Iames Malcolmeson his kinsman (who thirsting after the desire to rule) tooke occasion (by the iniurie of the time) traitorouslie with deceipt to kill this Makintosche; after which (fearing further trouble to insue towards him) he flieth to the Ile (at the lake Rothmurcosie) as a sanctuarie or Rothmurcosie. defense for him. But the rest of the familie of the Makintosches did pursue him with such eager minds, that by force taking him in the Ile, they woorthilie killed him, and manie of his confederats, guiltie of that wickednesse. After which (because the sonne of Makintosche, for his tender yeares, was not sufficient with feare & punishment to bridle the minds of his fierce subiects) by common consent they chose the bastard brother of the slaine man (called Hector Makintosche) to be head and leader of that familie, vntill this yoong New tumults in that familie. nephue might grow to yéeres, and might wéeld the gouernement of his owne tribe.

Now when the earle of Murreie perceiued that if the sonne of Makintosche were committed to the rashnesse of a people somewhat fierce and cruell, that he should (on euerie side) be oppressed with manie troubles, he did most godlie (for the care he liad of him his nephue being his sisters sonne) prouide, that he should be caried to an other place, to the Ogiluies, the childs kin on the mothers side, where he should be well instructed and imbued with the precepts of all learning and vertue. Whereat Hector was greatlie offended, to sée that the child should so subtilie be taken from him. Wherefore (affirming that much of his authoritie was thereby diminished) he attempted (euerie way he might) to get the child againe into his possession, that thereby he might salue and recouer his credit and authoritie. But some there were, which supposed that the great care and labor which he so much emploied (for getting the child into his hands) was to none other intent, but that he might make him awaie, and prepare a path whereby to lead his owne sonne to the gouernement of that familie. Which conceipt being déeplie grauen in the mind of the earle of Murreie, caused him to séeke the preseruation of the child, that by no means he might fall into the hands of Hector.

Wherewith Hector being highlie incensed (and determining to spue out his choler, séeking reuenge by anie kind of means) he did cause his brother William & other of his The familie of Makintosche raise seditions. kindred, that ioining their force, they might stronglie vex the earle of Murreie, and spoile his possessions: which they did with so great furie, that ouerthrowing the fort of Dikes, and besieging the castell of Tornewaie, they executed manie cruelties, slaughters, spoiles, burnings, and other mischiefes vpon all sorts of people, men, women, and children, and all such as fauored them. For their hatred not limited against the earle of Murreie, extended further against the familie of the Ogiluies, amongest whome the child was left in custodie for educations cause. With which mind this Hector and his complices placing their campe at the castell of Pettens, which belonged to the lord of Durnens (one of the familie of the Ogiluies) they did so furiouslie besiege the same, as the people of the same were in the end forced to yéeld the fort: which when they had entred, they killed foure and twentie of the Ogiluies, whom they found therein. Whervpon (their minds being now aduanced with spoiles and happie successes) they became so proud, as (trusting ouermuch to prosperous euent in all their actions) they neuer set end to their wicked crueltie, vntill the erle of Murreie did with force execute iust iudgement vpon them. For when the earle beheld them immoderatlie reioising, in spoiling his lands, and committing other excessiue euils; he obteined of the king and his councell, that he might be made the kings deputie and gouernor in that battell, to bridle the rage and boldnesse of those in that order spoiling the common-wealth.

Wherefore the earle assembling an armie, did with such speedie valure come vpon them and their countrie, that at the first he tooke almost two hundred of their capteins, and committed them to the gallowes. All whose faith was so true to their capteine, as (when life Woonderfull faith of euill men to their capteine. was seuerallie promised to euerie one man as he was alone lead to the gallowes) there would not anie one of them confesse where their capteine Hector had hidden himselfe. For euerie one answered (with bold spirit) that they knew not where he was become; and if so be they did, that yet they would not (by anie paine or terror of death) be induced to breake their faith and to betraie their maister. But hanging not being thought a sufficient reuenge (for such capteins as the earle had taken) there were more gréeuous punishments laid vpon William Makintosche (brother to Hector) because in the beginning he nourished those coles of choler for his brothers cause. For after that this William was hanged, his head was chopped off and fastned vpon a pole at Dikes, and the other foure parts of his bodie were sent to the townes of Elgin, Foresse, Inuernesse, and Alderne, there to be set vp publikelie so the reproch of them, and the example of others.

Now, after all these sturs, Hector (séeing his men were thus dispersed and executed, and that himselfe was excluded from anie other succor) fled to the faithfull helpe of Alexander Dunbar deane of Murreie, by whose aduise he goeth humblie and secretlie to the king, beseeching his mercie and fauor to be extended vnto him : for he supposed it better, rather to craue the doubtfull mercie of his lord, than to make triall of the earle of Murreis certeine reuenge. Wherevpon the king (seeing his humble submission) receiued him into his fauor; and did with all his heart louinglie after embrace him, because he was valiant and wise in warre, and in counsell. But God, whose iustice is alwaies shewed in punishing of wickednesse, would not suffer this filthinesse of crueltie, theft, murther, & spoile (wherewith Hector did wickedlie defile his life) to go vnreuenged with most gréeuous paine vpon the said Hector. For in the citie of saint Andrews, sudden death (than which there can be no greater punishment) was laid vpon him by one lames Spense a priest, who was himselfe afterwards beheaded.

When the earle of Murreie had shewed such reuenge vpon the fréends of Hector and their companions; the people of the prouince of Glencatten did from thencefoorth kéepe themselues within the limits of their duetie: vntill that the sonne of Lachlane Makintosche came to mans estate and full age. Which yoong man was in his first yeares imbued with such learnings and policie of life conformed therevnto, that when he was imploied about the common-wealth; all the capteins of them (who naturallie speake Irish in the furthest part of Scotland) did embrace him as a perfect paterne of all vertue, and an excellent woorkemaister to frame a well ordered state. Wherefore certeine (not able to susteine the brightnesse of his vertue) did ioine in counsell with such as were néerest of bloud vnto him, and had before laid violent hands on his father, to take his life away by forceable means. Whereof we shall more liberallie intreat in an other place.]

This yeare the king by counsell of the earle of Angus, Arrane, and others, went with eight thousand men vnto Iedburgh, to set some order amongest the borderers, for the kéeping of better rule: and so on the eight of Iune, the principals of all the surnames of the clans on the borders, came to the king, binding themselues, and deliuering pledges for their good demenors. The seuenteenth of Iulie, there was a great assemblie of the lords at 1527. Lesle. Holie rood house, at what time, there came a simple fellow (to looke vpon) seruant and horskeeper sometime to the earle of Lennox, who in the midst of a great companie of people in the abbeie close, strake sir Iames Hamilton knight verie desperatlie with a short prage Sir Iames Hamilton hurt by a desperat person. or dagger in the bellie thrée seuerall stripes vp to the haft, and yet the said sir Iames died not of those hurts.

The man being taken, by & by confessed the déed without repentance, saieng; "Phy on the feoble hand quilke wald not doo that thing the heart thought, and was determinat to doo." And being inquired what he was, and who caused him to doo the same; he answered that he was a seruant of God, sent by him to doo that déed. And albeit he was put to great torture and paines dailie by the space of a moneth, yet would he neuer giue other answer, and so he was hanged, and his head set ouer one of the gates of Edenburgh towne. About the same time, there came out of Germanie maister Patrike Hamilton, abbat of Ferne, brothers sonne to the earle of Arrane, who had béene scholer to Martin Luther, & others there. This man being conuented and examined vpon certeine articles, as of iustification, predestination, of frée will, and such like, contrarie to the doctrine taught by the church in that time, because he did affirme, and constantlie defend them, he was The abbat of Ferne burnt. declared an heretike and burned.

The eightéenth of March, the king besieged the castell of Edenburgh, the queene and Edenburgh castell besieged. hir husband Henrie Steward, with Iames his brother being within it. But as soone as the quéene vnderstood, that hir sonne the king was there in person, she caused the gates to be 1528. Lesle. set open, and vpon hir knées besought him of grace for hir husband and his brother, and would not rest, till she had obteined the same; but yet they were kept in ward within the castell, till the king afterwards released them. In the yeare following, the king being now come to the age of seuentéene yeares, and of good discretion and wit for his time, would The king being seuentéene yeares of age, refuseth to be longer vnder gouernement. not longer remaine vnder the gouernement of the earle of Angus and his companie. Therevpon he assembled diuerse noble men of Striueling, & by their counsell sent an herald vnto the earle of Angus & his assistans resiant as then in Edenburgh, commanding them on paine of high treason, that they should depart foorth of that towne, & that none of them should come within foure miles of the court, wheresoeuer the same chanced to lie.

Shortlie after, the king himselfe with two thousand men, followed the herald: wherevpon the earle of Angus, both being charged by the herald, and aduertised of the kings comming toward the towne, departed thence immediatlie. And shortlie after, the same herald was sent vnto him againe with commandement from the king, that he should remaine prisoner within ward in the countrie of Murrey, till the kings pleasure were further knowen: which he would not obeie; wherefore both he and his adherents were summoned to appeare in parlement to be holden at Edenburgh, in September next following. In this parlement begun at Edenburgh the sixt of September in this yeare 1528, the earle of Angus, with his 1528. The earle of Angus forfalted. The earle of Angus atteinted by parlement. brother George Dowglas, his vncle by his father Archembald Dowglas, Alexander Drommond of Carnocke, and diuerse other, were by decrée of parlement atteinted, and forfalted for diuerse offenses, and speciallie, for assembling the kings people to haue assailed the kings person: and because he had deteined the king against his will with him the space of two yeares and more, all which time he stood in feare of his life.

In this parlement Henrie Steward the quéenes husband was created Iord of Methwen, and Henrie Steward created erle of Methwen. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 14. made maister of the ordinance. *Besides which, in place of earle Dowglas was Gawin Dunbar, the kings schoolemaister made chancellor, a good and a learned man, and one in whome manie did desire more ciuill policie; and in the place of Archembald Dowglas the treasuror was admitted Robert Carnicruce, more famous for his monie than his vertue. In this parlement there was onelie one found, called Iohn Bannatine, who fauoring the Dowglas, did boldlie there protest, that whatsoeuer was therin doon, ought by no meanes to be hurtfull to the earle Dowglas; since iust feare of his appearance there, was a iust cause to force him to be absent from thence. Within a few daies after, a brother of the earles called William, abbat of the monasterie of Holirood died, partlie by sickenesse, and partlie by griefe of mind, being wearied with the present state of things; whose place Robert Carnicruce, a man of base birth, but well monied, did obteine of the king: who had granted vnto him the auoidance of the next spirituall liuing. At length, the Dowglas cut of hope of all good successe, burnt the townes of Constandie and Cranstoune, and so fled to the castell of Tantallon.]

In October following, the king assembled a great companie of men, with artillerie, and diuerse kinds of munition, to besiege the castell of Tantallon, which the earle of Angus did The castell of Tantallon besieged. hold, who aduertised of the preparation made for the same siege, furnished the castell with men and all kind of necessaries, and went himselfe into England. When the siege then was laid about the castell, it was so strong and so well prouided, that it might not be woone for all that could be doone at that season: in somuch that after Dauid Fauconer, principall Dauid Fauconer slaine. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 14. gunner of the kings side was slaine, the king caused the siege to be raised; yet at length (though not till a long time after this) it was deliuered to the king by appointment. *Before the deliuerie whereof, the king déepelie sware that he would not leaue one aliue to succeed in the inheritance and name of the Dowglasses, so long as he liued and was king.

Wherevpon he came to Edenburgh, where (to the end he might distresse them the more) he determined by the aduise of his councell to send a dailie companie (though no great number) to Coldingham, which should defend the husbandmen from the spoile. Which office appointed to Bothwell chiefe of Louthaine, he did vtterlie refuse; either fearing the power of the Dowglas (wherevnto all the other strength of Scotland did of late not seeme to be equall) or that he would not (being then yoong) imbrue his hands with the destruction of so famous a familie. Wherevpon, since the king durst not trust the Hamiltons (as friends to his enimies, & being offended with them for the death of Iohn Steward earle of Lennox, nor durst commit the matter to anie of the adioining nobilitie) at length the same came so about, that Calene Campbell (dwelling on the furthest borders of the kingdome, being a man of good estimation for his wisedome, and approoued experience in feats of warre, and for his iustice déerelie loued of the people) was sent by the king (with great authoritie) to the rebels. Whereby the Dowglasses (being forsaken of the Hamiltons and their other friends) were brought to those extremities, that they were inforced to depart into England to K. Henrie the eight, who honorablie and liberallie receiued and interteined them. After this, the king (as is said) getting the castell of Tantillone by composition, did scarse kéepe all the couenants of his grant thereof in writing; although he performed this, that Alexander Drumman at the request of Robert Bretton, had licence to returne home into his countrie, a little before which (as it séemeth) when Iames Coluille and Robert Carnicruse were remooued from the court (as persons suspected to fauor the Dowglasses) their offices were bestowed vpon Robert Bretton, then in great fauor with the king and courtiers, and aduanced to the gouernement of manie places.)

The eightéenth of Maie, in the yéere 1529, the earle of Cathnesse and the lord of Sincler, 1529. The earle of Cathnes passeth ouer into Orkenie. with a great armie by sea passed into Orkenie, to haue taken that Ile into possession; but the people of the countrie assembled at the commandement of Iames Sincler of Kirkewall their capteine, who gaue battell to the earle and his armie with such courage, that he discomfited the enimies: the earle with fiue hundred of his men was slaine, and drowned in the The earle of Cathnesse slaine. The blindnes of the Orknie men. An assemblie of the lords. sea, vnto the which they were driuen. The lord Sincler and all the residue were taken. The Orkenie men held opinion, that their patrone saint Magnus was séene that day to fight in the field on their side against their enimies. In the same moneth on the fiftéenth day, there was a great assemblie of the lords in Edenburgh, where the king himselfe sate in iudgement. The lard of Hinderland called Cockburne, and one Adam Scot of Tushlaw, who was named king of theeues, were accused of theft, and of receiuing and mainteining of théeues, King of théeues. Execution. slaughters, and other crimes; of the which being conuict, they lost their heads, which were set ouer the Tolbuith of Edenburgh.

On the same day, the earle of Bothwell was also conuict, for mainteining them and their The earle of Bothwell conuict. Fr. Thin. Banished the realme. Fr. Thin. Other lords conuict, and put in ward. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. crimes, and his life, lands, and goods, were in the kings hands. He was therefore kept in ward within Edenburgh castell, and after sent into Murrey land, & lastlie banished the realme during the kings daies [and remained at Venice.] Also, the lord Maxwell, the lord Hume, the lards of Balglueth, Fernihurst, Pollort, Iohnson, Marke Kar [with the earle Bothwell] and other principall men of the borders, were conuict by assise, and put in ward: by reason whereof, the borderers kept better rule euer after, during the kings reigne. [Few moneths after, the king commanded the noble men (before imprisoned, and then to be banished) to be restored to libertie, taking pledges for their allegiance. Of which companie, one Walter Scot (killing Robert Iohnstone a théefe of noted crueltie, therwith to gratifie the king) began deadlie enimitie with that familie, to the great hurt of both those kinreds.]

About this season, a landed man named Iohn Scot, that had trauelled abroad in the world Iohn Scot fasted fortie daies without receiuing any food. 1231. Buch. [ouer England, France, Italie and the holie land, as saith Lesleus] who now being returned into Scotland, (bicause it was bruted in other countries that hée had fasted 40 daies without either meat or drinke) was for triall therof put in Dauids tower in Edenburgh castell, and diligent watch set vpon him to sée that he had no sustenance to relieue him withall, and so kept for fortie daies, he fasted all that time without anie kind of nourishment, to the great woonder of the people. In the summer of this yeare 1529, Archembald Dowglas, that had 1529. béene forfalted (as ye haue heard) came alone to the king while he was on hunting in Striueling parke, & besought his grace of pardon, which he had obteined fullie at his hands, bicause he fauoured him more than anie of that surname, if he had not béene (as he was indéed) altogither determined that none of them should remaine within the land at that time, and so he banished him into France, where shortlie after through griefe of mind he departed Archembald Dowglas banished. The king commeth to the borders. this life.

In the moneth of Iune, the king with an armie went to the borders to set order there for better rule to be kept, and to punish such as were knowen to be most culpable. And herevpon he caused fortie and eight of the most notable theeues, with their capteine Iohn Armstrong to be apprehended; the which being conuict of murther, theft, & treason, were Théeues hanged. A théefe burnt to death. all hanged on growing trees, to the example of other. There was one cruell théefe amongst the rest, which had burned a house with a woman and hir children within it: he was burned to death. George Armstrong, brother to Iohn, was pardoned, to the end he should appeach the residue, which he did; so that they were apprehended by the kings commandement, and punished for their misdooings, according as they had deserued. In August following, manie Woonders séene in the firmament. meruellous sights were seene about Striueling, as candels burning on the tops of hils in the nights, and in the morning afore sunne rising. Diuerse armed men appeared fighting vpon the ground, which was taken to be a foretoken of some trouble to insue in those parties. The fiftéenth day of August, a great number of people being assembled at the market in Campscenneth, fiftie & two persons were drowned in the ferrie bote; amongst the which were A ferrie bote drowned. 1530. An abbat murthered. diuerse honest men and women of the countrie.

The first of March, in the yéere 1530, the abbat of Culrose called Iames Inglis, was cruellie marthered by the lord of Tulliallan and his seruants, amongst whom there was a priest called sir William Louthien, for the which they were apprehended, and the said sir William the twentie and seuenth of the same moneth, vpon a publike scaffold in Edenburgh was degraded (the king, quéene, and a great companie of people being present) and after his degradation, he was deliuered to the earle of Argile high iustice, and the next day the said The sessions instituted. Tulliallan and the same priest were beheaded. This yéere the college court of iustice called the sessions was instituted in Edenburgh by the king, with consent of the three estates in parlement assembled, and after confirmed in Rome; in the which are fiftéene councellors ordinarie, eight of them being spirituall persons, of the which the most ancient is president, and seuen temporall men, but so as by this number the chancellor of the realme is aboue the president, when he is present. There are also foure councellors extraordinarie, remooueable at the princes pleasure. In the yéere 1531, I find little doone to make account of, for the 1531. erle of Angus remaining in England, could not persuade the king of England in his fauor to breake the peace with Scotland, though the same earle earnestlie laboured to bring that to passe.

*The earle of Bothwell, for that he went priuilie into England (being supposed to haue Fr. Thin. Buch. lib. 14. 1532. had secret conference with the earle of Northumberland) he was the 16 kalends of Februarie committed to the castell of Edenburgh, & sir Iohn Sandland knight was sent with authoritie to the hermitage (a castell in Liddesdale) to represse the spoiles and robberies committed there. When of ancient time there had béene no certeine daies and place appointed for the deciding of monie, contentions, or debts amongest the citizens and people of Scotland, Iohn duke of Albanie obteined from the bishop of Rome, that a yeerelie summe of monie (as much as should be sufficient to paie the stipend of a few iudges that shuld be appointed therefore) should be leuied of the cleargie, of euerie one according to his estate and substance. Whervpon Gawin Dunbar bishop of Aberden for himselfe in the name of the cleargie, appealed to the said bishop of Rome. Which controuersie continued from the fift Ides of March, vntill the tenth kalends of Maie, at which day the college of the iudges of Edenburgh was established, of whom in the beginning there were many profitable things doone, and law was equallie ministred; but yet the same end did not follow which was then hoped amongst them. For since in Scotland there be almost no lawes but such as are decréed by parlement, which are not commonlie perpetuall, but made for a time; and that the iudges as much as in them lieth doo hinder the making of such lawes: the goods of all men were committed to the arbitrement of fifteene men, which haue perpetuall power therfore, being in truth but tyrannicall gouernment, since their onelie arbitrements must stand for law. Thus much Buchanan.

But bicause Lesleus treateth in more ample and other sort of that matter; and for that I will not depriue the reader of the seuerall writings of them both touching one thing: I will 1533. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 437, 438. also set downe Lesleus words, writing in this order. In this parlement (saith he) by the consent of the states, it séemed good that the forme of iudgement vsed by our ancestors should be taken away. For where certeine of the cleargie, of the barons, and of the citizens, were chosen euerie yeere to trauell ouer the foure parts of the realme, to giue iudgement of ciuill causes (as they terme it) and of other things intangled with the controuersie of law: and that then it oftentimes happened, either by the ignorance of the iudge that did not atteine to the perfection of the law, or by the malice of them which were corrupted with bribes, that the woorser part had vniustlie the vpper hand against the righter; to which discommoditic this was also ioined, that no cause could be well examined to the vttermost by one man at one time, bicause the iudges were so often changed; whereey it must néeds folow, that seuerall iudges (hauing seuerall minds and wits) must for one matter giue inconstant & contrarie iudgements. Wherefore to take awaie this varietie of iudgements and other discommodities, wherewith the common-wealth was afficted; it pleased the parlement by the persuasion of the king, that a certeine defined number of senators (being persons of the greatest knowledge in law) should haue a permanent place at Edenburgh, to decide all matters of controuersie, the maner & order whereof we haue set downe in our former booke, saith Lesleus. And I for my part thinke not vnméet for the more explaning thereof, to set it downe in this place out of the same Lesleus.

The companie (saith he) of these men (whom wee call the senat of the publike wealth) Lesleus lib. 1. pag. 79. receiue none but such, whose praise of vertue and sharpenesse of wit (especiallie in matters of law) dooth aduance them to that place. This court is so apted of the clergie and secular nobilitie (as a man may tearme them) that the one part of the laitie dooth answer the other number of the cleargie. Which we thinke to bée doone by the great benefit of God, that the religion and simplicitie of the cleargie may temper the singular wisedome of the temporaltie, obteined by the experience of worldlie causes; and againe, the iudgement of the laitie may further and moderate the pure religion and ancient simplicitie of the cleargie. Ouer all these is one chiefe and head (which is a spirituall man) who hath the highest place in sentence and pronouncing of iudgement; except the iudgement of the chancellor of the kingdome happen to come in place; for then therevnto the Scots giue the chiefest preheminence in all the affaires of the common-wealth. Thus much he.)

In the yéere 1532, sir Arthur Darcie was sent to the borders, who being at Berwike, by 1532. Sir Arthur Darcie sent to the borders. He maketh a rode into Scotland. 1533. the counsell of the earle of Angus then being there, they made a rode into Scotland, and burned certeine places: wherevpon the Scots assembling themselues to defend their countrie, made towards the Englishmen, who retired themselues to Berwike againe. After this were diuerse inuasions made on euerie side vpon the borders, and ships likewise taken by sea, and yet no warre was proclamed. In September, in the yeere 1533, certeine commissioners of either realme were at Newcastell, to intreat for a redresse and recompense to be made for burning of townes and villages, taking of goods, casting downe of piles, taking of ships, slaughters of men, and diuerse other spoiles and iniuries doone, as well by the sea as by the land, from the 23 day of Aprill in the yéere 1532, vnto the day of the méeting of the same commissioners; which dooings were little lesse in effect than had béene vsed in time of open warre, although the same was not proclamed. Bicause therefore that the scathes & iniuries fell out to be so great on both sides, that particular redresse could not bée had, the order thereof was referred to the pleasure of both the princes.

Further it was agréed, that for a perpetuall peace to be concluded, certeine commissioners 1534. Lesle. should be appointed to treat therof at London, as afterwards they did. For the king of Scotland there were sent as commissioners about this treatie, William Steward bishop of Aberden, Robert Raid the abbat of Kinlos, and sir Adam Sterburie knight [or (as saith Lesleus Fr. Thin. li. 9. pa. 439.) Adam Otterburne] the which accompanied with diuerse other knights, barons, and gentlemen, came to London, and were there right honorablie receiued the 25 of March. After they had béene before the kings presence, there were certeine commissioners appointed by him to treat with them of peace, the which agréed vpon certeine conditions and articles for a peace to continue betwixt both kings during their naturall liues, and one yere A peace concluded. after the decease of that prince which first chanced to depart this world: and so the commissioners returned into Scotland in the moneth of Maie next insuing.

About the same time were sent into France Dauid Beton abbat of Arbroth, and Iames Ambassadors into France. Erskin secretarie, as ambassadors to require the duke of Vandosmes sister in mariage for the king: with which motion the ladie and hir friends were verie well contented. Neuertheless The king himselfe passeth secretlie into France. (as afterwards shall appéere) the king himselfe passing secretlie into France in proper person, when he had once séene the ladie, he liked hir not; & so became a sutor to the French king his eldest daughter Magdalen, whome he obteined: wherefore the duke of Vandosmes sister would neuer after match hir selfe with anie other in mariage, but professed hir selfe in a house of religion, where she remained the residue of hir life time. The king of England sent ambassadors into Scotland, the bishop of Duresme, sir Thomas Clifford, the prior of Duresme, and one doctor Magnus, who were honorablie receiued in the moneth of Iulie: and then was The peace concluded with England. the peace before concluded by the ambassadors at London, confirmed by the king himselfe, and the charter thereof interchangablie sealed, with the great seales of both the realmes, during the liues of both the princes (as before ye haue heard.)

* The king in those daies did shew such hope of honorable vertue in him, that the wisest Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 439. 1534. and the most valiant princes of the world did honor him with the ornaments of their orders: for first Henrie king of England adopted him into the order of the garrer, the emperor made him a fellow of the golden fléece, and shortlie after the French king clothed him with the order of saint Michaell. In remembrance of all which (for a note to be left to posteritie) he caused the armes of Scotland, honored with these thrée orders, to be set vp ouer the gate of his palace of Lithquoe, with the ornaments of the honor of saint Andrew, which are proper to the kingdome of Scotland.)

The same yeere, the king passed through the north parts of his realme, and caused Iustice ministred. iustice dulie to be ministred in places where he came, against offendors. Moreouer, in Edenburgh was great inquisition made, and punishment exercised against such as were detected to hold opinions against the religion then vsed, the king himselfe assistant thereto. Maister Norman Gorleie that was abiured before, and Andrew Stratton that would not renounce his opinion, were burned. The shiriffe of Linlitgew, and diuerse other, that were fled forfeare of punishment, were conuict of heresie. Diuerse Englishmen that held against the English fugitiues receiued into Scotland. diuorce betwixt king Henrie, and the ladie Katharine Dowager, fled this yeere into Scotland, and were receiued.

* About this time (to conclude a league with Charles thé fift, emperor) this Charles sent Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. 1534. Godescall Erike (to the end the matter might be handled more secretlie) from Toledo (by Ireland) into Scotland, who when he had declared his message to him from the emperor [conteining the iniuries doone to his aunt Katharine quéene of England, & to hir daughter by Henrie the eight, king of England: the calling of a generall councell: the ouerthrow of the Lutheran heresie (to vse Buchanans woord) and for contracting of mariage] the said ambassador did deliuer to the king the emperors letter, wherein was set downe the offer and choise of which of those thrée Maries the king would take to wife: which were Marie (the sister of Charles) a widow by Lodowike of Hungarie, hir husband slaine by the Turke: Marie of Portingale his néece by his sister Leonara: or Marie of England his coosine germane by his aunt Katharine. Wherevnto the king answered, that the mariage with England should be most profitable, but the same was a thing of vncerteine hope, of greater danger & labour, & of longer delaie than his carefulnesse (being the onelie man leit of that line) might well indure. Wherefore of all the emperors kinred, that mariage by manie reasons should be most beneficiall for him, to take to wife the daughter of Christern, king of Denmark, begotten vpon Isabell sister to the emperor. Wherevnto for deniall therof, Charles did shortlie make answer (at Madrike) that he was affianced to another.)

In the yéere 1535, the pope sent a messenger into Scotland, requiring king Iames to assist 1535. The pope sendeth into Scotland. him against the king of England, whome he had decréed an heretike, schismatike, a wedlocke breaker, a publike murtherer, and a sacrileger; and therefore he had declared him to be depriued of the said kingdome, the which he would bestow vpon him, and other catholike princes. In the yéere 1536, the king tooke the sea with fiue ships, without knowledge of the 1536. The kings woiage about the Iles. most part of the lords of his realme, and sailed about the Iles of Skie and Lewes, and the other Ilas, and by storme was driuen to take land at saint Ninians in Galloway, & so returned to Striueling, from whence he passed on foot in pilgrimage vnto our ladie chappell of Lauret beside Muskelburgh, and afterward sent for diuerse of his lords, and by their counsell tooke his voiage againe by sea with fiue ships, to passe into France, as he was minded to haue doone the first time: but what caused him to alter his purpose then, we find not. This second time he imbarked at Kirckaldie the last of August, and with good and prosperous wind he shortlie after arriued in France, there being with him in companie the earles of Argile, He saileth into France. and Arrane, the lords Boid and Fleming, with diuerse other barons, knights, and gentlemen; and before him there were in France the earles of Murrey, Lennox, and Cassiles, the lord Erakin, the abbat of Arbroth, and others.

Immediatlie after his arriuall, he rode in secret manner disguised vnto Vandosmes in He rideth to Vandosme. Picardie, taking with him but one seruant named Iohn Tennent, whome he caused to take vpon him as he had beene maister; and so comming to the duke of Vandosme his place, got sight of the ladie who shuld haue béene his wife; but not liking hir, he returned againe without talking either with hir or hir friends: and comming to Rouen where his companie were abiding for him, he passed from thence towards Paris, where the Dolphin of France was appointed by the king his father to méet him seuen leagues from the citie, who brought him to the king, who receiued him in such hartie manner, as if he had beene his owne sonne, and with He is receiued into Paris. as much honor as might haue béene shewed to the greatest prince in earth. There were iustes, tourneis, and other princelie pastimes practised and set foorth; in which iustes and other exercises of warlike feates, he shewed himselfe as hardie, cunning and valiant, as anie other person within all the realme of France, for the which he wan passing great praise.

In the meane time, he caused his ambassadors and the noble men that were with him, He is a sutor for mariage. to declare vnto the king of France, that the cause of his comming was for mariage to be had betwéene him and the ladie Magdalen, eldest daughter to the king, whome he loued & fauoured aboue all other within his realme. The French king was glad héereof, that the ancient band betwixt Scotland and France might thus with new aliance be confirmed, and therefore declared that he would willinglie giue him his daughter in mariage. But héerewith he let him vnderstand, that his daughter was much subiect to sicknesse, and therfore he referred that vnto the king of Scotland his owne pleasure, whether he would haue hir, or his yoongest daughter the ladie Margaret, who was after maried to the duke of Sauoy. This offer of choise being reported to the king of Scotland, he continued in his former purpose, which was, to match with the ladie Magdalen, who was in déed a plesant yoong ladie, beautifull, of good fauour, louelie countenance, and comelie manners, aboue all others within that realme.

Heerevpon the mariage was contracted betwixt them, and an hundred thousand crownes The mariage contracted betwixt the king of Scots and the ladie Magdalen. of the sun promised with hir in dowrie, with thirtie thousand franks of pension, during the life of king Iames: which monie was deliuered vnto him at his returne homewards, besides manie rich hangings, cupboords of plate, sumptuous apparell, and rich iewels giuen to him and his wife, farre aboue the summe of an other hundred thousand crownes, with two great ships (the one called the salamander) and great plentie of artillerie, powder, and other munition. Moreouer, all his charges and expenses were borne by the French king, during his being within the realme of France. At the same time also, was the ancient league and bond of amitie betwixt the two realmes of Scotland and France renewed, and the day of the solemnization of the mariage appointed to be holden the first of lanuarie.

In the meane time, great preparation for the same was made, and all the nobles of France sent for to be there at that day. On the which within the church of Nostre dame in the 1539. The mariage contracted. citie of Paris, the king of Scotland openlie maried the said ladie Magdalen, in presence of the king hir father, the king of Nauarre, seuen carcinals, and diuerse great dukes, marquesses, earles, lords, barons, bishops, & others. After the solemnization of the mariage, king Iames remained in France, till the moneth of Maie, passing the time with all kind of pleasure and disport that might be deuised for his honorable interteinment. Finallie, the king and his wife quéene Magdalen tooke their leaue of the king of France their father at Paris, about the latter end of Aprill, and so rode to Rouen, where they were receiued with great triumph, and 1537. Lesle. from thence they passed downe the riuer to Newhauen where they imbarked, being accompanied by the admerall of France, and manie other noble men of the realme, appointed by the French king to attend vpon them into Scotland, & so they sailed foorth with The king with his quéene returneth into Scotland. pleasant wind and prosperous weather, through the seas, till they came into the Forth, and there landed at the peare of Lieth hauen, the 29 of Maie, in the yeere 1537, where a great number of earles, bishops, barons, & other noble men & gentlemen of Scotland were readie to receiue them with passing ioy and gladnesse, & from thence with great triumph they were conueied to the abbeie of Holie rood house.

This noble ladie with hir louelie countenance and séemelie demeanor, at hir first arriuall woone the loues and hartie good wils of all the nobles & people of the realme, and withall contented so highlie the mind and fantasie of the king hir husband, that there was neuer more hope of wealth and prosperitie to succéed within the realme, than at that present. But fortune enuieng so great felicitie, would not suffer them to continue anie longer time togither: for about the end of Iune she fell sicke of a vehement feuer, whereof she departed this life the Quéene Magdalen departeth this life. Fr. Thin. tenth of Iulie next insuing, and was buried in the church of Holie rood house, for whose death the king was verie sorowfull, & stirred not abroad of a long time after: [whose death (saith Buchanan) was so lamented of all men, that then (as he supposeth) began the first vse of moorning garments amongest the Scots, which yet at this day, not being past fortie yéeres, is not verie common, though publike orders and manners doo euerie day grow woorsse and woorsse.]

In the summer of this yéere, lone Dowglasse the ladie of Glames, sister to the earle of The ladie Glames and hir husband conuict of treason. 1537. Lesl. Angus, was apprehended, and likewise hir husband Dauid Lion, and both of them brought to Edenburgh, where they were accused and conuict by an assise, for conspiracie of the kings death: the said ladie was burned, and hir husband hanged. Hir son the lord Glames was also conuict for misprision and concealement of that crime, and therfore forfaiting all his lands, was condemned to die: but because he was yoong and of tender yeeres, the king pardoned him of life, and commanded him to perpetuall prison, in the which he remained so long as the king liued. [This yéere was Bothwell, for that he was ouer familiar with the Fr. Thin. The maister of Forbois beheaded. English, banished into France (as saith Buchanan.] Shortlie after, Iohn maister of the Forbois, and eldest sonne to the lord Forbois, who had maried a sister of the said ladie Glames, was at Edenburgh likewise indicted and conuict by an assise, by procurement of the earle Huntleie, for the like conspiracie of the kings death, for the which he was beheaded and quartered, and his head and quarters set aloft vpon the gates of Edenburgh. His father the lord Forbois, vpon suspicion of the same conspiracie, was long after kept in prison within the castell of Edenburgh; but at length when nothing might be prooued against him, he was released and set at libertie.

This yeere, the king in September caused iustices to sit in the north parts of the realme, Iustices appointed to sit in diuerse parts of the realme. and likewise in October; and in the winter following he caused the like to be doone in the south and west parts. The king himselfe was often times present, assisting the lords whome he had appointed his commissioners for the furtherance of iustice, and maintenance thereof thorough all parts of his realme. * The king appointed an assemblie of the nobles, by whose Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 14. pag. 447. consent an edict was made to confirme the former law, in which all his grants made at Roane in his minoritie were voided and of no authoritie. At what time also by the said persons it was brought to passe by great labor, that the kings patrimonie should be augmented with manie possessions. Wherefore when they perceiued that the kings charge and dignitie could not be mainteined with so small reuenues, they aduanced his foure sonnes (borne of diuerse women) to the rich abbeies & priories of Melrosse, Kelso, Coldingham, Holie rood, and of saint Andrewes, whose reuenues they transferred to the kings coffers so long as he liued: by which (perhaps) there came no lesse monie (saith Lesleus) vnto his coffers, than did arise of his kinglie inheritance.)

The king by the aduise of these noble men of his realme, thinking it necessarie for him 1538. Lesle. The king is a sutor for mariage to the dutchesse of Longuile. Fr. Thin. to match againe in mariage with some noble princesse, sent into France vnto the earle of Murrey, and Dauid Beton abbat of Arbroth [whome (as saith Lesleus lib. 9. pa. 447) Paule the third had made a cardinall, & they of France had made bishop of Miropreuse] his ambassadors there resident, willing them by the aduise of the French king to treat for a mariage to be had betwixt him and the ladie Marie de Lorraine, dutchesse of Longuile, widow, daughter to the duke of Guise. And being aduertised from his said ambassadors, that the king of France, the ladie hir selfe, and hir friends, were well contented therewith, he sent in the beginning of Maie the lord Robert Maxwell, and the maister of Glencarne, well accompanied into France, to ioine with his other ambassadors for the contracting of that mariage, the which according to their commission treated thereof, and concluded vpon resolute articles, and so espoused hir by procurators, as the vse is amongst such estates, with great triumph in the citie of Paris, whereat the king and manie noble men were present.

After this she was conueied to Newhauen, and there taking the seas, passed through the same till she came to Carell in Fife, where she landed the tenth of Iune; and from thence she was conueied to the new palace in the abbeie of saint Andrewes, being honorablie prepared for the receiuing of hir. And there the king accompanied with manie noble men, openlie solemnized and confirmed the foresaid mariage with the said ladie in the abbeie The mariage solemnized. church, with great ioy and triumph. The king with his queene remained there the most part of that summer. And within a few moneths after the mariage, she conceiued with child, to the great comfort of the king and the whole realme, for the hope of succession thereby; and therefore generall processions and publike praiers were made thorough all parts of the realme, for the prosperous successe of the same. After that the king had pacified the borders and all other parts of his realme, by exercising of iustice, and trauelling about the same in his owne person through all places (where néed required) so that there was as great quietnesse, rest, and policie vsed in Scotland, as euer was in anie kings daies before him: Great quietnesse in Scotland. yet neuerthelesse there were certeine disobedient persons in the Iles.

The king therefore, to bring them to order, caused to prepare a good nauie of ships, and in the moneth of Maie went aboord the same in the rode of Lieth, hauing with him the 1539. The king saileth northwards to the Iles of Orkenie and others. earles of Arrane, Huntleie, Argile, and diuerse other earles, lords, and barons, with whome he sailed foorth by the coasts of Fife, Angus, Aberden, Murrey firth, Southerland, and Cathnesse, till he came to Orkenie, where he landing and all his companie with him, were receiued verie honorablie by the bishop Robert Maxwell. Héere they furnished themselues with fresh vittels, and other such things as were necessarie; and taking the seas againe, sailed to the Iles of Skie and Lewes, where Mac Clewd of the Lewes, a principall clan of his kin, was brought vnto the king, who sent foorth also a companie to Mac Clewd Haugh, who came likewise out of his lie, and presented himselfe to the king.

From thence the king sailed by the coast of Rosse & Kintaile, to the Ile of Tranternes, where diuerse of the Maconiles, such as the lord Olagarrie, Iohn Moidart, and others (who alledged themselues to be of the principall bloud, and lords of the Iles) were brought also to the kings presence. From thence trauelling through the residue of the Iles, Maclane The out Iles brought to good order. and Iames Maconile of Kinter, being the two principall capteins of the small Iles, came likewise to the king who at length landed at Dunbreton, and sent the capteins and ships with prisoners to passe the same waie he came round about the coast, so to come to Edenburgh, where the same prisoners being arriued, the chiefe heads of them were kept in ward as pledges for good rule in their countries, and were not suffered to depart so long as the king liued, whereby there followed great quietnesse, and as good obedience to the lawes throughout all the Iles, as there was in anie part of the realme; and as good account and paiment made to the kings controller in his excheker for the lands of the same Iles perteining to the crowne, as for anie part of the reuenues belonging therevnto within the maine land. [In this yéere (saith Buchanan lib. 4.) were manie taken for Lutheranisme, whereof Fr. Thin. some were burnt; nine recanted, and manie were banished: amongest whom, George Buchanan was one, who escaped by a rope out of a window of a chamber.]

Whilest the king was in this voiage, the queene was deliuered of a sonne at saint The quéene deliuered of a sonne. Andrewes, whereof the king being aduertised at his landing, hasted with all possible diligence to the quéene, and shortlie after was the child baptised, and called Iames. The archbishop of saint Andrewes, and the earle of Arrane were godfathers, and the quéene the kings mother was godmother. For the birth of this prince, there were bounfiers made through all parts of the realme, with great triumph and giuing of thanks to God for the same. After this the quéene, mother to the king, returned vnto Methwen, where after she had remained a certeine time, a sicknesse tooke hir, of the which shortlie after she departed this The quéene mother departed this life. life, and was buried in the Charterhouse church of saint Iohns towne, by the toome of king Iames the first. The king himselfe and manie nobles of the realme were present at the funerals, which were kept in most solemne and pompous manner.

The same yeare were burnt at Edenburgh for heresie (as it was then taken) a regular Certeine persons burnt for religion. canon, two blacke friers, and a secular man. Also two priests were degraded, and condemned to perpetuall prison. The same time there was a graie frier in the citie of Glascow burnt for the like cause, and manie other summoned; and because they would not appeare, they were denounced heretikes. About the same time, Iames Beton archbishop of saint 1539. Lesle. The death of Iames Beton archbishop of saint Andrews. Andrews, a man of great age departed this life, and was buried in saint Andrews. Before his departure, he had prouided successors to all his benefices, first to his archbishops sée, and to the abbeie of Arbroth, maister Dauid Beton, afterwards cardinall; and to the abbeie of Dunfermeling maister George Durie that was archdeacon of saint Andrews. These men, without anie gainesaieng of the king, entered with his good will into the same benefices, immediatlie after his deceasse. This Iames Beton builded a great part of the new college of saint Andrewes, and left great summes of monie and treasure to go through to make an end of the same woorke.

This yeare in the moneth of August sir Iames Hamilton of Finhart knight, remaining as 1540. Sir Iames Hamilton arrested. then in the towne of Edenburgh, was arrested by Dauid Wood controller to the king, who charged him in the kings name to go to ward within the castell of Edenburgh. Which commandement he willinglie obeied, thinking himselfe sure inough, as well by reason of the good seruice he had doone to the king, speciallie in reparing the palaces of Striueling and Linletgew; as also for that the king had him in so high fauor, that he stood in no feare of himselfe at all. Neuerthelesse, shortlie after he was brought foorth to iudgement, and conuict in the Tolbuith of Edenburgh, of certeine points of treason laid against him, which he Sir Iames Hamilton beheaded. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 451. would neuer confesse; but that notwithstanding, he was beheaded in the moneth of September next insuing [after that he had liberallie confessed at the place of execution, that he had neuer in anie lot offended the kings maiestie, and that this death was yet woorthilie inflicted vpon him by the diuine iustice; because he had often offended the law of God to please the prince, thereby to obteine greater countenance with him. Wherefore he admonished all persons, that (mooued by his example) they should rather follow the diuine pleasure, than vniustlie séeke the kings fauor, since it is better to please God than man.]

This summer the quéene remaining at Striueling, was deliuered of an other prince, which The quéene deliuered of another son. The two yoong princes departed this life. was baptised in the chappell of Striueling, and called Arthur: but within eight daies after, the said prince deceassed at Striueling aforesaid. On the verie same daie, prince Iames the kings eldest sonne being at saint Andrews departed this life also, in such wise, that there was but onelie six houres betwixt the time of their departures out of this world; which caused no lesse lamentation through the whole realme, than there was ioy at their births. After this, the queene went vnto saint Iohns towne, where she was honorablie receiued with great triumph made by the towne. She was accompanied with the principall men of the The king and quéene at Aberden. countrie, and from thence she roade to Aberden, the king then being come vnto hir, where, by the towne and vniuersitie they were receiued with great ioy, triumph, pageants, verses, & plaies, set foorth in the best maner for their pastime. They remained there the space of fiftéene daies, and were highlie interteined by the bishop of that place.

There were exercises and disputations held in all kind of sciences in the colleges and schooles, with diuerse orations made in Greeke, Latine, and other languages, to the high praise and commendation of the maisters & students in that vniuersitie. From thence the king with the queene returned to Dundée, where a costlie entrie was prepared for them also, and after they had béene right princelie interteined there, they came to Falkeland. In the moneth of Maie, sir Iohn Borthwike, commonlie called capteine Borthwike, suspected, Capteine Borthwike accused of heresie. defamed, and accused of heresie, was summoned to appeare in saint Andrews before the cardinall, and diuerse other bishops and prelats there present, where (notwithstanding his absence) the same being prooued by sufficient witnesse against him (as was thought) he was conuicted and declared an heretike. An image was made to resemble him, and at the market crosse of the said citie, as a signe and memoriall of his condemnation, it was burned, to the feare of others, but he himselfe escaped their hands and got into England, where he was receiued.

* The king of Scots hearing of the maner of the king of England, and how he honored Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 453. himselfe) tooke in euill part, that the king of England in all generall assemblies of the states of Ireland did call himselfe king of Ireland, when all his predecessors before were onelie intituled by the names of lords of Ireland. For by that new title, king Iames his authoritie did séeme to be diminished, when the king of England did write himselfe king of all Ireland: whereof a portion by manie ages was vnder the rule of the king of Scots. Yet A small portion in déed. at length K. Iames did yéeld therevnto; and that the rather, because the king of England vnder this title and authoritie, did not dispossesse the heires of the Scot Makeconell; and other his Scots of those lands which they there inioied in that countrie.]

This yeare the king of England aduertised of the meeting of the emperor, the French 1541. king, and pope, at the citie of Nice, doubting some practise to be deuised there against The king of England sendeth to the king of Scots. him, sent to the king of Scotland the bishop of saint Dauids, & the lord William Howard, desiring him as his most tender kinsman and nephue, to méete him at the citie of Yorke in England, where he would communicat such things with him, as should be for the weale of both the realmes. And therewith the king of England, trusting that the king of Scotland would haue fulfilled his desire, caused great preparation to be made at Yorke for the receiuing of him. But albeit the king of Scotland was willing of himselfe to haue passed into England, to haue met and seene his vncle; yet after long reasoning and deliberation of his councell and prelats [especiallie Iames Beton bishop of saint Andrews, and George Fr. Thin. Crichtoune bishop of Aberden (as saith Buchanan. lib. 14.] assembled for that purpose, casting in their minds (as they tooke it) what danger might fall to him and his realme, if he should passe into England, in case he should be staied and holden there, contrarie to his will, as king Iames his predecessor was, hauing no succession of his bodie.

And againe, for that it was certeinelie knowen, that the principall cause, why the king of England required this meeting or interuiew, was to persuade the king of Scotland to vse the like order in Scotland, as he had doone within his realme of England, in abolishing the popes authoritie, making himselfe supreame head of the church, expelling religious persons out of their houses, and seizing the iewels of their houses, their lands and rents, and such like information. And if it chanced the king should attempt the like, they should lose the friendship which was betwixt him, the pope, the emperor, and French king, that were his great friends and confederats. Herevpon they persuaded him to staie, and by their aduise sent pleasant letters & messages vnto the said king of England, desiring him to haue him excused, for that he could not come into England at that time, hauing such lets and causes of abiding at home, as shortlie he should vnderstand by his ambassadors, whom he ment to send to him, as well for this matter as other causes. And shortlie after sir Iames Sir Iames Leirmouth ambassador into England. Leirmouth was appointed to go as ambassador into England, as well to make the kings excuse for his not comming to méet the king of England at Yorke; as also to make complaint vpon certeine inuasions made by the borderers of England into Scotland, and also for the vsing of the debatable ground betwixt the two realmes.

But the king of England sore offended that the king of Scots would not satisfie his 1542. The king of England meaneth to make warre into Scotland. request, to meet him at Yorke (as before is recited,) would admit no excuse, but determined to make warre into Scotland, albeit as the Scotishmen allege, he would not suffer the same to be vnderstood, till he had prepared all things in a redinesse. In the meane time he sent commissioners to méet with the Scots commissioners vpon the debatable ground, to talke for redresse to be made of harmes doone vpon the borders, but no good conclusion could be agréed vpon by these commissioners, neither touching the debatable land, nor yet for reparing of wrongs doone by the inuasions. ¶ But that the truth concerning the causes of this war, moued at this present by that noble prince king Henrie the eight, may the better appeare; I haue thought good here to set downe the same, as they were drawen foorth and published in print to the whole world by the said king in a little pamphlet, vnder this title.

A DECLARATION CONTEINING THE IUST CAUSES AND CONSIDERATIONS OF THIS PRESENT WARRE WITH THE SCOTS, WHEREIN ALSO APPEARETH THE TRUE AND RIGHT TITLE THAT THE KINGS MOST ROIALL MAIESTIE HATH TO HIS SOUEREIGNITIE OF SCOTLAND, AND THUS IT BEGINNETH.

"BEING now inforced to the war which we haue alwaies hitherto so much abhorred &
A declaration of the iust causes of the war against the king of Scots. fled, by our neighbour & nephew the K. of Scots, one who aboue all other for our manifold benefits toward him, hath most iust cause to loue vs, and to reioise in our quietnesse; we haue thought good to notifie vnto the world his doings and behauiour in the prouocation of this war, & likewise the meanes & waies by vs to eschew & auoid it, & the iust & true occasions wherby we be now prouoked to prosecute the same, and by vtterance and divulging of that matter, to disburden some part of our inward displeasure and griefe: and the circumstances knowen, to lament openlie with the world the infidelitie of this time, in which things of such enormitie doo burst out and appeare.

"The king of Scots our nephue & neighbor, whome we in his youth and tender age preserued and mainteined from the great danger of others, and by our authoritie and power conducted him safelie to the roiall possession of his estate, he now compelieth & inforceth vs (for preseruation of our honor & right) to vse our puissance & power against him. The like vnkindnesse hath beene heretofore shewed by other in semblable cases against Gods law, mans law, & all humanitie; but the oftener it chanceth, the more it is to be abhorred, and yet in the persons of princes, for the raritie of them, can so happen but seldome as it hath now come to passe. It hath béene verie rarelie & seldome séene rofore, that a king of Scots hath had in mariage a daughter of England. We cannot nor will not reprehend the king our fathers act therein, but lament and be sorie that it tooke no better effect.

"The king our father in that matter minded loue, amitie, and perpetuall friendship betwéene the posteritie of both: which how soone it failed, the death of the king of Scots, as a due punishment of God, for his vniust inuasion into this our realme, is and shall be a perpetuall testimonie of their reproch for euer. And yet in that present time could not the vnkindnesse of the father extinguish in vs the naturall loue of our nephue his sonne, being then in the miserable age of tender youth. But we then forgetting the displeasure that should haue woorthilie prouoked vs to inuade that realme, nourished and brought vp our nephue, to atchiue his fathers possession and gouernement, wherein he now so vnkindlie vseth and behaueth himselfe towards vs, as he compelleth vs to take armor and warre against him.

"It is speciallie to be noted, vpon what grounds, and by what means we be compelled to this warre, wherin among other is our chiefe greefe and displeasure, that vnder a colour of faire speach and flattering words, we be indéed so iniuried, contemned and despised, as we ought not with sufferance to permit and passe ouer. Words, writings, letters, messages, ambassages, excuses, allegations, could not more pleasantlie, more gentlie, nor more reuerentlie be deuised and sent, than hath béene made on the king of Scots behalfe vnto vs: and euer we trusted the trée would bring foorth good fruit, that was of the one part of so good a stocke, and continuallie in appearance put foorth so faire buds: and therefore would hardlie beléeue or giue eare to other, that euer alledged the deeds of the contrarie, being neuerthelesse the same déeds so manifest, as we must néeds haue regarded them, had not we bin so loth to thinke euill of our nephue, whome we had so manie waies bound to be of the best sort toward vs.

"And therefore hauing a message sent vnto vs the yéere past, from our said nephue, and a promise made for the repairing of the said king of Scots vnto vs to Yorke, and after great preparation on our part made therefore, the same méeting was not onelie disappointed, but also at our being at Yorke in the lieu thereof, an inuasion made by our said nephue his subiects into our land, declaring an euident contempt and despite of vs. We were yet glad to impute the default of the méeting to the aduise of his councell, and the inuasion to the lewdnesse of his subiects, and according therevnto gaue as benigne and gentle audience to such ambassadors as repaired hither at Christmas afterward, as if no such cause of displeasure had occurred, speciallie considering the good words, sweet words, pleasant words, eftsoones proponed by the said ambassadors, not onelie to excuse that was past, but also to persuade kindnesse and perfect amitie to insue.

"And albeit the king of Scots hauing (contrarie to the article of the league of amitie) receiued and interteined such rebels as were of the chéefe and principall, in stirring the insurrection in the north against vs, with refusall before time, vpon request made to restore the same; yet neuerthelesse, vpon offer made, the said ambassadors to send commission to the borderers, to determine debates of the confines in the same, with so great a pretense of amitie, and so faire words as could be in spéech desired, we were content for the time to forbeare to presse them ouer extreamlie in the matter of rebels. Alleit we neuer remitted the same, but desiring to make triall of our said nephue in some correspondence of déeds, condescended to the sending of commissioners to the borders, which to our great charge we did, and the king of Scots our said nephue the semblable.

"Where after great trauell made by our commissioners, this fruit insued, that being for our part chalenged, a péece of our ground plainlie vsurped by the Scots, and of no great value, being also for the same shewed such euidence, as more substantiall, more autentike, plaine and euident, cannot be brought forth for anie part of ground within our realme: the same was neuerthelesse by them denied, refused, and the euidence onelie for this cause reiected, that it was made (as they alledged) by Englishmen: and yet it was so ancient, as it could not be counterfeit now, and the value of the ground so little, and of so small weight, as no man would haue attempted to falsifie for such a matter. And yet this deniall being in this wise made vnto our commissioners, they neuerthelesse by our commandement departed as friends from the commissioners of Scotland, taking order as hath béene accustomed, for good rule vpon the borders in the meane time.

"After which their recesse, the lord Maxwell warden of the west marches of Scotland, made proclamation for good rule; but yet added therwith, that the borderers of Scotland should withdraw their goods from the borderers of England; and incontinent the Scotishmen borderers, the fourth of Iulie entered into our realme suddenlie, and spoiled our subiects contrarie to our leagues, euen after such extremitie as it had béene in the time of open warre, whereat we much maruelled, and were compelled therefore to furnish our borders with a garrison for defense of the same. Wherevpon the king of Scots sent vnto vs Iames Leirmouth maister of his houshold, with letters deuised in the most pleasant maner, offering redresse & reformation of all attempts. And yet neuerthelesse, at the entrie of the said Leirmouth into England, a great number of the Scots then not looked for, made a forraie into our borders, to the great annoiance of our subiects, & to their extreame detriment. Wherewith, and with that vnseemelie dissimulation, we were not a little mooued, as reason would we should; and yet did we not finallie so extreamelie prosecute and continue our said displeasure, but that we gaue benigne audience to the said Leirmouth, and suffered our selfe to be somewhat altered by his words and faire promises, tending to the persuasion that we euer desired, to find the king of Scots such a nephue vnto vs, as our proximitie of bloud (with our gratuitie vnto him) did require.

"In the meane time of these faire words, the déeds of the borderers were as extreame at might be, and our subiects spoiled: and in a rode made by sir Robert Bowes for a reuenge thereof, the same sir Robert Bowes, with manie other were taken prisoners, and yet deteined in Scotland without putting them to fine or ransome, as hath béene euer accustomed. And being at the same time a sursesance made on both sides, at the sute of the said Leirmouth for a season; the Scots ceassed not to make sundrie inuasions into our realme, in such wise as we were compelled to forget faire words, and onelie to consider the king of Scots déeds, which appeared vnto vs of that sort, as they ought not for our dutie in defense of our subiects, ne could not in respect of our honor, be passed ouer vnreformed: and therefore put in a readinesse our armie, as a due meane whereby we might atteine such a peace, as for the safegard of our subiects we be bound to procure.

"After which preparation made, and knowledge had thereof, the king of Scots ceassed not to vse his accustomed meane of faire words, which in our naturall inclimation wrought eftsoones their accustomed effect, euermore desirous to find in the king of Scots such regard & respect to be declared in déeds, as the correspondence of naturall loue in the nephue to such an vncle, as we haue shewed our selfe toward him, dooth require. Wherefore vpon new request and sute made vnto vs, we determined to staie our armie at Yorke, appointing the duke of Norffolke our lieutenant, the Lord priuie seale, the bishop of Durham, and the maister of our horsses, there to commen, treat, and conclude with the ambassadors of Scotland, for an amitie and peace, vpon such conditions, as by reason and equitie were indifferent, whereby the warre might be eschewed, being by sundrie inuasions of the Scots then opened & manifest.

"In this communnication betwéene our and their commissioners, after diuerse degrées of commission shewed by the Scots, and finallie one that was by our commissioners allowed, matters were proponed for conclusion of amitie, nothing difficill or hard of our part, but so agréeable to reason, as the commissioners of Scotland said they doubted not, but if it might be brought to passe that the king of Scots our nephue might haue a méeting with vs, all matters should easilie be compounded and determined: wherevpon they left speaking of anie articles of amitie, and the ambassadors of Scotland made much outward ioy in communication of meeting. They shewed themselues in words, fashion, and behauior much to delight in it, to reioise in it, and therewith thought it easie and facile to be concluded and accomplished, and for their part they tooke it then for a thing passed, a thing concluded, and most certeine to take effect, and onelie desired six daies to obteine answer from their maister, and our armie, from that time to staie and go no further: wherevnto our commissioners then agréed.

"After these six daies was sent a commission out of Scotland, with power to conclude a méeting preciselie at such a place, as they knew well we should not, nor could not in winter obserue & kéepe. Wherewith when our commissioners were miscontent, the ambassadors of Scotland to relieue that displeasure, and to temper the matter whereby to win more time, shewed foorth their instructions, wherein libertie was giuen to the ambassadours to exceed their commission in the appointment of the place, and to consent to anie other that by our commissioners should be thought conuenient. Which maner of procéeding when our commissioners refused, alledging that they would not conclude a méeting with men hauing no commission therevnto: the ambassadors of Scotland vpon pretense to send for a more ample and large commission, agréeable to their instructions for appointment of the place, obteined a delaie of other six daies, to send for the ample commission without restraint of place.

"Now after these six daies they brought foorth a new commission, made in a good forme, and without exception: but therewith also they shewed new instructions, conteining such a restraint as the former commission did conteine, so as the libertie giuen to the commissioners in the commission was now at the last remooued and taken awaie by the instructions, with addition of a speciall charge to the ambassadors, not to excéed the same. And thus, first the ambassadors of Scotland seemed to haue a will and desire to conclude on a place seemelie and conuenient, which for want of commission they might not doo, and at the last might haue concluded a méeting by vertue of their commission; and then for feare of the commandement in their second instructions they durst not. And so they shewed their first instructions partlie to excuse their king, who should séeme secretlie to will more than in the commission he did openlie professe.

"Then with an ample commission from the king, they shewed their secret instructions for defense of themselues, why they procéeded not according to their commission, not caring how much they charged therein the king, whose fault they disclosed to discharge themselues, trusting that by the benefit of the winter approching, and the time lost in their communication, their maister should be defended against our power for this yéere, without dooing for their part that by honor, right, law, and leagues they be obliged and bound to doo. And in this meane time our subiects being taken prisoners in Scotland, could not be deliuered vpon any ransome, contrarie to all custome and vsage of the borderars in the time of peace and warre: and in this meane time staied a great part of our armie alreadie prested, and in our wages to go forward.

"In this time ambassadors (as ye haue heard) assembled to talke of an amitie, but concluded none. The treating of amitie was put ouer by communication of a meeting. The communication of méeting was so handled by aheration of commission and instructions on their behalfe, as it appeareth a plaine deuise onelie inuented for a delaie, which hath giuen vs light, wherevpon more cerreinly to iudge the king of Scots inward affection toward vs: whose deeds and words well weied and considered, doo vs plainlie to vnderstand, how he hath continuallie labored to abuse vs with sweet and pleasant words, and to satisfie the appetites of other at home and abroad with his vnkind and displeasant déeds. In his words he professeth an indissoluble amitie, he allegeth kinred, he acknowledgeth benefits, onlie the fault is, that he speaketh another language to all the world in deeds, and thereby so toucheth vs in honor and denegation of iustice, as we be inforced and compelled to vse the sword, which God hath put in our hands as an extreme remedie, whereby to obteine both quietnesse for our subiects, and also that is due to vs by right, pacts, and leagues.

"We haue patientlie suffered manie delusions, and notablie the last yéere, when we made preparation at Yorke for his repaire to vs. But should we suffer our people and subiects to be so oft spoiled without remedie? This is doone by the Scots, whatsoeuer their words be. Should we suffer our rebels to be deteined contrarie to the leagues without remedie? This is also doone by them, whatsoeuer their words be. Should we suffer our land to be vsurped contrarie to our most plaine euidence, onelie vpon a will, pride and arrogancie of the other partie? This is doone by them whatsoeuer their words be. All these be ouer presumptuouslie doone against vs, and giue such signification of their arrogancie, as it is necessarie for vs to oppresse it in the beginning, least they should gather further courage, to the greater displeasure of vs and our posteritie hereafter. And yet in the intreating of this matter, if we had not euidentlie perceiued the lacke of such affection as proximitie of bloud should require; we would rather haue remitted these iniuries in respect of proximitie of bloud, to our nephue, than we did tofore his fathers inuasion.

"But weieng that we be so suerlie ascerteined of the lacke thereof, and that our bloud is there frozen with the cold aire of Scotland, there was neuer prince more violentlie compelled to war, than we be by the vnkind dealing, vniust behauior, & vnprincelie demeanor of him, that yet in nature is our nephue, & in his acts and déeds declareth himselfe not to be mooued therwith, nor to haue such earnest regard to the obseruation of his pacts & leagues, nor such respect to the interteinment of the administration of iustice, as naturall equitie bindeth, & conseruation of equitie requireth. Which we much lament & be sorie for, & vse now our force and puissance against him, not for reuengement of our priuate displeasure (being so often deliuered as we haue béene) but for recouerie of our right, the preseruation of our subiects from iniuries, and the obseruation of such leagues as haue passed betweene vs, firmelie trusting, that almightie God, vnder whome we reigne, will assist & aid our iust proceedings herein, to the furtherance and aduancement of the right, which we doubt not shall euer preuaile against wrong, falshood, deceipt, and dissimulation.

"Hitherto appeareth how this present warre hath not proceeded of anie demand of our right of our superioritie, which the kings of Scots haue alwaies knowledged by homage and fealtie to our progenitors euen from the beginning: but this warre hath béene prouoked and occasioned vpon present matter of displeasure, present iniurie, present wrong ministred by the nephue to the vncle most vnnaturallie, and supported contrarie to the deserts of our benefits most vnkindlie, if we had minded the possession of Scotland, and by the motion of warre to atteine the same, there was neuer king of this realme had more opportunitie in the minoritie of our nephue, nor in anie other realme a prince that hath more iust title, more euident title, more certeine title, to any realme that he can claime, than we haue to Scotland.

"This title is not deuised by pretense of mariage, nor imagined by couenant, nor contriued by inuention of argument, but lineallie descended from the beginning of that estate established by our progenitors, and recognised successiuelie of the kings of Scotland, by deeds, words, acts, and writings continuallie almost without interruption, or at the least intermission, till the reigne of our progenitor king Henrie the sixt, in whose time the Scots abused the ciuill warre of this realme, to their licence and boldnesse, in omitting of their dutie: which for the proximitie of bloud betwene vs, we haue béene slacke to require of them, being also of our selfe inclined to peace, as we haue euer beene alwaies glad, rather without preiudice to omit to demand our right if it might conserue peace, than by demanding thereof to be séene to mooue warre, speciallie against our neighbour, against our nephue, against him whome we haue preserued from danger, and in such a time as it were expedient for all christendome to be in vnitie and peace, whereby to be more able to resist the common enimie the Turke.

"But for what considerations we haue omitted to speake hitherto of the matter, it is neuerthelesse true, that the kings of Scots haue alwaies acknowledged the kings of England superior lords of the realme of Scotland, & haue doone homage and fealtie for the same. This appereth first in histories written by such, as for confirmation of the truth in memorie haue trulie noted and signified the same. Secondlie, it appeareth by instruments of homage made by the kings of Scots, and diuerse notable personages of Scotland, at diuerse & sundrie times sealed with their seales, and remaining in our treasurie. Thirdlie, it appeareth by registers and records iudiciallie and autenticallie made, yet preserued for confirmation of the same. So as the matter of title béeing most plaine, is furnished also with all maner of euidences for declaration thereof.

"First, as concerning histories, which be called winesses of times, the light of truth, and the life of memorie, and finallie the conuenient way & meane whereby the things of antiquitie may be brought to mens knowledge, they shew as plainlie this matter as could be wished or required, with such a consent of writers as could not so agree vpon an vntruth, conteining a declaration of such matter as hath most euident probabilitie and apparance. For as it is probable and likelie, that for the better administration of iustice amongest rude people, two or more of one estate might be rulers in one countrie, vnited as this Ile is: so it is probable and likelie, that in the beginning it was so ordered for auoiding dissention, that there should be one superiour, in right of whom the said estates should depend.

"According wherevnto we read, how Brute, of whome the realme then called Britaine tooke first that name (being before that time inhabited with giants, a people without order or ciuilitie) had thrée sonnes, I ocrine, Albanact, and Camber, who determining to haue the whole Ile within the ocean sea to be after gouerned by them thrée, appointed Albanact to rule that now is called Scotland, Camber the parties of Wales, and Locrine that now is called England: vnto whom (as being the eldest sonne) the other two brethren should doo homage, recognising and knowledging him as their superior. Now consider, if Brute conquered all this Hand, as the historie saith he did, and then in his owne time made this order of superioritie as afore; how can there be a title deuised of a more plaine beginning, a more iust beginning, a more conuenient beginning, for the order of this Hand, at that time speciallie, when the people were rude? Which cannot without continuall strife and variance conteine twoo or thrée rulers in all points equall without any maner of superieritie, the inward conscience and remorse of which superioritie should in some part dull and diminish the peruerse courage of resistance and rebellion.

"The first diuision of this Ile, we find written after this sort, without cause of suspicion why they should write amisse. And according heerevnto we find also in historie set foorth dy diuerse, how for transgression against this superioritie, our predecessors haue chastised the kings of Scots, and some deposed, and put other in their places. We will heere omit to speake of the rudenesse of the antiquitie in particularitie, which they cared not distinctlie to commit to writing. But some authors, as Antonius Sabellicus, amongst other, diligentlie searching what he might trulie write of all Europe and the Hands adioining, ouer and beside that which he writeth of the natures, maners, and conditions of the Scots, which who so list to read, shall find to haue béene the verie same in times past, that we find them now at this present: he calleth Scotland, part of England, which is agréeable to the diuision aforesaid, being in déed as in the land continuall without separation of the sea, so also by homage and fealtie vnited vnto the same; as by particular declarations shall most manifestlie appéere, by the testimonie of such as haue left writing for proofe and confirmation thereof.

"In which matter, passing the death of king Humber, the acts of Dunwald king of this realme of England, the diuision of Beline and Bren two brethren, the victories of king Arthur; we shall begin at the yéere of our Lord, nine hundred, which is six hundred fortie two yeeres past, a time of sufficient anciencie, from which we shall make speciall declaration and euident proofe of the execution of our right and title of superioritie euermore continued and preserued hitherto. Edward the first, before the conquest, sonne to Alured king of England, had vnder his dominion and obedience the king of Scots. And héere is to be noted, that this matter was so notorious and manifest, as Marian a Scot, writing that storie in those daies, granteth, confesseth, & testifieth the same: and this dominion continued in that state thrée and twentie yéeres.

At which time Athelstane succéeded in the crowne of England, and hauing by battell conquered Scotland, he made one Constantine king of that partie, to rule and gouerne the countrie of Scotland, he vnder him, adding this princelie woord, that it was more honorable to him to make a king, than to be a king. Twentie foure yéeres after that, which was the yéere of our Lord 947, king Eldred our progenitor Athelstanes brother, tooke homage of Irise then king of Scots. Thirtie yéeres after that, which was in the yeere of our Lord 977, king Edgar our predecessor tooke homage of Kinald king of Scots. Heere was a little trouble in England by the death of saint Edward king and martyr, destroied by the deceit of his mother in law. But yet within memorie, fortie yeers after the homage doone by Kinald to king Edgar, that is to say, in the yeere of our Lord 1018, Malcolme king of Scots did homage to Knute our predecessor.

"After this homage doone, the Scots vttered some péece of their naturall disposition: wherevpon, by warre made by our progenitor saint Edward the confessor, twentie nine yéeres after homage doone, that is to say, the yéere of our Lord 1056, Malcolme king of Seets was vanquished, and the realme giuen to Malcolme his sonne, by our said progenitor saint Edward: to whome the said Malcolme made homage and fealtie, within eleuen yeares after that William Conqueror entered this realme, whereof he accounted no perfect conquest, vntill he had likewise subdued the Scots. And therefore in the said yéere, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1068, the said Malcolme king of Scots did homage to the said William Conqueror, as his superior by conquest king of England. Twentie fiue yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1092, the said Malcolme did homage and fealie to William Rufus, sonne to the said William Conqueror: and yet after that was for his offenses and demerits deposed, and his sonne substitute in his place, who likewise failed of his dutie: and therefore was ordeined in that estate (by the said William Rufus) Edgar, brother to the last Malcolme, and sonne to the first, who did homage and fealtie accordinglie.

"Seuen yéeres after, that was in the yéere of our Lord 1100, the said Edgar K. of Scots did homage vnto Henrie the first our progenitor. Thirtie seauen yéeres after that, Dauid king of Scots did homage to Mathild the empresse, as daughter and heire to Henrie the first. Wherefore, being after required by Stephan, then obteining possession of the realme, to make his homage; he refused so to doo, because he had before made it to the said Mathild, and therevpon forbare. After which Dauids death, which insued shortlie after, the sonne of the said Dauid made homage to the said king Stephan. Fouretéene yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord, a thousand one hundred and fiftie, William king of Scots, and Dauid his brother, with all the nobles of Scotland, made homage to Henrie the seconds sonne, with a reseruation of their dutie to Henrie the second his father. Twentie fiue yéeres after, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1175, William king of Scotland, after much rebellion & resistance, according to their naturall inclination, king Henrie the second then being in Normandie, William then king of Scots knowledged finallie his error, and made his peace and composition, confirmed with his great seale, and the seales of the nobilitie of Scotland, making therewith his homage and fealtie.

"Within fifteene yeeres after that, which was the yeere of our Lord 1190, the said William king of Scots came to our citie of Canturburie, and there did homage to our noole progenitor king Richard the first. Fourtéene yeeres after that, the said William did homage to our progenitor king Iohn, vpon a hill besides Lincolne, making his oth vpon the crosse of Hubert then archbishop of Canturburie, being there present, a maruellous multitude assembled for that purpose. Twentie six yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1216, Alexander king of Scots maried Margaret, the daughter of our progenitor Henrie the third, at our citie of Yorke, in the feast of Christmasse, at which time the said Alexander did his homage to our said progenitor, who reigned in this realme fiftie six yeers. And therfore betwéene the homage made by the said Alexander king of Scots, and the homage doone by Alexander, sonne to the said king of Scots, to Edward the first at his coronation at Westminster, there was about fiftie yéeres: at which time the said Alexander king of Scots repaired to the said feast of coronation, and there did his dutie, as is aforesaid. Within twentie eight yéeres after that, which was in the yéere of our Lord 1282, Iohn Balioll king of Scots made his homage and fealtie to the said king Edward the first our progenitor.

"After this began Robert Bruse to vsurpe the crowne of Scotland, and to mooue sedition therefore against them of the house of Balioll, which made for a season some interruption in the said homage; but yet no intermission without the termes of memorie: for within fortie foure yéeres after, which was the yéere of our Lord 1326, Edward Balioll after a great victorie had in Scotland against the other faction, and inioieng the crowne of Scotland, made homage to our progenitor Edward the third. And twentie yéeres after that, which was in the yeere of our Lord 1346, Dauid Bruse, who was euer in the contrarie faction, did neuerthelesse in the title of the crowne of Scotland, wherof he was then in possession, make homage to our said progenitor Edward the third.

"Within nine yeeres after this, Edward the third, to chastise the infidelitie of the Scots, made warre against them: when after great victories, Edward Balioll, hauing the iust and right title to the realme of Scotland, surrendred clearlie the same to our said progenitor, at the towne of Roxburgh in Scotland, where our said progenitor accepted the same, and then caused himselfe to be crowned king of Scotland, and for a time interteined it, and inioied it, as verie proprietarie and owner of the realme: as on the one part by confiscation acquited, and on the other part by frée will surrendred vnto him. And then after the death of our said progenitor Edward the third, began seditions and insurrections in this our realme, in the time of our progenitor Richard the second, which was augmented by the alteration of the state of the said Richard, and the deuolution of the same to Henrie the fourth: so as the Scots had some leasure to plaie their vagues, and follow their accustomed manner. And yet Henrie the fift, for recouerie of his right in France, commanded the king of Scots to attend vpon him in that iorneie.

In this time, the realme of Scotland being descended to the house of the Stewards, of which our nephue directlie commeth: Iames Steward king of Scots, in the yéere of our Lord 1423, made homage to Henrie the sixt at Windsore, which homage was distant from the time of the other homage made by Dauid Bruse, three score yéeres and more, but farre within the fresh memorie of man. All which homages and fealties as they appéere by storie to haue béene made and doone at times and seasons as afore, so doo there remaine instruments made therevpon, and sealed with the seales of the kings of Scotland, testifieng the same. And yet dooth it appéere by storie, how the Scots practised to steale out of our treasurie diuerse of these instruments, which neuerthelesse were afterward recouered againe.

"And to the intent ye may know of what forme and tenure the said instruments be, héere is inserted the effect in woord and sentence as they be made, which we doo, to méet with the cauillation and contriued euasion of the Scots, alleging the homage to haue beene made for the earledome of Huntington, which is as true as the allegation of him that is burnt in the hand, to say he was cut with a sickle. And therefore the tenure of the homage is this.

THE FORME OF THE HOMAGE.

"'I IOHN N. king of Scots shall be trué and faithfull vnto you lord Edward by the grace of God K. of England, the noble & superiour lord of the kingdome of Scotland, as vnto you I make my fidelitie of the same kingdome of Scotland, the which I hold & claime to hold of you. And I shall beare to you my faith and fidelitie of life and lim, and worldlie honor, against all men; and faithfullie I shall knowledge, and shall doo to you seruice due to you of the kingdome of Scotland aforesaid: as God so helpe and these holie euangelists.'


"Now for the third part, touching records and registers, we haue them so formall, so autenticall, so seriouslie handled, and with such circumstances declaring the matters, as they be and ought to be a great corroboration of that hath beene in stories written & reported in this matter. For among other things we haue the solemne act and iudiciall processe of our progenitor Edward the first, in discussion of the title of Scotland, when the same was challenged by 12 competitors (that is to saie) Florentius comes Holandie, Patricius de Dunbar comes de Merchia, Willielmus de Vesci, Willielmus de Rosse, Robertus de Pinkeni, Nicholaus de Soules, Patricius Galightlie, Rogerus de Mundeuile, Ioannes de Comin, D. Ioannes de Hastings, Ioannes de Balliolo, Robertus de Bruse, Ericius rex Norwegie.

"Finallie, after a great consultation and mature deliberation, with discussion of the allegations proponed on all parts, sentence was giuen for the title of Balioll, according wherevnto he inioied the realme. But for confirmation of the dutie of the homage before that time obserued by the K. of Scots, it appeareth in those records, how when those competitors of the realme of Scotland repaired to our progenitor, as to the chiefe lord for discussion of the same, insomuch as the authoritie of the iudgement to be giuen depended therevpon; it was then ordered that the whole parlement of Scotland, spirituall & temporall, & of all degrees assembled for that purpose, and considering vpon what ground & foundation the kings of Scotland had in times past made the said homages and recognition of superioritie, the said parlement finding the same good & true, should (if they so déemed it) yéeld and giue place, and by expresse consent recognise the same.

"At which parlement was alleged vnto them, as appeareth in the same records, not onelie these acts of the princes before those daies, and before rehearsed: but also besides the testimonie of stories, the writings and letters of forren princes at that time reciting and rehearsing the same. Wherevpon the said parlement did there agree to this our superioritie, and insuing their determination did particularlie and seuerallie make homage & fealtie with proclamation, that whosoeuer withdrew himselfe from dooing his duetie therein, should be reputed as a rebell. And so all made homage and fealtie to our progenitor Edward the first. And the realme of Scotland was in the time of the discussion of the title ruled by gardians deputed by him. All castels and holds were surrendred to him, as to the superiour lord in the time of vacation. Benefices, offices, fées, promotions passed in that time from the méere gift of our said progenitor as in the right of this crowne of England. Shiriffes named and appointed, writs, and precepts made, obeied, and executed.

"Finallie, all that we doo now in the duchie of Lancaster, the same did our progenitor for the time of the contention for that title in the realme of Scotland, by the consent of an agréement of all estates of the realme assembled and consulted with for that purpose. At which time the bishops of saint Andrews and Glascow were not (as they now be) archbishops; but recognised the archbishop of Yorke, which extended ouer all that countrie. Now if the Scots will take exception to the homage of their princes as made in warre, and by force, which is not true; what will they say, or can they for shame allege against their owne parlement, not of some but of all confirmed, & testified by their writings and seales; wherevnto nothing inforced them but right and reason, being passed in peace and quiet without armor & compulsion? If they say they did it not, they speake like themselues; if they say they did it, then doo they now like themselues, to withdraw their dutie, not so much to be blamed, as to be amended.

"Thus appeareth vnto you the beginning of the right of superioritie, with a perpetuall continuance, without intermission within memorie. Certeine omissions and forbearings vpon the grounds and occasions before specified we denie not, whereby they haue manie times sought and taken their opportunities to withdraw the dooing of their duetie in knowledge of our superioritie ouer them; which to auoid, they haue not cared what they said or alleged, though it were neuer so vntrue, lieng alwaies in wait when they might annoie this realme, not without their owne great danger & perill, & also extreame detriment. But as they detracted the dooing of their dutie, so God granted vnto this realme force to compell them therevnto within memorie, and notwithstanding anie their interruption by resistance, which vnto the time of our progenitor Henrie the sixt neuer endured so long as it made intermission within time of mind, whereby the possession might séeme to be empaired. From the time of Henrie the sixt, vnto the seuenth yeare of our reigne, our realme hath béene for a season lacerat and torne by diuersitie of titles, till our time; and since also by warre outwardlie vexed and troubled. The storie is so lamentable for some part therof, as were too tedious to rehearse.

"Since the death of our progenitor Henrie the sixt, our grandfather Edward the fourth reigned, who after great trauels to atteine quietnes in his realme, finallie in the time of preparation of warre against Scotland died. Richard the third, then vsurped for a small time in yeares, whome the king our father by the strength of Gods hand ouerthrew in battell, and most iusdie atteined the possession of this relme, who neuerthelesse, after the great tempestuous stormes, finding all matters not yet brought to perfect quiet and rest, ceassed and forbare to require of he Scots to doo their dutie; thinking it policie rather for that time to assaie to tame their nature by pleasant coniunction & conuersation of affinitie, than to charge them with their fault, & require dutie of them, when oportunitie serued not by force & feare to constreine and compell them. And thus passed ouer the reigne of our father without demand of this homage. And being our reigne now foure and thirtie yeares, we were one and twentie yeares letted by our nephue his minoritie, being then more carefull how to bring him out of danger, to the place of a king, than to receiue of him homage, when he had full possession of the same.

"Wherefore being now passed, since the last homage made by the king of Scots, to our progenitor Henrie the sixt, 122 yeares, at which time the homage was doone at Windsor by Iames Steward, then king of Scots, as before 56 of these yeares the crowne of this realme was in contention, the trouble wherof ingendred also some businesse in the time of the king our father; which was thrée and tiurtie yeares: and in our time one and twentie yeares hath passed in the minoritie of our nephue. So as finallie, the Scots resorting to their onelie defense of discontinuance of possession, can onelie allege iustlie but 13 yeares of silence in the time of our reigne, being all the other times since the homage doone by Iames Steward, such as the silence in them (had they béene neuer so long) could not haue ingendred preiudice to the losse of anie right that may yet be declared and prooued due. For what can be imputed to king Edward for not demanding homage being in strife for that estate, wherevnto the homage was due? What should Richard the third search for homage in Scotland, that had neither right ne leasure to haue homage doone vnto him in England? Who can blame our father, knowing the Scots nature neuer to doo their dutie but for feare; if he demanded not that of them, which they would eschew if they might, séeing his realme not clearelie then purged from ill séed of sedition, sparkled and scattered in the cruell ciuill warres before.

"Law and reason serueth, that the passing ouer of time not commodious, that the purpose is not allegable in prescription for the losse of anie right. And the minoritie of the king of Scots hath indured twentie one yéeres of our reigne, which being an impediment on their part, the whole prescription of the Scots, if the matter were prescriptible, is thus deduced euidentlie to thirteene yéere, which thirtéene yéere without excuse we haue ceassed and forborne to demand our dutie, like as the Scots haue likewise ceassed to offer and render the same: for which cause neuerthelesse we doo not enter this warre, ne minded to demand anie such matter now, being rather desirous to reioise and take comfort in the friendship of our nephue as our neighbour, than to mooue matter vnto him of displeasure, whereby to alienate such naturall inclination of loue as he should haue towards vs: but such be the woorks of God superior ouer all, to suffer occasions to be ministred, whereby due superioritie may be knowne, demanded, and required, to the intent that according therevnto all things gouerned in due order héere, we may to his pleasure passe ouer this life to his honor and glorie, which he grant vs to doo in such rest, peace, and tranquillitie, as shall be meet and conuenient for vs."


When therefore the king of England had set foorth this declaration of the causes that mooued him to make warre against Scotland, he prepared to prosecute the same both by sea and land, and hauing rigged and furnished diuerse ships of warre, he sent the same foorth to the sea, that they might take such Scotish ships as were to returne from their voiages made Scotish ships taken. into France, Flanders, Denmarke, and other countries, whether they were gone for trade of merchandize, with which the English ships incountred, tooke 28 of the principall ships of all Scotland, fraught with all kind of merchandize and rich wares, which they brought with them into the English ports.

The king of Scotland aduertised therof, sent with all spéed an herald, desiring restitution of his ships, as he thought stood with reason, séeing no war was proclamed: but the king of England thought it no reason to depart with theem so soone, till other articles of agréement might be concluded, and therefore refused not onelie to deliuer their ships, but also sent sir Robert Bowes with men to the borders, giuing him in charge to inuade Scotland, who Sir Robert Bowes inuadeth the borders. according to his commission, with thrée thousand men rode into Scotland, and began to burne and to spoile certeine small townes: wherevpon the fraie being raised in the countrie, George The earle of Huntleie giueth an ouerthrow to the Englishmen. 1542. Lesle. Gordon the earle of Huntleie, who was appointed to remaine as lieutenant vpon the borders, for doubt of such sudden inuasions, immediatlie gathered a number of borderers, and set vpon the Englishmen, and put them all to flight; sir Robert Bowes, and his brother Richard Bowes, with diuerse other, to the number of six hundred, were taken prisoners; and the said sir Robert Bowes and other the principall landed men were kept still in Scotland till after the kings death. This victorie chanced to the Scots, at a place called Halden Rig in the Mers, vpon saint Bartholomewes day, which is the twentie fourth of August.

After this, the king of England sent the duke of Norffolke with the earles of Shrewesburie, Darbie, Cumberland, Surreie, Hertford, Angus, Rutland, and the lords of the north parts of England, with an armie of fortie thousand men, as the Scots estéemed them, though they were not manie aboue twentie thousand, who entered into Scotland the one and twentith of October, and burnt certeine townes vpon the side of the water Twéed: but the earle of Huntleie, hauing with him ten thousand of the borderers and other, so waited vpon them, giuing them now and then skirmishes and alarms, that they came not past two miles from the water of Twéed within the Scotish bounds at that season.

In the meane time, the king of Scotland being aduertised héereof, gathered a great armie through all the parts of his realme, and came to Sowtraie hedge, where they mustered, and were numbred to be thirtie six thousand men, with the which he came to Falla Mure, and there incamped, determining to giue battell to the Englishmen, as he pretended: howbbeit, if the duke had taried longer, as it was thought he would haue doone, if the time of the yéere and prouision of vittels had serued, the Scots would yet haue béene better aduised, before they had ioined with him in a pight field. But true it is, that after the duke had remained there so long as vittels might be had and recouered from anie part, he retired with his armie backe into England, not without some losse of men, horsses, and spoiles, which the Scots vnder the earle of Huntleie and others tooke from the Englishmen in that their retire, speciallie as they passed ouer the riuer of Tweed.

After the Englishmen were thus departed and withdrawne home foorth of Scotland, king Iames being of an high and manlie courage, in reuenge of harmes doone by the Englishmen within his countrie, thought good that his whole armie should passe forward and inuade England, himselfe to go therewith in proper person. And héerein he requested the consent of his nobilitie, who after long reasoning, and good aduisement taken in the matter, gaue answer [by the earle of Murrey] to the king in this sort, that they could not thinke it good that they should passe within England, and to seeke battell, the king himselfe being with them, considering that his two sons were latelie deceassed, so that he had no succession of his bodie: for in ease that they lost the field, as in chance of battell is most vncerteine, then the king of England hauing great substance, might therwith follow the victorie, and put the realme of Scotland in great hazard.

Therefore they thought it sufficient to defend their owne bounds, and to constreine the enimie for feare to leaue the inuasion thereof, as presentlie they had doone; and declared that they were determined to haue giuen battell to their enimies, if they had continued within the realme, and doubted not by the helpe of God, they hauing so iust a cause, and being inuaded in their countrie, but that they should haue obteined the victorie. The king hearing their determination, albeit his high courage pressed him to inuade; yet the approoued wit The king breaketh vp his armie. of his nobles and councellors caused him to follow their aduise, and so returned with his armie backe againe, the first of Nouember, the armie of England being first discharged, and the duke of Norffolke in his returne towards London.

Shortlie after, the king of Scotland went himselfe in person to the west marches of his The king goeth to the west borders. 1541. Lesl. realme, where the lord Maxwell was warden, whome togither with the earles of Cassiles, and Glencarne [the lord Fleming] and certeine other lords there with him, the king appointed to inuade the English marches on that side, taking with them the power of the borders, and sent also with them Oliuer Sincler [the brother of Rosseline Comarch] and the Oliuer Sincler. residue of the gentlemen of his houshold. These earles and lords entering into England on saint Katharines euen, being the foure and twentith of Nouember, began to burne certeine townes vpon the water of Eske. But as soone as the scrie was raised in the countrie, of lord Wharton warden of the west marches of England, suddenlie raised the power the The lord Wharton. the countrie, and came to a little hill, where they shewed themselues in sight vnto the Scotish armie.

The Scotish lords perceiuing the Englishmen gathered, assembled themselues togither, and inquired who was lieutenant generall there by the kings appointment; and incontinentlie Oliuer Sincler was holden vp on two mens shoulders, where he sheweth foorth the kings The enuie of the lords against Oliuer Sincler. commission, instituting him lieutenant to the king of that armie. But howsoeuer that was read, the earles and lords there present, thought themselues imbased too much, to haue such a meane gentleman aduanced in authoritie aboue them all, and therefore determined not to fight vnder such a capteine, but willinglie suffered themselues to be ouercome, and so were taken by the Englishmen, not shewing anie countenance of defense to the contrarie, and The Scots discomfited by the Englishmen. without slaughter of anie one person on either side.

This rode was called Solowaie Mosse, at the which were taken prisoners men of name, these persons following: the earle of Cassiles and Glencarne, the lord Maxwell, the lord Fleming, the lord Someruile, the lord Oliphant, Oliuer Sincler, the lord of Craggie, and sundrie other gentlemen, the which were led prisoners to London, where they remained till after the king was dead. The king being in Carlauerocke vpon the borders not farre from Solowaie Mosse, when this misfortune fell vpon his men: after he heard thereof, he was meruelouslie amazed, the more, in calling to remembrance the refusall made by his nobles, assembled with him in campe at Falla vpon his request to inuade England. Héerewith such The griefe of the king for the ouerthrow of his men. an impression entered his mind, that he thought with himselfe that all his whole nobilitie had conspired against him, and therevpon tooke such a vehement and high displeasure, increased with a melancholious thought, that he departed suddenlie from thence to Edenburgh, and after remooued to Falkeland, where he remained as a man desolate of comfort, being sore vexed in spirit and bodie, and would not permit anie manner of person to haue accesse to him, his secret & familiar seruants onelie excepted.

Now, as he was thus disquieted, newes were brought him that the queene his wife was brought to bed of a faire yoong princesse the seuenth day of December, the which newes The birth of the Scotish quéene. he liked verie euill; and added the griefe thereof to his former displeasantnesse, insomuch that he perceiued the end of his life to approch, and withall said, that he foresaw great trouble to come vpon the realme of Scotland, for the pursuit which the king of England was like to make therevpon against the same, to the end he might bring it vnder his subiection, either by mariage, or by some other meane. It was reported that he was disquieted with some vnkindlie medicine: but howsoeuer the matter was, he yéelded vp his spirit to almightie God, and departed this world the fouretéenth of December, in the yéere of our redemption, 1542, the thirtie thrée yeere of his age, and thirtie two of his reigne.

Shortlie after his departure, his bodie was conueied into Falkeland vnto Edenburgh in most honorable wise; the cardinall, the earles of Arrane, Argile, Rothes, Marshall, and diuerse other noblemen being present, and with all funerall pompe (as was requisite) it was buried in the abbeie church of Holie rood house, beside the bodie of quéene Magdalen, daughter to the king of France, his first wife. There was great lamentation and mone made for his death throughout all parts of his realme, for he was verie well beloued among his subiects. * He was of swéet countenance and courteous speech, graiesh eied, hauing a diuine Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 9. pag. 460. mind in all whatsoeuer, neither certeine in doubtfull things, nor doubtfull in things of certeintie, auoiding dangers with graue counsels, performing hard matters with great nobilitie of mind, and foreséeing what might follow with an incredible iudgement: in such sort that hée was neuer vnprouided against the danger of anie thing, or was drawne from it by the difficultie thereof, or was hindered by the obscuritie therein: whereby he might incurre the note either of a rash, fearefull, or slow person.

All which singular commendations seemed to flow out of this spring, that he did not by heat of youth (rashlie) but with great deliberation (soundlie) mannage the whole affaires of the common-wealth. For as he did chieflie labor that his table might not excéed for gluttonie, nor be ouersparing for miserie: so if his apparell were decent, he esteemed not the shew of womanish attire after the courtlie fashion. He was so farre from pride, that he alwaies shewed himselfe offended with the vses thereof. He was an obseruer of iustice, a defender of the law, and a sharpe shield for the innocent and poore: for which cause he was of the nobilitie called the king of the commoners. For he set at libertie the poore oppressed with the tyrannie of the rich, and repressed the rich from spoiling of the poore: all which he did with a certeine seueritie, but yet such, as in the same there appeared a woonderfull gentlenes of his naturall disposition, bicause he seldome put anie of them to death, but did either by prison or mulct punish the offense. For he was woont to say, that he would neuer take lire from anie, but onelie to kéepe the law sound, and for the example of others: and to kéepe downe the boldnesse of such as dwelt about the borders. With these conditions he left the realme plentifullie furnished with riches, and his owne treasurie not emptie, but abundantly stored with gold, siluer and other furniture: for which cause it should not séeme strange, that his death was greatlie lamented of his subiects, to whom he was a perfect patrone, and a louing father.

Of whome also Buchanan lib. 14 writeth, that his vices did almost equall all his great vertues; but that they were rather to be imputed to the iniquitie of the time than the inclination of his nature, for the libertie of althings had then dissolued the publike discipline, which could not be staied but by great seueritie of correction. And this made him more couetous of monie, bicause that he was kept extreame hard when he was vnder the gouernment of others. Whereby, when he came to bée at libertie, he was anew to furnish all his courts with houshold stuffe, finding his houses emptie, and all things conueied awaie: for his tutors had consumed the kinglie patrimonie vpon those whome he willinglie would not to haue receiued it. Besides, for his excesse of women the fault grew by such as were his tutors, who gaue him libertie thereto, supposing therby to keepe him the longer in their danger. The nobilitie did not greatlie take his death grieuouslie, bicause he had fined manie, imprisoned more, and caused no small few (for auoiding his displeasure) to file into England, and rather to commit themselues to the enimie than to his anger.)

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