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IAMES THE FOURTH.

Now then, after that the barons of Scotland had thus slaine their souereigne lord and liege king Iames, the third of that name: his eldest son lames the fourth was crowned king of Scotland, and began his reigne the 24 of Iune yéere 1488, being not past sixteene
1488. yeeres of age, who notwithstanding that he had béene in the field with the nobles of the reaime against his father, that contrarie to his mindwas slaine; yet neuerthelesse afterwards, hée became a right noble prince, & seemed to take great repentance for that his offense, The king was repentant. The king wore an iron chaine. Was giuen to deuotion. He was a great iusticer. and in token thereof, he ware continuallie an iron chaine about his midle all the daies of his life. He was greatlie giuen to deuotion and praier, visiting religious houses, and bestowing on them sundrie fifts. He gouerned his realme in great rest, peace, iustice, and quietnesse, riding him selfe in proper person diuerse daies and nights, to suppresse and take théeues, robbers, and oppressors of his subiects in all parts of his realme, till he had brought the countrie to great quietnesse. He was learned and liberall, and indued with manie other He was learned. good vertues and qualities.

Anon after his coronation, the earle of Lennox, and the lord Lile, with diuers other their assistants, notwithstanding that they had beene with him at the slaughter of his father, séeing that things went not as they wished, raised an armie, and caused the dead kings bloudie The nobles raise an armie againe. They were ouerthrowne. shirt to be borne afore them for a banner: and comming forwards toward Striueling against the yoong king, were ouerthrowne at Tolimosse, where the Lennox men, and sundrie other of the barons side were slaine, as the lord of Kiltrucht, and other taken and hanged for their offenses. The king called a parlement atEdenburgh, which was holden the sixt of A parlement. October, where he being mooued by clemencie, granted a generall pardon to all those that A generall pardon. came in field at Striueling with his father against him, and appointed euerie one to haue speciall pardons therevpon vnder his seales. He likewise dispensed with the heires of them that were slaine with his father there in field, appointing them their particular dispensations vnder his seales, after the same maner. Further it was ordeined, that all iustices, shiriffes, stewards, bailiffes, lieutenants, and other which had offices in heritage, and had béene with his father at the field, should be suspended from the same offices for the tearme of three yeeres: and those which had offices for life, or for terme of yéeres, should be vtterlie excluded from the same.

Moreouer, he tooke order that all such goods as had béene taken from landed men and burgesses, should be restored to them againe, except that which was taken from such landed men and burgesses as were in the field against him; for that was deemed a lawfull preie. It was also iudged that the death of his father came vpon him through his owne default, and that king Iames the fourth then reigning, and all his adherents and partakers in that field, were innocent and giltlesse of all slaughter made there at that time, and clearlie acquit of all pursute and occasion thereof : the thrée estates granting to giue their seales to testifie the same, with the kings great seale of the realme, to be shewed vnto the pope, the kings of France, Spaine, Denmarke, and other princes their confederats. And for the ceassing of theft, reiffe, & such other great enormities, the king was appointed to ride in person once euerie yeere through all parts of the realme. And certeine noble men were ordeined to exercise iustice in euerie shire next adioining to the places where they had their chiefe residence: and herevnto they gaue their othes to be diligent in the administration of iustice. These ordinances were right well obserued all the daies of K. Iames the fourth his life time, so that the realme was reduced to great tranquillitie, and gouerned in good peace and iustice. Furthermore, all gifts made by his father in preiudice of the crowne, were reuoked, from the second day of Februarie immediatlie preceading his death, to the day in which hée was slaine.

* About this time was a monster borne of a strange forme, hauing from the nauill Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 18. downeward the perfect parts of one man, not different from the right proportion of man: but from the nauill vpward, it was double bodied, hauing all perfect parts answering euerie of those bodies, sundered to all actions and shew. This monster the king commande to be diligentlie nourished and instructed, but chieflie in musike (wherein it profited velie much.) Further also learning diners sorts of languages, whose seuerall wits and natures manifestlie appeared by diuers dispositions of their minds. For sometime they would fall out one with another, and when anie thing displeased them, they would most bitterly contend the one with the other: contrarilie, when anie thing happened to their liking or desire, they would consult and agrée togither as friends. In which this was woorthie remembrance, that if the legges or loines had béene hurt below, they both togither felt the paine; but if they were pinched or grieued in any part aboue seuered from the other, then that bodie onetie felt the same which had that hurt doone vnto it. Which different sense did more plainelie appeare in the death of the one of them: for when the one bodie died manie daies before the other, that which liued, did after by little and little consume, by the putrifaction of the other bodie then dead which monster liued 28 yéeress, and in the time of Iohn the gouernor: of which thing we doubt not to write (more boldlie) sith there are men yet lining of honest fame which saw these things.)

This king in the beginning of his reigne, to make, his estate the surer, and more faithfull Buchan. li. 18. to reconcile the harts of such as had mainteined factions against him, determined to marie the daughters of his aunt by two husbands, to two of those noble men: for which cause he maried Grecina Boid to Alexander Forbois, and Margaret Hammilton to Matthew Steward, by which in time there followed a most singular peace in the kingdome.) Also an esquier, 1486. A mariage sought for the king. and an herald were sent into France, Spaine, and other places, to learne where the king might be a suter for some great ladie to ioine with him in mariage. Moreouer beside these there were sent honorable ambassadors into France, Spaine, and Denmarke, to renew the old amities & leagues betwixt those realmes and Scotland, as had béene vsed in the dales of this kings progenitors. His two brethren, the duke of Rothseie, and the earle of Mar, he caused to be brought vp in good nourture and vertuous exercise, appointing to them such liuings for maintenance of their estates, as his father had assigned them.

For his councell he chose a cerreine number of the prelats, nobie men, and barons of his realme, such as were thought most meet, taking this order, that six of them at the least should continuallie remaine about him, by whose aduise he should doo all things that touched the affaires of the realme: and in case any thing was done without their aduise, the same should be iudged void, & not to be obeied, & this was inuiolablie kept all his dales. When the esquier and herald were returned againe into Scotland, which had bene to visit 1491. strange countries, and made report of that they had séene, there was a parlement holden, in which it was ordeined, that the bishop of Giascow, the earle Bothwell, and others, should go as ambassadors to sue for the kings mariage in place where it should be most expedient, and most to the kings liking. Great variance rose betwixt the archbishop of Two archbishops striue for the preheminence. saint Andrews, and the bishop of Glascow, touching the preheminence of their iurisdiction which drew the noble men into factions, till the king commanded the same to ceasse, and that they should trie it by law before competent iudges.

* Iames Ogiluie knight of Aire, was sent ambassador to the king of Denmarke, to whome Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 332. the king gaue in charge, that he should labor to renew the old league that was betwéene the Danes and the Scots, which he wiselie executed and obteined, with certeine priuileges for the benefit of the merchants. By means whereof at his returne, he purchased such fauour of the king, as that he was aduanced to the title of a lord, in which the name of the Ogiluies was first increased with anie honorable title.) The king about the same time tooke order Prouision made for ships. 1492. Lesle. for increase of some number of ships to be had in his realme, and that euerie hauen towne should build some, as well for fishing, as to transport merchandize from place to place.

The lords and barons, and such other as would, were commanded to helpe the merchants toward the building of such ships: and for good example, the king caused to make certeine ships at his owne charges, which might vse the trade of fishing. Moreouer, the king considering the ignorance that was amongst the landed men of his realme, when they should Prouision made for learning. passe vpon inquests, he ordeined that euerie landed man should put his eldest sonne to schoole, that he might learne perfectlie the lawes of the realme, and that vpon great for feiture. Thus in the beginning of his reigne, diuers good lawes and constitutions were made, for the aduancement of the common-wealth, which he caused to be dulie obserued and kept 1494. Lesle. during his time. The pope sent a protonotarie called Forman into Scotland, with a rose A protonotarie sent into Scotland with a rose. 1495. Lesle. and a scepter of gold, to be presented vnto the king, desiring him to perseuere in godlinesse, honor, and vertue, as he had begun. The most part of this yéere the king spent in riding abroad through all parts of his realme to sée iustice ministred, speciallie in the north parts, where the people are commonlie furthest out of order.

1492. There was shortlie after some appearance of warres betwixt England and France, The king goeth on progresse. wherevpon king Charles sent vnto king Iames, requiring him of assistance, if it came to passe that the Englishmen did inuade France: and further declared, that he had one with him called 1496. Lesl. Richard duke of Yorke, second sonne to king Edward the fourth, who had béene preserued now manie yéeres secretlie by his aunt Margaret duches of Burgognie, and therefore was iust inheritor to the realme of England, whom he would send into Scotland, praieng the king to assist him to recouer his rightfull heritage, the said realme of England. And shortlie after herevpon, the said feined duke (whose right name was Perkin Warbecke, as in the English Perkin Warbecke. historie it appeareth) arriued in Scotland well and honorablie accompanied, to trie what purchase he might make there for succors to atteine his pretended right to the crowne of England.

* After whose arriuall he was brought to the presence of king Iames, before whom he Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 13. did larnentablie bewaile (as he well could) the fall of the house of Yorke, and his owne calamities: most humblie and vehementlie beséeching him, to ransome the kinglie bloud from that contumelie. For answer wherevnto at that present time, the king bid him be of good heart, for he would so woorke, that he should find his sute not defrauded of all due effect, in obteining succor in his distresse. Few daies after, the king assembling togither his councell, commanded this (counterfeit) duke of Yorke to be brought vnto him, who now (more than before) did in this assemblie bitterlie complaine of his misfortune, shewing, that being borne to great hope of a kingdome (as the sonne of the noblest king of that age) he was left void of all helpe by the death of his father, & had like to haue fallen into the tyrannie of his vncle Richard duke of Glocester, before he could vnderstand what calamitie or misfortune might signifie.

But aided by diuine assistance, he (when his elder brother was murthered by his vncle) was preserued by the helpe of his fathers friends, and conueied away from the bloudie hands of the vsurping king Richard, who (not able in that kingdome, whose heire by right he was) to lead a bare and begged life, did so liue in forrein countries, as he counted the condition of his brother (taken from those miseries by sudden death) to be happie in respect of his owne troubles and extremitie: for he was reserued aliue to the scorne of fortune, not daring at the first to bewaile his calamitie amongst strangers, whereby he might mooue their pitie towards him: yea (and after) when by little and little he came to open what person hée was, how noblie borne, whose heire, and to whome alied, he was (to increase all his former miseries) more grieuouslie assaulted by the malice of fortune than before. For then he could not almost liue in safetie in anie place, bicause of the subultie of his enimies, who would haue bought his life (of those with whom he remained) priuilie solliciting them to discouer his secrets, and (vnder the colour of feined amitie) to corrupt his true friends, to search out and discouer his hidden friends, and to defame him amongst the common people.

Wherewithall not yet satisfied, they reuile (said he) the ladie Margaret his aunt, and imprison the nobles of England that séemed to fauor his cause; notwithstanding all which (she vsing the truth of hir owne conscience against the slanders of hir and his enimies, and mooued with pitie for the distresse of hir kinsman) did with hir abilitie relieue his necessitie. But at length, when he saw no sure defense in a woman and widow (whose authoritie could not stretch to the command of hir people in that liberall sort as she would) he was driuen to séeke the aid of other princes, and to request them to looke into the misfortunes that might light vpon such great estates, and that they would not suffer kinglie bloud (oppressed by tyrants) to lament in such extremitie. For yet he was not so base minded (although hee were in manie great miseries) that he would not hope at one time or other to be restored to his kingdome, by the helpe of such friends as he had in Ireland and England: adding therevnto the helpe which he should haue out of France, whereof he had Lesleus lib. 1. pag. 334. alreadie made some triall by the singular beneuolence of the same king, hauing liberallie imparted manie benefits vnto him.

Besides which, not supposing this to allure the kings mind to his fauor, he began by flattrie to extoll him, not douting but he (whose fauor had bene liberallie shewd to the destressed) wold now diminish the same to him; but that he hoped that he would (for his singular humanitie to all banished persons, for pitie towards a miserable creature, for loue towards his kinsman, for necessities cause towards his friend, and for the néerenesse of league that ought to be among princes) succor and relieue him with men and monie, thereby to helpe him to the recouerie of his kingdom. Wherfore againe he importunatly requireth the king of aid in this extremitie, since the same was honorable to himselfe, acceptable to God, beneficiall for his realme, and a singular fame among other princes in ioining with them determined to restore him. Which if he might obteine (and that the rather by his furtherance) he did liberallie promise alwaies to stand a most firme friend to the Scots, for whose cause he would spend his crowne and life.)

Thus Perkin Warbecke did vse the matter in such subtill wise, that king Iames either giuing, or séeming to giue credit to his words, after aduise and deliberation had and taken with his councell, receiued him in honorable wise, naming and reputing him duke of Yorke, and therefore promised him to aid him in all that he might. And shortlie after, hée maried Perkin Warbecke marieth the earle of Huntleies daughter. 1495. King Iames inuadeth Northumberland. 1496. him to his neere kinswoman the ladie Katharine, daughter to the earle of Huntleie, and moreouer raised a great armie, speciallie of the borderers, and with the same hauing this pretensed duke in companie with him, inuaded England, burnt towns, spoiled houses, and tooke great booties and rich preics both of goods and prisoners, & allured with the swéetnesse of such spoile and gaine, wasted all the countrie of Northumberland, and had gone further, but that he could perceiue no aid comming in vnto this new found duke, contrarie to such golden promises as he had made, that as soone as they were entered into England, there would flocke vnto him both of the nobilitie and commons, and that in great numbers.

King Iames perceiuing no such matter, thought it better to returne with assured gaine, 1497. Lesle. than to tarie this new sproong dukes doubtfull and vncerteine victorie. And so hauing his King Iames returneth without proffer of battell. A rebellion in Cornewall. people laden and pestered with spoile and prisoners, he drew backe into Scotland. The king of England aduertised hereof, made preparation for the raising of an armie, meaning to send the same against the Scots: but the rebellion of the Cornishmen, which chanced the same time about a taxe leuied then of the people, constreined him to imploie that armie to represse the enterprise of those rebels. Yet neuerthelesse he sent the earle of Surreie to The earle of Surreie sent into the north. the borders, that with the power of the countrie adioining, he might defend the same from the inuasions of the Scots, if they attempted to breake in: and so the earle laie on the borders all that yéere.

King Iames then perceiuing that no maine armie came against him, inuaded eftsoones 1498. The Scots inuade the borders of England. The earle of Surreie raised an armie. The Scots raise their siege. the borders of England, and laied siege to the castell of Norham, sending his light horssemen abroad into Northumberland, and the bishoprike of Durham, where they burned and spoiled all about in the countrie: but hearing that the earle of Surreie had raised an armie, and was comming towards them, they returned to the host lieng before Norham, where king Iames perceiuing he could not win the castell, notwithstanding he had doone great hurt and damage thereto, he raised his siege, retired into his countrie, and left great companies on the borders for defense thereof. And so before the comming of the English armie, king Iames was returned. The earle of Surreie yet (as the English writers affirme) followed into The earle of Surreie went into Scotland. Scotland, and tooke diuerse castels and towers, remaining within the countrie the space of six or seuen dales, and then came backe without battell or anie notable skirmish offered.

About the same time was one Peter Hialas sent ambassador from Ferdinando king of Peter Hialas an ambassador from the king of Spaine. Commissioners met at Melrosse or Jedworth (as some say.) Spaine, to treat as a mediator for the concluding of peace betwixt the kings of England and Scotland, which Hialas trauelled so earnestlie in the matter, that at length it was agréed, that certeine commissioners of both the realmes should méet at Melrosse, where for the king of England, doctor Fox, then bishop of Durham, with this Hialas, and other graue personages, met the Scotish commissioners. After long conference and much talke had, for the conclusion of a generall peace, finallie nothing but a truce might be accorded for certeine A truce concluded for yéeres. The cause why Hialas was sent. yéeres, though Hialas did what he possiblie might, to haue agréed them for all maner of matters, quarreis, demands, and causes, whatsoeuer the same had bene, that a perpetuali peace might haue béene concluded, because he was chieflie sent for that intent.

The king of England required to haue the counterfeit duke of Yorke (otherwise named Perkin Warbecke) deliuered to him: but king Iames (estéeming his honor more than anie An article for Perkin Warbecke. earthlie thing) would in no wise séeme to betraie him that fled to him for succour, and with whome he had coopled one of his owne kinswomen in mariage: but he was contented to couenant, that the same Perkin should be constreined to depart out of Scotland, and not to be further aided by him, or by anie other through his meanes or procurement. The king of Scots to kéepe promise made in the said treatie of peace, and knowing himselfe to be abused by the said Richard, whom he had reputed to be verelie duke of Yorke (although King Iames reasoneth with the counterfeit duke of Yorke. he was not so) called him before his presence, and declared to him the great fauour and good will which he had borne towards him, putting him in remembrance that for his sake he had taken warre in hand against England, and inuaded the countrie in hope of assistance by his friends within the land, where not one resorted to him.

And albeit he had maried his néere kinswoman, yet might he not kéepe longer warre with England for his sake onelie; except he might be sure of some aid through his meanes, whereof he could sée no appéerance. He desired him therefore to withdraw foorth of his realme, either into Flanders to his fathers sister the ladie Margaret; or into some other place where it pleased him to abide, and expect some better time more conueniet for his purpose. The said Richard gaue the king thanks, and obeied his pleasure, departing shortlie after out of Scotland, and sailed into Ireland, from thence to transport into Flanders. But Perkin Warbeck went into Ireland to come into Flanders. finallie making an attempt into England, he was taken prisoner in the abbeie of Beaulien, togither with his wife, whose beautie was such, as king Henrie thought hir a more méet preie for an emperor, than for souldiors, and therefore vsed hir verie honorablie, appointing hir to remaine in the court with the quéene his wife, where she continued so long as the said king liued.

This yéere, the peace being well kept betwixt England and Scotland, the same was neere 1499. The truce like to be broken. at point to haue béene broken; by reason that the Englishmen which laie in garrison within the castell of Norham, did make a fraie with certeine Scotishmen that came riding neere to the castell, as it had beene to haue viewed it. But although they meat no euill, yet diuerse, of the Scotishmen were slaine, and manie wounded and sore hurt; so that king lames hauing information thereof, was sore displeased therewith, thinking and saieng, that there was no more vncerteine thing, than to haue peace with England. And herevpon he sent his herald Merchmount with sharpe and vehement letters vnto the king of England, making great complaint for this iniurie and wrong doone to his subiects, by those within the castell of Norham. But receiuing most reasonable letters for excuse of that which was doone, as well from the king of England himselfe, as from the bishop of Durham owner of the castell, King Iames requireth to talke with the bishop of Durham. he was indifferentlie well appeased & satisfied, so that he required to haue the bishop to come into Scotland vpon safe conduct to common with him, as well for the full quieting of this matter, as for other things which he had to talke with him of.

The bishop by licence of the king his maister, accomplished the Scotish kings request; so that comming into Scotland, he was receiued by him verie honorablie at Melrosse, where (after certeine talke had betwixt them for the appeasing of this last displeasure) the king brake with the bishop for the hauing of the ladie Margaret, eldest daughter to Henrie the King Iames purposeth to be a sutor for mariage in England. seuenth, as then king of England, to be giuen him in mariage: and further declared that he was minded to send his orators vnto hir father the said king Henrie, about the same malter. And forsomuch as he knew that the bishop was one that might doo much with king Henrie, who highlie fauoured him for his singular wisedome and learning, he desired him to be a meane to further his sute, which if it were obteined, he trusted it should highlie redound to the honor & wealth of both the realmes. The bishop considering héerein as much as the king was able to tell him, did not onelie promise to doo all that in him lay, but also incouraged him to send his orators with all spéed, trusting that they should receiue a verie towardlie answer.

King Iames following the bishops aduise, anon after his returne into England, sent Ambassadors sent into England. 1500. A mariage concluded betwixt king Iames and the ladie Margaret. A peace concluded betwixt England & Scotland. certeine persons ambassadors vnto king Henrie, to mooue him to the effect aboue mentioned. These ambassadors were highlie welcomed, and verie well heard, so that to be briefe, their request séemed so agréeable to king Henries mind, that the mariage was shortlie therevpon concluded (but not consummate betwixt the foresaid Iames king of Scotland, and the said ladie Margaret daughter to king Henrie) in the seuentéenth yéere of the said king Henries reigne. At the same time, when this mariage was so agréed vpon, a peace was also concluded betwixt the kings of England and Scotland, for the terme of their two liues. And to auoid that none of either of the said kings subiects that had offended the lawes, should be receiued into anie of their dominions; it was accorded, that no Englishman should come within Scotland, without his princes letters supplicatorie vnto the king of Scots, nor anie Scotishman to come within England, without the like letters from his prince, desiring safe conduct and passeport.

In the yeere next insuing, Robert Blakater the bishop of Glascow, Adam Hepborne the 1501. earle Bothwell, and other noble men of Scotland, were sent in ambassage from king lames vnto the king of England, for the perfecting of the foresaid mariage betwixt king lames, and the ladie Margaret, eldest daughter to king Henrie, which earle by letters of procuracie and mandat, in the name of his maister king lames, affied and handfasted the foresaid ladie Margaret in all solemne wise, according to the maner: which assurance and contract This was in the yéere 1502. thus made, was published at Paules crosse in London, on the day of the conuersion of saint Paule, in reioising whereof Te Deum was soong, and fiers made, with great feasring & banketting throughout that citie. This doone, the ambassadors returned into Scotland, and then afterwards was great preparation made in England for the conueieng of the said ladie into Scotland, and likewise great purueiance there for the receiuing of hir.

On the sixtéenth of Iune, king Henrie tooke his iournie from Richmond, with his daughter 1503. Lesle. the said ladie Margaret, and came to Coliweston, where his mother the countesse of Richmond then laie. And after he had remained there certeine daies in pastime and great solace, he tooke leaue of his daughter, giuing hir his blessing with a fatherlie exhortation, and committed the conueiance of hir into Scotland vnto the earle of Surreie, and others. The earle of Northumberland, as then warden of the marches, was appointed to deliuer hir vpon the borders vnto the king of Scotland. And so this faire ladie was conueied with a great companie of lords, ladies, knights, esquires, and gentlemen, vntill she came to the towne of Berwike, and from thence vnto Lambert church in Lamer moore within Scotland, where she was receiued by the king and all the nobles of that realme, and from the said place of Lamberton church, she was conueied vnto Edenburgh, where the day after hir comming thither, she was maried vnto the said king with great and solemne triumph, to the high The consummation of the mariage betwixt king Iames the fourth, and the ladie Margaret. reioising of all that were present.

And verelie the English lords (as the earle of Surreie and others) which gaue their attendance on the said ladie till the mariage and feast were ended) at their returne home, gaue great praise not onelie to the manhood of the Scots, but also to their maners and heartie interteinment. For aswell the noble men as the ladies and gentlewomen of Scotland at that present, were nothing behind the English lords & ladies in costlie apparell, massie chaines, and other furniture, as well for themselues as their horsses, and made great bankets to the Englishmen, and shewed them such iusts and other pleasant pastimes in honor of the mariage, so well, as after the maner of the countrie could be deuised. By reason of this mariage and aliance, men were in great good hope that perfect peace and sincere amitie should continue betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland a long time after: and verelie during the life of king Henrie the seuenth, no cause of breach was ministred betwixt him and his sonne in law, but that they liued in great loue and amitie.

About this time, the king of Denmarke, through diuision that did rise betwixt him & his The king of Denmarke commeth into Scotland. lords, was constreined to forsake his countrie, and to come for aid into Scotland, where the king receiued him louinglie, and vpon his earnest sute, for that he was both his coosine and confederat, and also the rather, at the contemplation of the French kings request and persuasion, he prepared an armie of ten thousand men, the which vnder the conduct of the earle of Arrane, he sent with the said king of Denmarke to assist him against his aduersaries. The earle of Arrane according to his commission, attending the Danish king into his countrie, He is restored to his kingdome by the earle of Arrane lieutenant to king Iames. restored him to his kingdome and former gouernement, and so leauing him in peaceable possession thereof, returned with his armie againe into Scotland, with great honor both to himselfe, the king, and realme.

Shortlie after was a parlement called, during the which the queene was crowned, and manie good acts and constitutions made, especiallie touching the limiting of places where iustice should be ministred in the Iles and hie lands: whereby it came to passe, that the king was aswell obeied, & his lawes were as duelie obserued and kept by the hie land men, as by The hie land men obedient to lawes. 1505. Lesl. 1504. Fr. Thin. A deuise to get the king monie. those that dwelled in anie part of the low land. The king then being at peace with England, and iustice so ministred amongest his owne subiects, that they liued in great rest and quietnesse, certeine of his councell [as William Elfinstone bishop of Aberden] deuised waies to win the king great profit and gaines, by calling his barons & all those that held anie lands within his realme, to shew their euidences by way of recognition: and if they had not writings to shew, according to the ancient instruments and lawes of the realme sufficient for their warrant, the lands should remaine at the kings pleasure.

But when the king perceiued his people to grudge herewith, and not without cause, as with a thing deuised to disquiet his people and the whole countrie, of his owne curteous & gentle nature he easilie agréed with the possessors of such lands: for the which he purchased great loue amongest his people, & the deuisers of that ordinance wan passing great hatred and malice. This yeare in Maie the king held his court of iustice at Lowder, and remoouing it 1506. to Edenburgh, there continued the same, where the lord of Thorneton was conuicted for killing his wife, and therefore lost his head [at Edenburgh by the kings sentence.] There Fr. Thin. came an ambassador this yeare also from the duke of Gelderland, to renew the league betwixt the king and the said duke. Also an herald came out of France, who brought newes which the king liked well.

This yeare also, the king caused a mightie ship to be made, the which was put foorth into A great ship made. the rode the seuenth of Iulie, and the king sailed himselfe into the Maie, an Iland in the Forth, and was driuen in againe with tempest: but the same ship was after appointed foorth and sent to the sea with sundrie valiant gentlemen in hir, to meet with the Hollanders which had taken and spoiled diuerse Scotish ships, and throwne the merchants and other that were in the same ouer boord. For reuenge whereof, Andrew Barton tooke manie ships of The Hollanders ships taken. the Hollanders and filled certeine pipes with their heads, which he sent vnto the king for a witnesse how he had sped. A star like a comet appeared the tenth of August, giuing great A bright star appeareth in the skie. Anthonie Darcie. light in the night season like to the sun beams. A Frenchman named sir Anthoni Darcie knight, called atterward Le sir de la Bawtie, came through England into Scotland to séeke feats of arms. And comming to the king the foure and twentith of September, the lord Hamilton fought with him right valiantlie, and so as neither of them lost anie péece of honor. This yeare lames prince of Scotland and of the lles was borne in the abbeie of the Holie 1507. Prince Iams is borne. rood house, the one and twentith of Ianuarie; and on the thrée and twentith of the same moneth, he was baptised in the said abbeie church. His godfathers were these, Robert bishop of Glascow, and Patrike earle Bothwell; and the countesse of Huntleie was his godmoother. The quéene, after she was brought to bed, was verie weake and troubled with great sickenesse, so that she lay in great danger: for recouerie of whose helth the king went The king went on pilgrimage. on foot vnto saint Ninians in pilgrimage; and afterwards in Iulie, both the king and the quéene went thither to visit the same saint.

Pope Iulius the second sent an ambassador vnto king lames, declaring him protector and The pope declared king Iames protector of the faith. defendor of the faith, and in signe thereof sent vnto him a purpure diadem or crowne wrought with flowers of gold, togither with a sword, hauing the hilts and skabbert of gold set with pretious stones, which were presented vnto him by the said ambassador, and the abbat of Dunfermling, within the abbeie church of Holie rood house. At that time the peace contracted betwixt the two kings of Scotland and England was there confirmed. The lord of Horsses presented vnto the king. Terueer or Camfire in Zealand (whose ancestors not long ago came foorth of Scotland) sent his messenger the bailiffe of Terueer to the king, who presented vnto him certeine great horsses and other rich presents, in remembrance that he came of the Scotish race; and the king in recompense thereof, sent vnto the said lord his order, and made his ambassador knight, rewarding him at his departing (which was in August) with right honorable gifts.

The whole realme remained in such peace and quietnesse in these daies, that the king Peace and quietnesse in Scotland. rode one day himselfe alone in post from Sterling, by S. lohns towne, and Aberden, vnto Elgin; and reposing a little part of the night in the house of maister Thomas Lesleie then parson of Angus, went to horsse againe, and came to saint Duthois in Rosse, by that time they were readie to go to masse. This was on the one & thirtith day of August. About the latter end of September, the archbishop of saint Andrews, and the earle of Arrane, were sent ambassadors into France. They tooke ship the seuen and twentith of An ambassage into France. September. The seuentéenth of Februarie, lames prince of Scotland departed this life at Striueling, and the bishop of Galloway also, who was appointed to be his gouernor.

* About this time, the K. (to tell you here, as saith Lesleus, a matter that to this day is Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 345. remembred amongest the Romane people with great laughter) created a certeine Italian (with whose wit and pleasant speach he was delighted) abbat of Tungland. This man (being a noble framer of deceipt, & boaster of his wit) did on a time persuade the king, that he was so conuersant in all hidden knowledge of naturall things, and in the secret science of Alchumie, that he could turne all other mettals into pure gold, if anie would beare the charge thereof. But after much time spent thereabout (with long looking of the king, and the nobilitie, to see the effect hereof) there was nothing doone, but that their pursses were emptied, and the vaine man was defamed by the breach of his promise. At length when he was fallen into the hatred and offense of all men, he did (partlie to gather againe an opinion & report of his vaine glorie, and partlie to recouer the kings fauor) giue out a rumor, that he would (by flieng) be in France before the ambassadors (which were sent thither, and had loosed from shore to take their iournie) should come thither. For the performance whereof, he appointed a day for them to méet at Striueling, from whence he would take his flight, and begin his iourie. At what time, and to what place, manie resorted togither, desirous to sée this new bird; amongest whome (for recreations cause) came the king also.

What need manie woords. This man fastening (which he had caused to be made of the fethers of diuerse foules) vnto both his sides, lifted vp himselfe from the castell of Striueling, into the aire to take his iournie: but this deceiuer suddenlie fell headlong to the ground, not able to be holpen by the force of his wings: wherewith the people (vncerteine whether they should rebuke the follie of the man, or pitie his misfortune) flocked about hin:, demanding this winged abbat how he did: to whome he answered, that he had broken the bone of his thigh, and was out of hope to flie anie more hereafter. To conclude, they all were like to die with laughing, to sée him, which before would flie like Icarus, did now lie like Simon Magus, with all his bodie almost broken in péeces. At length when euerie one had laughed their fill, this woorthie abbat, to salue all the matter, referred the defalt of his flieng whoile to his wings, because they were not made of eagles fethers and such like, but onelie of pullens fethers, not méet or accustomed to cut the aire with flight; and which by a certeine inward vertue (working according to the nature of those foules) did draw the fethers downe toward the doonghill (whervpon those birds liue) as the adamant draweth iron.]

The 9 of Maie in the yeare after, the lord D'obinie, and the president of Tholous, came 1508. An ambassage sent vnto the king. from Lewes the French king as ambassadors to declare vnto king lames, that he ment to match his eldest daughter in mariage with Francis de Vallois of Vien, and duke of Angolesme; not withstanding that Charles king of Castile that was after emperor, made sute for her. Because therefore he ment not to conclude anie thing in such a weightie matter without consent of his confederats, of which he estéemed king lames as chiefe, he required him of his aduise and counsell therein; who after aduisement taken, made answer, that albeit the The kings answer. king of France had sufficient counsell about him, yet sith he had desired his aduise, he would friendlie giue the same: which was that he should rather marie his daughter within his owne realme, vnto such as should succéed him, than to bestow hir vpon anie forren prince, sith otherwise some claime might be made in time comming vnto the crowne by such as should match with hir. And so with this answer, the president of Tholous departed, reporting the same at his comming home vnto the French king, who therevpon followed his owne determination therein, confirmed and allowed thus by his confederat the king of Scotland.

The lord D'obignie tooke a sicknesse and died therof at Corstorphin, in the moneth of The lord D'obignie died. lune, and caused his heart to be sent vnto saint Ninians in Galloway; because he had vowed a pilgrimage thither whilest he remained the French kings lieutenant in Naples, where he had atchiued manie high enterprises against his enimies. His name was Bernard Steward, lieutenant of those men of warre which Charles the eight of that name king of France did send with Henrie earle of Richmond into England, when the same earle came against king Richard, whome he vanquished, and thereby got the crowne. And so after manie noble victories and valiant acts atchiued, this lord D'obignie ended his life in his owne countrie of Scotland, where he was borne. This yeare also in Maie and lune, there were kept great iusts and tourneies in Edenburgh, by one calling himselfe the wild knight, who This was the king himselfe. counterfeited the round table.

There were diuerse ambassadors sent foorth this yeare also, as the archdeacon of saint Ambassadors sent. Andrews, and sir Anthonie Darcie into France, and the bishop of Murrey into England. The fiftéenth of lulie, the queene was deliuered of a daughter, which shortlie after she had receiued baptisme, deceassed, and the quéene in that childbed was againe in great perill of death. The bishop of Glascow died this yeare in his iournie to lerusalem, the nine and The archbishop of Glascow died. A bickering. twentith of lulie; lames Beton succéeded him in that see. The thirtith of lulie, there was a great fraie betwixt the lord Maxwell, and the lord Creichton of Sanchar, where the lord Creichton was chased with his companie from Dunfreis, & the lord of Daliell and the yoong lord of Crauthlaie with diuerse other were slaine. The ninetéenth of September was a great An earthquake. earthquake in manie places both of England and Scotland, namelie, the same was perceiued in churches.

The king of England sent a gentleman with horsses trimlie trapped with bards of stéele Horsses sent vnto king Iames. The archdeacon of saint Andrews came out of France. The earle Bothwell died. to be presented to king lames, who thankefullie receiued them, and right honorablie rewarded the messenger. The archdeacon of saint Andrews returned foorth of France in a great ship called the treasuror, which ship was cast away on the coast of England, and the archdeacon, and foure hundred persons that were in hir, were brought to the king of England: but the archdeacon in Nouember following returned home and came to Edenburgh. Adam earle of Bothwell and lord Hales departed this life at Edenburgh the seuentéenth day of October, and eale Patrike succéeded him. Henrie the seuenth king of England, passed out of this wrld the two and twentith of Aprill, in the yeare 1509, and his sonne Henrie 1509. King Henrie the eight succéedeth his father. the eight succéeded him, after whose coronation king lames sent an honorable ambassage of certeine lords and a bishop to congratulat him at his first entrie into the rule of his kingdome, as to the maner in such cases apperteineth.

*At this time, lohn and Andrew Barton (obteining letters of marque from the king Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. cap. 250. against the Portingals) preieng on the borderers of Portingale did take manie of their ships (landed with rich merchandize) which they brought into Scotland. Which kind of prises being often made by the Bartons vnto the Portingals, gaue them cause gréeuouslie to complaine to their king, of the wicked pirasie of the Scots: but neither the king of Portingale with his councell, nor his people with their force, could at anie time suppresse the Bartons (defended with the Scotish letters of marque) but that he would inuade, spoile, & carie awaie the Portingale ships, if he happened vppon anie of them. Touching which, because it shall not séeme to be a manifest iniurie by the Bartons to the other (and not rather a iust cause giuen by the Portingals) we haue here inserted the letters of our king lames the fift (as they be found amongst the records) written to Immanuell king of Portingale for this matter. In which it shall manifestlie appeare, whether the fault were not mostlie in the Portingals or no.

JAMES THE FIFT, KING OF SCOTLAND, TO IMMANUELL THE WOORTHIE KING OF PORTINGALE.
"WOORTHIE king, friend, and deere coosine, certeine yeares past, a Scotish ship laden with merchandize, & loosing from the port of Sluis in Flanders, was inuaded by two armed ships, gouerned by Portingals; whereof, the one was called lohn Vasque, and the other lohn Pret. Which ship (after certeine of hir merchants slaine, manie wounded, manie taken prisoners, and the rest cast into a fisher-bote to be set on land at the next shore) was by them caried into Portingale: all which was doone in the sight of the rest of the Lusitan ships, which at the same time did also loose out of that hauen to passe into Portigale. The full trueth whereof, Charles the duke of Burgognie, and earle of Flanders, vnderstanding (and mocued not so much for the singular iniurie doone to the Scots, as by the breach of the priuilege, & right of his liarborows) did signifie the same (knowne, and found by order of iudgement) to the king of Portingale, admonishing him, that vnlesse he tooke order for such wicked deeds, and for the restitution of the hurt and losse: that he would indeuor, that all the Portingals (which frequented the marts of Flanders) should by sentence of iudgement, satisfie all the damages which the Scots had susteined. But the vntimelie death (of that iust and valiant man) did frustrat all his determination.

"The king also our grandfather (when he had by his letters complained of that iniurie to the king of Portingale, and had not much profited) gaue foorth letters of marque, that is, he gaue authoritie to lohn & Robert Barton, brothers & heires to that lohn, which was maister of that ship so caried away, to recouer so much of the Lusitans. Before the execution wherof, my grandfather died: after which (my father being yet verie yoong) the whole state of the realme did suppose it best to alter nothing in forren causes, vntill he came to full age. At time (being of sufficient yeares) he did forbeare to grant the vse of the said letter of marque, till he had first consulted with the king of Portingale thereabouts. Wherevpon (dispatching an ambassador vnto him) our father also died (before we could againe heare anie answer from thence) leauing me a child not past three yeeres old. For which cause, the gouernor of the kingdome iudged it best (during our minoritie) to defer these letters of marque, vntill we came to riper yeares; which was doone, not without great griefe and complaint of those miserable and poore men.

"Wherevpon, we also for these last two yeares (being now growen to riper age) are mooued aswell to prouide, that other merchants which in that ship of Iulian, haue lost their goods and kinred, as also to permit the heirs of the said Iohn Barton (by way of letter of marque before granted) to haue power giuen them, onelie to take so much recompense of the Portingals. Whereof yet, we thought it meet, that they should not vse any of them, vntill we had first (by this Snadone our esquier) laid before your maiestie the whole order of the matter, which is the iudiciall knowledge of the pirasie, the value of the losse, and the cause of our long silence, assuredlie hoping that you will not doo anie thing, in respect of your humanitie and vprightnes, but that which shall be good and iust. The which, if you deeme is yet to be deferred; we require your woorthinesse to consider, that we cannot forsake our subiects, afflicted with so great iniuries, whome hereafter we refer to the law of all nations, for recouerie of their goods taken away, which thing ought not to seeme to anie man (by anie meanes) to be the violating of friendship, league, or consanguinitie, wherewith we haue been linked. Wherefore, when that same shall happen, we desire your excellencie to take the same in good part (most woorthie coosine and confederat king) to whom I wish long and happie life.

From Edenburgh the day before the Ides of Aprill, in the yeare, 1540."

The king about this time gaue liberall possessions to Robert Borthwike, a notable Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 353. artifier for making of field péeces and other guns; for the which liberalitie, he should make certeine great peeces in the castell of Edenburgh, whereof there are manie yet to be séene in Scotland, with this superscription:

Machina sum Scoto Borthuik fabricata Roberto.)

This summer the king went in pilgrimage vnto saint Duthois in Rosse, and the quéene The king went on pilgrimage. A ship with munition. 1510. remaining at Holie rood house, was brought to bed of a prince, the twentie day of October, the which the third day after was baptised and named Arthur. Two great ships came foorth of France to the king, fraught with guns, speares, and all other kind of munition for warre. Alexander, bastard sonne to the king, newlie made archbishop of saint Andrews, who had béene long in Germanie student there in the schooles with that famous clearke Erasmus The archbishop of saint Andrews. Roterodamus, and had profited verie well, came from Flanders by sea into Scotland, and was ioifullie receiued, because he had bestowed his time so well in vertues and learning.

The lord of Fast castell came ouer with him, who had trauelled through a great part of The lord of Fast castell went into Turkie. christendome: and moreouer passing into Turkie, came to the emperour of Turkie at the citie of Caire, who reteined him in seruice, and gaue him good interteinement, so that he remained with him, till he heard that the liuing of Fast castell was fallen to him by lawfull succession; notwithstanding that when he departed out of Scotland, there were eight seuerall persons before him to succeed one after another, which in the meane time were all deceassed. The 14 of lulie, Arthur prince of Scotland and the lles, departed this life in Prince Arthur decessed. Two scorpions found in Scotland. the castell of Edenburgh. Two scorpions were found, the one quicke and the other dead, in the orchard of the castell of Cragmiller, which thing was reputed for a maruellous great woonder, that anie should be séene within the Ile of Britaine. In the moneth of Septmber, an vniuersall sickenesse reigned through all Scotland, whereof manic died. It was verie Stoope gallant a sicknes. contagious, and they called it Stoope gallant.

There came also a passing faire woman into Scotland about the same time, naming hir selfe Katharine Gordon, wife to Perkin Warbecke, that had named himselfe duke of Yorke, but at length being brought to the king, she confessed what shée was, and so auoided the realme. In which meane while, the ladie Katharine Gordon hir selfe remained in England, and had Katharine Gordon. right good maintenance, so that she liued there verie well and honorablie manie yéeres after. Furthermore, the king vpon the eighth day of Nouember comming from Edenburgh The Trumbils with other are taken by the king. to the water of Rule, tooke diuers misgouerned persons, & brought them to ledworth, where the principall of the Trumbils, with naked swords in their hands, and withs about their necks met him, putting themselues in the kings mercie, which were sent to sundrie places to be kept in ward, with diuerse other of those countrimen, whereby the marches were more quiet afterwards: and from thence the king passed to saint Iohns towne, where iustice were holden the residue of the winter.

The next yéere in the beginning of Maie, the quéene went from Dunfermling toward 1511. An ambassage from the king of England. saint Duthois in Rosse, and was all the way right honorablie vsed aud interteined. About the tenth of Iulie, she returned to Edenburgh, where she found the lord Dacres, and sir Robert Drurie knight come thither as ambassadors from the king of England hir brother, who were honorablie receiued. In the yéere next insuing, in Iune, Andrew Barton being on 1511. Lesle. 1512. the seas to meet the Portingals (against whom he had a letter of marque) sir Edmund Haward lord admerall of England, and the lord Thomas Haward, sonne and heire vnto the earle of Surrey, were appointed by the king of England to go likewise to sea with certeine ships, and met with the said Andrew as he returned homewards néere to the Downes, hauing with him onelie one ship and one barke.

The Englishmen at the first made signe vnto the Scots as though they ment none euill, saue onelie to salute them as friends; but getting within them, they set vpon them right fiercelie, and the Scots for a while did as valiantlie defend themselues, so that manie were slaine on both sides: but in the end the Englishmen got the vpper hand, wounded Andrew Barton Two ships taken by the Englishmen. the chiefe capteine of the Scots, that he died of the hurts that he there receiued, and the ship called the Vnicorne, and the barke called Iennie Peruine, were both taken, with all the Scotishmen that remained aliue in the same, which were had to London, and staied as prisoners in the bishop of Yorke his house for a time, and after sent home into Scotland. King Iames was sore offended with this matter, and therevpon sent an herald with letters, requiring redresse for the slaughter of his people, and restitution of his ships, sith otherwise it might séeme to giue occasion of breach of the peace. But the king of England denied, that the slaughter of a pirat (as he tooke Andrew Barton to be) ought to breake anie bond of peace, yet neuerthelesse he promised to send commissioners to the borders, that should intreat of that matter, and other enormities chanced betweene the two realmes.

* About this time was Alexander Hume the onlie gouernor of all the marches of Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 12. Scotland (which before were accustomed to be diuided into thrée parts) deerelie beloued to king Iames, being a man of a fiercer disposition than was conuenient for the profit of the common-wealth. This man promised to the king (troubled with the cares of warre, and carefull to wipe awaie the reproch of late receiued by the English) that shortlie he and his folowers with their kindred and aliances, would so bring the matter about, that the English should as greatlie lament for their losses, as they had now conceiued ioies of their victories. To the performance whereof, he gathered thrée thousand souldiers, wherewith he entered England, and there spoiled seuen townes before anie succour might come to rescue them: but as he returned backe laden with booties of all kinds, his men (being accustomed to pilfries and robberies) impatient of delaie, presentlie diuided the preie in the host, euerie one departing home to his owne as it was néerest vnto him. Yet Alexander did not disperse such as he might kéepe togither: but assembling as manie of them as would tarie, with a small companie abode the end of all things, alwaies hauing an eie to sée if anie pursute were made after them. But when he perceiued no bodie to follow, and that there was no doubt of danger (passing the time more careles than before) he fell vnwares into the hands of thrée hundred English laid in wait for him, who (taking the opportunitie of the time) did set vpon him and his, and (driuing them into extreme feare) they killed and put to flight all such as they incountered. In which tumult diuers of the Scots were slaine, and two hundred taken, of whome George Hume, brother of the said Alexander (exchanged for Comarch, Heron, and Foord, taken prisoners, and long reteined in Scotland for reuenge of the death of Robert Car) was one, and the chiefest, whereby he departed quietlie into Scotland.)

The French king and the duke of Gelderland, perceiuing that the king of England was The king of France required aid against England. minded through procurement of the pope & others, to make them warres, either of them sent ambassadors into Scotland vnto king Iames, requiring his assistance against England: but king Iames minding to mainteine peace and concord betwixt the parties, sent an King Iames persuadeth to peace. ambassador vnto the king of England, desiring him in brotherlie and most louing wise to liue in peace and quietnesse, and not to make anie wars against his confederat friends, offering himselfe to agrée and compound anie difference that was fallen betwixt the king of England and the said princes. The king of England, who had alreadie sent aid vnto the ladie regent of the low countries against the duke of Gelderland, made such faire answer herevnto as he thought stood with reason, and so dispatched the ambassadour backe againe to his maister, without anie more adoo in that matter, about the which he came for that time.

* Much about these daies, there was called a prouinciall synod of bishops, abbats, and Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 356. other religious persons at Edenburgh, in the monasterie of the Dominicke friers. Baiemanie the popes legat being present. In which by the common voice of them all (although against the will of manie of them) it was ordeined that benefices or priests liuings (whose reuenues did yéerly excéed the value of 40 pounds) should pay a pension of the tenth to the pope; and should giue to the king (when he required) such summes as he liked to demand: which vnto this day is called the Baiomane monie or tax.] Iohn lord Gordon, sonne and heire to Alexander Gordon erle of Huntleie, returned out of France, and was maried vnto The kings bastard maried. [* sic.] the kings bastard daughter, in Nouember following, in this present were* 1512, of whome the house of Huntleie is descended.

Shortlie after came the bishop of Murrey home, hauing béene at Rome, in France, and The bishop of Murrey came home. England, bringing with him from the pope, and the kings of France and England, manie good and pleasant letters: and with him came a clearke of Spaine in ambassage vnto the king. This yéere the eleuenth day of Aprill, the quéene was deliuered of a yoong prince A yong prince borne in Scotland. in the palace of Luithgo, who was shortlie after baptised, and named Iames the fift prince of Scotland; and of the Iles, that after succéeded his father in the kingdome. The lord Dacres, and doctor West came in ambassage from the king of England, and Monsieur de The French king sent to persuade the king of Scots to warre. la Mot came with letters also from the French king, to persuade king Iames to make warre against England, promising him monie, munition, and all other necessarie prouisions of warre. In his waie as he passed the seas towards Scotland, he had drowned thrée English ships, & brought seuen awaie with him vnto Lieth for prises, in the which were but thrée Englishmen left aliue. Shortlie after, maister Iames Ogiluie abbat of Driburgh came foorth of France with letters of the like effect. After this Robert Barton went to the sea, and in Iulie brought into Scotland 14 prises of English men which he had taken.

Fourtéene prises of Englishmen taken. About this season, the lord of Drumweidie was slaine in Edenburgh by two persons, which tooke sanctuarie in Holie rood house, and so escaped. Iohn erle of Atholl deceassed the ninetéenth of September, & Lion Harold king of armes deceassed the first of October. Great misrule was exercised on the borders in this season, and therefore the king assembled Misrule exercised. The quéene brought to bed of a child. 1513. Lesle. The league renewed with France. Purseuants sent into England and France. the lords in Edenburgh for reformation thereof; and while they were there, the quéene was brought to bed of a child, which died shortlie after it was christened. There came a great ship into Scotland, which the king of France had sent vnto the king, laden with artillerie, powder, and wines, & then was the league and band renewed betwixt Scotland and France. The same ship landed at Blacknesse the ninetéenth of Nouember. King Iames sent a purseuant called Vnicorne into France, and another into England called Ilaie, which Ilaie required a safe conduct for an ambassador to be sent from the king his maister vnto the king of England: but this would not be granted.

Vpon the said Ilaies returne, Monsieur de la Mot was sent backe into France, and with him sir Walter Ogiluie, and a messenger whome the pope had sent into Scotland. On the 1513. Lesle. sixtéenth of March next insuing, doctor West came as ambassador into Scotland from the Doctor West sent into Scotland ambassador. king of England, appointing that certeine commissioners should meet on the borders for redresse of all quarrels betwixt the two realmes, in the moneth of Iune next insuing. And this appointment was kept, but no good could be doone, as after shall appeere. The king sent Fornian bishop of Murrey into France, to signifie vnto the French king the 1513. Munition for warre sent out of Denmarke. Prouision sent out of France. message of the said doctor West, and other things. In the moneth of Maie, there came certeine ships out of Denmarke laden with guns, powder, armor, & other kind of munition. Also Monsieur de la Mot landed in the west part of Scotland the sixtéenth of Maie, with foure ships fraught with wine and flower, and returned againe the nineteenth of the some moneth.

The great Odonell of Ireland came to king Iames at Edenburgh, the first of Iune, offering Odonell profred friendship vnto king Iames. his friendship and seruice to him before all other princes, and speciallie against the king of England; whervpon he was thankfullie receiued, honorablie interteined, & richlie rewarded, And so the band of friendship being with him concluded, he returned into his countrie. The king prepared a great nauie of ships, the principall whereof were the Michaell, A nauie sent. Margaret, and James. They made saile towards the sea the twentie seuenth of Iulie; and the king sailed in the Michaell himselfe, till they were past the IIand of Maie, Iames Gordon son to George earle of Huntleie being one of the capteins of the same ship.

The commissioners met on the borders in Iune, according to the appointment: but Commissioners met at the borders. The English men protract the time. because the Englishmen would not consent to make anie redresse or restitution, till the fiftéenth of October next, thinking by that delaie and continuance of time, they should vnderstand the state of their kings procéedings in France, and in the meane time reteine in their hands the Scotishmens goods which they had taken both by sea and land (as the Scotish writers affirme) the king of Scots being thereof aduertised, sent Lion king of armes vnto A king of armes sent vnto K. Henrie of England. king Henrie then lieng at siege before Terwine, with letters of complaint, commanding him that if king Henrie refused to accomplish the contents of his said letters, he should denounce warre vnto him. Wherevpon Lion arriuing in the English armie with his cote of arms on his backe, about the middest of August, desired to speake with the king, and was within a short space by Garter chiefe king at arms of England brought to the kings presence, hauing his nobles and councellors about him, where, with due reuerence, & some good woords first vttered, he deliuered his letters, the tenor whereof insueth.

THE TENOR OF THE KING OF SCOTS LETTERS.

"RIGHT excellent, right high, and mightie prince, our deerest brother and coosine, we commaund vs vnto you in our maist hartie manner, and receiued fra Raff Heraulde your letters, quhar vntill ye approue and allow the doings of your commissiouners latelie being with ours at the borders of bathe the realmes, for making of redresse quhilk is thought to you and your councell should be continuet and delaet to the fifteenth day of October. Als ye write slaars by see aught not compeere personallie, but by their attourneys. And in your letters with our herauld Ilaie, ye ascertaine vs ye will naught enter in the treux taken betwixt the maist christian king and your father of Aragoun, because ye and others of the hale liege nether should nor may take peace, treux, nor abstinence of warre with your common enimie, without consent of all the confederats. And that the emperor, king of Aragoun, yea and euery of you be bounded to make actuall warre this instant sommer against your common enimy. And that so to do is concluded and openlie sworne in Paules kirke at London, vpon S. Markes day last by past. And farther haue denied safe conduct vpon our requests that a seruitor of ours might haue resorted to your presence (as our herauld Ilaie reports.)

"Right excellent, right high, and mightie prince, our deerest brother and cousing, the said meeting of our and your commissiouners at the borders, was peremptorily appointed betwixt you and vs after diuerse diets, for reformatioun before continuet to the commissiouners meeting, to effect that due redresse suld haue beene made at the said meeting, like as for our part our commissioners offred to haue made that time. And for your part, no malefactor was then arrestet to the said diet. And to glose the same, ye now write that slaars by see need not compeere personallie, but by their attourneis, quhilk is again law of God and man. And gef in criminall action all slaars suld naught compeere personallie, na punitioun suld follow for slaughter, and then vane it were to seke farther meetings or redresse. And hereby apperes (as the deed shewes) that ye will nouther keepe gud waies of iustice and equitie nor kindnes with vs.

"The great wrongs and vnkindnes done before to vs and our leiges we ponderate, quhilk we haue suffred this long time in vpbearing, mainswering, noundressing of attemptates, so as the bill of the taken of inhalding of bastard Heron and his complices in your contrie, quha slue our wardan vnder trust of daies of meeting for iustice, & thereof was filat & ordeint to be deliuerd, in slaing our liege noblemen, vnder color by your folks, in taking of vthers out of our realme prisonet and chanet by the crags in your cuntrie, withhalding of our wiues legacie promist in your diuerse letters for despite of vs, slaughter of Androw Barton by your awn commaund, quha than had naught offended to you nor your lieges vnredrest, and breaking of the amity in that behalfe by your deed, and withhalding of our ships and artillarie to your vse.

"Quharvpon, eft our diuerse requisitions at your wardens, commissiouners, ambassadors, & your selfe, ye wrate and als shew by vthers vnto vs, that full redresse suld be made at the said meeting of commissiouners, and sa were in hope of reformatioun, or at the lest ye for our sake wald haue desisted fra inuasioun of our friendes and cousings within their awne countries that haue naught offended at you, as we first required you, in fauour of our tender cousing the duke of Gelder, quham to destroy and disinherit ye sent your folks, and dud what was in them. And right sa we lately desired for our brother & cousing the maist christen king of France, quham ye haue caused to tine his countrie of Millaine, and now inuades his selfe, quha is with vs in second degree of blude, and hase bene vnto you kind without offense, and more kindar than to vs.

"Notwithstanding, in defense of his person we mon take part, and thereto ye because of vthers, haue giuen occasion to vs and to our lieges in time by past, nouther doing iustlie nor kindlie toward vs, proceeding alwaies to the vtter destructioun of our neerest friendes, quha mon doo for vs quhan it shall be necessarie ; in euill example that ye will hereafter be better vnto vs, quham ye lightlie fauour, manifestlie wranged your sister for our sake incontrarie our writs : and saieng to our herauld that we giue you faire wordes, and thinke the cōtrarie. Indeed such it is, we gaue you words as ye dud vs, trusting that ye suld haue emended to vs, or worthin kinder to our frends for our sakes, and suld naughtight haue stopped our seruitors passage to labour peax, that they mought as the papes halines exhorted vs by his breuites to do. And therevpon we were contented to haue ouerseene our harmes, and to haue remitted the same, though vther informatioun was made to our halie father pape Iulie, by the cardinall of Yorke, your ambassador.

"And sen you haue now put vs fra our gude beleue through the premisses, and speciallie in denieng of safe conduct to our seruants, to resort to your presence, as your ambassador doctor West instantlie desired we suld sende one of our councell vnto you vpon great matters, and appointing of differences debatable betwixt you and vs, furthering of peax if we might, betwixt the most christen king & you, we neuer hard to this purpose safe conduct denied betwixt Infidels. Herefore we write to you this time at length plainesse of our mind, that we require and desire you to desist fra farther inuasioun and vtter destructioun of our brother and cousing the maist christen king, to quham by all confederatioun, blude and alie, and also by new band qubilk you haue compelled vs latelie to take through your iniuries & harmes with out remedie done dailie vnto vs, our lieges and subiects, we are bounden and oblist for mutuall defense ilk of vthers, like as ye & your confederates be oblist for mutuall inuasiouns and actuall warre.

"Certifieng you, we will take part in defense of our brother and cousing the maist christen king, and will do what thing we truist may cause you to desist fra pursute of him, and for deuit and postponit iustice to our lieges we mon giue letters of marque according to the amitie betwixt you and vs, quharto ye haue had little regard in time by past, as we haue ordaint our herauld the bearer heereof to say, gif it like you to heare him and gif him credence. Right excellent, right hie & mightie prince our deerest brother and cousing, the Trinitie haue you in keeping.

Geuen vnder our signet at Edenburgh the twentie sixt day of Iulie."

King Henrie hauing read the letter, and considered thereof with aduise of his The herald is sent for. councell, sent for the herald againe, and told him that he had read and well perceiued the contents of the letters which he had deliuered to him, and would make him answer with condition, that he would promise to declare the same to his maister. Wherevnto Lion The heralds answer. made this answer: "Sir, I am his naturall subiect, and he is my naturall lord, and what he commandeth me to say, I may boldlie say with fauour; but the commandements of others I may not, nor dare say vnto my souereigne lord. But your letters sent by me, may declare your maisters pleasure, albeit your answer requireth dooings and not saiengs, that is, that you immediatlie should returne home." Then said the king : "I will returne at my pleasure to your damage, and not at thy maisters summons." And héerewith he caused an answer to be written to the king of Scots, in forme as followeth.

KING HENRIE HIS ANSWER.

"RIGHT excellent, right high & mightie prince, &c. We haue receiued your writing dated at Edenburgh the twentie sixt day of Iulie, by your herald Lion this bearer, wherein after rehearsall and accumulation of manie surmised iniuries, griefs and dangers doon by vs and our subiects to you and your lieges, the specialties whereof were superfluous to rehearse, remembring that to them and euerie of them in effect reasonable answer founded vpon law and conscience, hath tofore beene made to you & your councell; ye not onelie require vs to desist from further inuasion and vtter destruction of your brother and coosine the French king, but also certifie vs that you will take part in defense of the said king, and that thing which ye trust may rather cause vs to desist from pursute of him, with manie contriued occasions and communications by you causelesse sought & imagined, sounding to the breach of the perpetuall peace passed, concluded, and sworne betwixt you and vs, of which your imagined quarrels causelesse deuised to breake to vs, contrarie to your oth promised, all honor & kindnesse, we can not maruell; considering the ancient accustomed manners of your progenitors, which neuer kept longer faith & promise than pleased them.

"Howbeit, if the loue and dread of God, nighnesse of bloud, honor of the world, law and reason had bound you, we suppose ye would neuer haue so farre proceeded, speciallie in our absence. Wherein the pope and all princes christened may well note in you dishonorable demeanour, when ye lieng in wait, seeke the waies to doo that in our said absence, which ye would haue beene well aduised to attempt, we being within our realme and present. And for euident approbation heereof, we need none other proofes nor witnesses, but your owne writings heeretofore to vs sent, we being within our realme, wherein ye neuer made mention of taking part with our enimie the French king, but passed the time with vs till after our departure from our said realme. And now percase ye supposing vs so farre from our said realme, to be destitute of defense against your inuasions, haue vttered the old rancour of your mind, which in couert manner ye haue long kept secret.

"Neuerthelesse, we remembring the brittlenes of your promise, & suspecting though not wholie beleeuing so much vnstedfastnesse, thought it verie expedient and necessarie to put our said realme in a readines for resisting of your said enterprises, hauing firme trust in our Lord God, and the righteousnesse of our cause, with the assistance of our confederats & alies, we shall be able to resist the malice of schismatiks and their adherents, being by the generall councell expreslie excommunicate and interdicted; trusting also in time conuenient to remember our friends, and requite you and our enimies, which by such vnnaturall demeanor haue giuen sufficient cause to the disherison of you and your posteritie for euer, from the possibilitie that ye thinke to haue to the realme, which ye now attempt to inuade.

"And if the example of the king of Nauarre, being excluded from his realme for assistance giuen to the French king, can not restraine you from this vnnaturall dealing, we suppose ye shall haue like assistance of the French king, as the king of Nauarre hath now, who is a king without a realme, & so the French king peaceablie suffereth him to continue; wherevnto good regard would be taken. And like as we heretofore touched in this our writing, we need not to make anie further answer to the manifold griefs by you surmised in your letter: forsomuch as if anie law or reason could haue remooued you from your sensuall opinions, ye haue beene manie and oftentimes suficientlie answered to the same: except onelie to the pretended greefs touching the denieng of our safe conduct to your ambassador last sent vnto vs.

"Whervnto we make this answer, that we had granted the said safe conduct ; and if your herald would haue taken the same with him, like as he hath beene accustomed to solicit safe conducts for merchants and others heeretofore, ye might as soone haue had that, as anie other: for we neuer denied safe conduct to anie your lieges to come vnto vs and no further to passe, but we see well, like as your said herald had hertofore made sinister report contrarie to truth, so hath he doone now in this case, as it is manifest and open. Finallie, as touching your requisition to desist from further attempting against our enimie the French king, we know you for no competent iudge of so high authoritie to require vs in that behalfe. Wherfore (God willing) we purpose with the aid and assistance of our confederats and alies to prosecute the same; and as ye doo to vs and our realme, so it shall be remembred and acquited heereafter by the helpe of our Lord & our patrone saint George, who right excellent, right high and mightie prince, &c.

Dated vnder our signet in our campe before Tirwine, the twelfth day of August."

This letter being deliuered vnto the Scotish herald, he departed with the same into Flanders, there to haue taken ship: but for want of readie passage he staied, and returned not into Scotland till Flodden field was fought, and the king slaine. For king Iames perceiuing all the Englishmens dooings to tend vnto war rather than to peace, hauing taken order for the assembling of his people, immediatlie after he had sent foorth his herald with commandement to denounce the warre, he determined to inuade the English confines, and first before his maine force was come togither, the lord Humes that was lord chamberlaine and warden of Scotland, the thirtéenth day of August, hearing that the Englishmen had fetched Englishmen fetched a bootie in Scotland. a bootie within the Scotish ground, assembled a power, & followed them into Northumberland, but yer he could returne he was forelaid [in Broome house, or Broome field] by the Englishmen, which breaking out of their ambushes, put the Scotishmen to the woorse, and of them tooke and slue manie.

* These wars thus begun, the king determined to go to his armie (as it séemeth) not Fr. Thin. yet fullie assembled. Wherevpon comming to Limuch, he went to the church to heare euensong; as the maner was. To whome, after he had entered the chappell, there came Buchan. lib. 13. an old man. whose heare was somewhat yellowish red, hanging downe vpon his shoulders, his forehead high with baldnesse, bare headed, hauing his bodie couered with a biewish garment, girded with white, and verie reuerent in his countenance. This man séeking the king, passed through the companie standing there, and drew neere to the king. Who being now come vnto him (and with a certeine rude behauiour, leaning vpon the seat wherein the king was placed) in homelie sort saied vnto him: "King Iames sent vnto thée, to giue thee admonishment that thou hasten not forward to the place which thou hast determined: which warning if thou doost despise, it shall succeed ill with thée, and with all such as shall attend vpon thée. Further I am commanded to giue thée intelligence before hand, that thou eschue the familiaritie, custome, or counsell of women, and if thou dooest otherwise, it shall succéed to thy hurt and reproch." After which thus spoken, he mingled himselfe with the other companie, neither could after be found (the euensong being ended) when he was sought for by the king: for he was neuer séene after that he had thus deliuered his message. Which séemed the more strange, because that manie which stood néere him (marking all his order, and desirous to haue heard more things from him) could not perceiue his departure; amongest which persons (of those that meant to haue asked him further questions) Dauid Lindseie (a man of approoued credit and vertue, verie well learned, and whose life was far estranged from lieng and falshood) was one, who told this same to me (saith Buchanan) as a thing most certeine; or else I would haue ouerpassed it as a fable caried about by common report.]

In the meane time was the whole power of Scotland assembled, with the which king Iames King Iames approched néere vnto England with his power. approching to the borders, and nothing abashed with the euill lucke thus at the beginning chanced to his people, purposed with greater aduantage of victorie to recouer that detriment; and herevpon he made such hast, that he would not staie for the whole power of his realme, which was in preparing to come forward vnto him; but comming to the The king of Scots made too much hast. borders, he passed ouer the water of Twéed the two and twentith of August, and entered into England, lodging that night at Wesilham néere to the riuer of Tuisell, and the next day laid siege vnto the castell of Norham, and within short space wan the Braies, ouerthrew the Norham. The Braies. Barnckine. Barnekine, & slue diuerse within the castell, so that the capteine and such as had charge within it, desired the king to delaie the siege, while they might send to the earle of Surreie alreadie come with an armie into the north parts, couenanting if they were not rescued by the ninetéenth day of that moneth, they should deliuer the castell vnto the king. This was granted: and because none came within the time to the rescue, the castell was deliuered at the appointed day; a great part of it was ouerthrowne and beaten downe. After this he wan the castels of Fourd and Etell, & diuerse other places of strength, of which, Fourd and Etell taken. part were ouerthrowne. He also tooke manie prisoners, and sent them away into Scotland, and diuerse he assured: and thus he abode an eightéene daies within England, till two parts of his armie were scaled & departed home from him, which they did vpon this occasion.

* The king was determined & persuaded to haue besieged Berwike (beyond which he Fr. Thin. was now passed) since the same alone was more honor (than all the other places besides) if they wan it; the taking whereof they supposed not to be verie hard, because they were Buchan. li. 13. sure that the towne and castell were vnfurnished of all things for the defense thereof. Wherevpon, the king (deeming nothing too hard for his armie, especiallie, since the English were set on woorke as much as they might in the French wars) being nourished in that vanitie (by his flattering courtiers) did leaue the same vndoone at this time, meaning in his returne easilie to haue obteined it. But as they were yet at Foord, a herald of the English came vnto them, requiring that they would appoint a day and place, where and when both the armies might ioine in battell. Wherevpon, there was a councell called amongest the Scots, in which it was agréed by the greater part, that the Scots should returne home into their countrie, least with so small a companie they might hazard the state of the whole countrie; especiallie, since that they had alreadie sufficientlie obteined fame, glorie and riches, and to the vttermost satisfied the band of amitie with the French; for there was no iust cause, why they for number (so few) and for trauell (in ouerthrowing so manie forts) so much weakened, should now againe be laid open to so great a multitude of the English dailie increasing with succors. For it was said at that time; that Thomas Haward brought into the field (besides the rest of his armie) 6000 of chosen and valiant souldiers from the English campe (in France) before Turweine.

To which persuasion (to make the matter more strange) it was further added, that if the king did depart; the English host of necessitie must be dissolued, and could not that yeare againe be repared, because their souldiers were fet from the furthest parts of the realme; and that if the king would needs fight, that he then should doo it in his owne realme, kéeping the time & place in his power alwaies to be appointed. But when the French ambassador (and certeine other, fed with the French pensions) labored to the contrarie; the king being by nature fierce, and gréedie of warre, was easilie persuaded to abide his enimie in that place. In the meane time, when the English came not foorth (at the day appointed to them by the herald, which before had béene with the Scots) the noblemen of Scotland, taking occasion thereof, did afresh go to the king, declaring that their not comming to battell was onelie a traine and deceipt, deferring the matter from day to day, to the end that their force might be increased, and the Scots diminished.

Wherefore said they, we should vse the like policie against them. For since they haue not attended the time prescribed vnto them, it is no shame to the Scots to returne into their countrie without battell, or to fight within their owne limits. Of both which, the surer counsell were to follow the first; which if it be not liked, then is there good occasion offered to execute the other. For since the riuer of Till (hauing hie banks) is not passable, but at certeine miles hence (except it be by a bridge) some few may there resist a great multitude. Besides which, when a part of the English armie is passed the bridge, the same bridge maie easilie (by engins placed therefore) be cut in sunder; so that there shall not be passage for anie more: by means whereof, the one part of them shall be subdued on the one side of this riuer, before that anie aid can come vnto them from the other banke. The king liked neither of these deuises and persuasions; but answered, that he would not suffer the English to depart (vnfoughten with) although there were an 100000 against him. At which rash answer, the whole nobilitie was gréeuouslie offended.

Wherevpon Archembald Dowglas earle of Angus (which farre excelled all the others both in yéeres and authoritie) laboured to turne the kings mind with all gentle persuasions, and began to make a more ample discourse vpon the two former counsels giuen by the nobilitie. For he shewed that the king had fullie satisfied the request of the French, in that he had now turned the greatest part of the English armie before bent against the French, against himselfe and his owne people; and had so wrought, that those great armies should neither hurt France nor doo anie iniurie vnto the Scots, sith they were not able long to remaine in campe in those cold places, and in a barren countrie vnfurnished of all things (by the calamities of the last warres) and in which there was no corne; and if there were, it could not be ripened (the winter comming on so fast) in those northerne parts of the realme.

And where the French ambassador dooth so much vrge vs vnto the battell, I suppose that the same should not seeme either new or strange vnto vs, that a strange man (which dooth not respect the common euill of the realme, but the priuat commoditie of his owne nation) be ouer lauish in powring out the bloud of other men. Besides which, his request is ouer impudent, to demand of the Scots that which the French king (a man of singular experience and wisedome) dooth not iudge conuenient for his owne kingdome or dignitie, if we be ouerthrowne. Neither should the losse of his host séeme more-light vnto him (although we are few in number) bicause that all they of Scotland (which excell in force, authoritie or counsell) are assembled here togither, who being slaine, the rest of the realme would soone be a preie to the victor. What ? Is it more safe for vs, and more profitable to the eschewing of all danger, for him to fight at this present ? No trulie. For if Lewes doo suppose, that the English (by imagined meanes) may be either made needie of monie, or else weried by delaie; what can be doone more necessarie for the present state of things, than to compell the enimie to diuide his armie, to the end that we may ease the weight of warre against the French by one part of the host to be sent against vs, and still to hold them plaie as it were alwaies to kéepe them readie to set vpon vs, & by remoouing to giue them cause to folow vs? For so I suppose shall the glorie and shew (which these men I feare rather valiant in words than déeds, doo with their rashnesse so much pretend) be fullie answered. For what can happen more honorable to the king, than that we (by the ouerthrow of so manie castels, by the spoile of so manie countries with sword and fire, and by the driuing home of so great booties and preies) haue doone that iniurie to them, as that their countrie shall not by the peace of manie yéeres recouer hir former estate ? What greater profit may we looke for by warres than in so great tumult of warres, with great praise and honor to vs, and with shame and reproch to our enimies, to obteine quiet, ioined with gaine and glorie for the refreshing of our selues ? Which kind of victorie (that is gotten more by words than by swords) chieflie belongeth to men, and of men speciallie to the leaders and capteins, as such a glorie whereof the common souldiors may not challenge anie part.

Which being thus spoken by earle Dowglas, although all they which were present séemed (by their countenance) to giue consent thereto: yet the king (who had with other bound himselfe to fight with the English) receiued these counsels with contrarie eares; and in heat commanded Dowglas to depart home, if he were afraid of the enimie. Wherevpon he (conceiuing some vnkindnesse, and inwardlie beholding wherevnto all these things would come by the kings rashnesse) foorthwith burst out in teares. After which (as soone as he could settle himselfe thereto) he spake these few words. "If (said he) my former life did not cleare me from the reproch of a coward, I know not with what reason or persuasion I might cleare or defend my selfe. For trulie so long as this my bodie was able to susteine anie labor, I neuer spared to spend the same in the defense of my countries helpe, and my souereignes honor. But since I sée their eares to exclude my counsell (which is the onelie thing wherewith I can now be profitable) I here leaue my two sonnes (who next vnto my countrie are most deare to me) and the rest of my kinred (of whom I greatlie account) as a certeine pledge of the truth and loue of my mind towards thée, and the common helpe of my countrie. And I pray God that he make this feare of mine to be false, and that I may rather be counted a lieng prophet, than behold those things which I feare will happen vnto vs." Which words when the Dowglas had said to the king, he departed thence with his companie. The rest of the nobilitie (bicause they saw they could not draw the king to their mind) tooke that place for battell which was next vnto them, to the end (séeing they were much inferior in number to their enimies, for there were 26000 fighting men in the English armie, as it was knowne by the scouts) to defend themselues with the benefit of the place, and therevpon got the hill next vnto their campe.)

In which meane time, the earle of Surrie, lieutenant to the king of England, hauing The power of the north countrie raised. The English campe in sight of the Scotish campe. raised all the power of the north parts of England, came with the same towards the place where he heard that king Iames was incamped, and approching within thrée miles of the Scotish campe in full sight of the Scotishmen, pitcht downe his tents, and incamped with his whole armie. Although king Iames had great desire to fight with his enimies thus lodged in full view of his campe; yet bicause he was incamped in a place of great aduantage, so as the enimies could not approch to fight with him, but with great losse and danger to cast themselues away, he thought good to kéepe his ground, speciallie bicause all those of the King Iames was minded to kéepe his ground. nobilitie, who were knowne to be of experience, did not hold with their aduise that counselled him to giue battell.

At what time the earle of Surrie had sent an officer at armes vnto him, requiring him to Paulus Iouius. come foorth of his strength vnto some indifferent ground, where he would be readie to incounter him, & namelie the earle of Huntleie, a man for his high valiancie ioined with The earle of Huntleie his counsell. Fr. Thin. wisedome and policie, had in most reputation of all the residue, affirmed in plaine words [besides that which Dowglasse had before said] that nothing could be either more fond or foolish, than to fight at pleasure of the enimie, and to set all on a maine chance at his will and appointment, and therfore it should be good for them to remaine there in place of aduantage, and with prolonging the time to trifle with the enimie, in whose campe there was alreadie His persuasions. great scarsitie of vittels, neither was it possible that they should be vittelled from the inner parts of the realme, by reason of the cumbersome waies for cariage to passe now after such abundance of continuall raine as of late was fallen, and not like as yet to ceasse, so that in sitting still and attempting nothing rashlie without aduisement, the king should haue his enimies at his pleasure, as vanquished without stroke striken through disaduantage of the place, and lacke of vittels to susteine their languishing bodies.

And suerlie beside the want of vittels, the foule and euill weather sore annoied both Fonle weather. parties; for there had not beene one faire day, no scarse one houre of faire weather of all the time the Scotish armie had lien within England, but great cold, wind & raine, which had not onelie caused manie of the Scots to returne home, but also sore vexed the Englishmen, as well in their iournie thitherwards, as also while they lay in campe against the Scotish armie. There was sending of messengers betwixt them to and fro, and the king had sent his quarell in writing vnto the earle of Surrie by his herald Ilaie the night before the battell, conteining as followeth.


¶ Thus was the king verie desirous to trie the matter by battell, although the wisest sort of his nobles wished not that he should doo anie thing ouer rashlie.

There chanced also manie things taken (as yée would say) for warnings of some great Prodigious chances. mischance to follow, which though some reputed but as vaine and casuall haps; yet the impression of them bred a certeine religious feare and new terror in his heart. For as he was in councell with his lords, to vnderstand their opinions touching the order of his battels, there was an hare start amongst them, which hauing a thousand arrowes, daggers, and An hare. other kind of things bestowed at hir, with great noise and showting, yet she escaped from them all safe and without hurt. The same night also, mise had gnawne in sunder the The buckle leather of his helmet gnawn with mise. The cloth of his tent of bloodie colour. buckle and leather of his helmet wherewith he should fasten the same to his hed. And moreouer, the cloth or veile of his inner tent (as is said) about the breake of the day, appeared as though the deawie moisture thereof had béene of a bloudie colour.

Herevpon the king kéeping himselfe within his tent, the earle of Surrie constreined by necessitie to séeke all waies whereby to traine the king downe from the hill where he was lodged, remooued his campe towards the hils of Floddon, where the king of Scots laie The English campe remooued by the earle. incamped: and on the ninth day of September passed the water of Till at Twisell bridge; the rereward going ouer at Milford, putting themselues as néere as they could betwixt the Scotish campe and Scotland. King Iames perceiuing the Englishmen to passe the water, iudged that they had ment to win an hill that laie betwixt them and his campe, and therefore to preuent them, he caused his field to be raised, and fier to be set on the litter & cabins which they had made of boughs, and so with all spéed remooued to the other hill, being The Scots campe remcoued also. gotten thither yer the English men could perceiue him to be remooued out of his former lodgings, bicause the smoke of the fiers which the Scots had made, couered all the countrie betwixt the two armies.

In the meane while were the Englishmen aduanced to the foot of Floddon hill, hauing Aduantage gotten by the ground. thereby gotten double aduantage: for the Scotish ordinance could not much annoie them in marching vpwards vnder the leuill thereof, and they againe might gall the Scots in shooting off at them, as they came downewards vpon them. For king Iames hauing disappointed King Iames his practise. the Englishmen of the hill, thought verelie it should be an easie matter for him to ouerthrow them, which being put beside the place where they intended (as he thought) to haue camped, would neuer abide the countenance of his puissant armie, if he might atteine to ioine with them. Therefore the Scotish armie [after they had appointed the same into Fr. Thin. thrée wards, whereof (as saith Lesleus) the earle of Huntleie and the lord Hume led the right wing, the left had the earle of Crawford and Montrosse; and the king himselfe kept the middle ward, with the earles of Argile aud Lennox] making downwards, incountered with the English host néere to the foot of the mounteine called Branxton, and first sir Sir Edmund Haward was fiercelie assailed. Edmund Haward leading one of the out wings of the English armie, hauing with him thrée thousand men, being fiercelie assailed by the Scots on foot, hauing speares and long weapons, and also by certeine horssemen, was in the end discomfited, and his people beaten downe and put to flight, so that being of them forsaken, he was constreined to follow. But yet he and diuerse other which escaped, ioined themselues to the next battell as well as they might. This so prosperous a beginning, who would thinke should haue turned to the losse A good beginning had an euill ending. King Iames deceiued himselfe and alighted from his horsse. of the Scots part, and aduancement of the English side. But so it came to passe, for king Iames no sooner saw that wing of the English host ouerthrowne and discomfited, but that he déemed how all the whole power of the Englishmen had béene fléeing away: and therefore alighting beside his horsse, and commanding those that were about him to follow, prepared himselfe to pursue the chase.

His capteins did what they could by words to remooue him from his purpose, declaring The capteins good counsell not regarded. to him the dutie of a prince: which is not rashlie to enter the fight, but to prouide and sée that euerie thing be doone in order: and whereas comming to trie the matter by hand blowes, he can doo no more than another man; yet keeping his place as apperteineth to his person, he may be woorth manie thousands of other. The king nothing mooued with these exhortations, breaking his arraie of battell, with a companie of noble men, rushed The kings hardinesse marred all. forward into the fore ward, where accomplishing the office of a footman, he found the Englishmen not fléeing, but manfullie standing at resistance, so that there was a right hard incounter, and manie arrowes shot on euerie side, and great hurt doone therewith.

At length sir Edward Stanlie with the reregard of the Englishmen came fiercelie downe Sir Edward Stanlie inuaded the backe of the reregard. from the hill of Branxton, vpon the backe of the kings armie, wherein they fought cruellie on both parts for a long space; but at length the victorie inclined to the Englishmen. For the king himselfe was there beaten downe and slaine, with all that whole battell which King Iames slaine. The lord chamberlaine stood still. first entered the fight. The other part of the Scotish host, whereof Alexander Hume lord chamberlaine had the gouernance, although he saw where the other Scotishmen were in danger, and closed in on euerie side, yet would he not once remooue one foot forward out of the place (where he stood) to aid them. Moreouer, the lacke of discretion in the king, which would needs run vpon his owne death, amazed the minds of all men, and brought them into such perplexitie, that they knew not what to doo; but looked one vpon another without stirring to or fro, as those that were in despaire now after the death of their king to recouer the victorie, which by so strange a chance séemed as it were slipped out of their hands.

Howbeit, the lord chamberlaine bare the most blame, for that he did not cause a new The lord chamberlaine beareth the blame. onset to be giuen. But it happened well for the Englishmen: for if king Iames had ordered himself wiselie in this battell, or that after he was slaine, a new furie had mooued the Scots to haue renewed the fight in reuenge of the kings death, as had beene expedient, the victorie vndoubtedlie had béene theirs (as was thought by men of great vnderstanding.) Wherevpon the Englishmen remembring how manifestlie Gods goodnesse appeared towards The English men thanked God for this noble victorie. them in this battell, confessed themselues long after bound to God for their safetie and deliucrance out of that present danger. The fight began about foure of the clocke in the after noone, and continued thrée houres, in the which fiftéene thousand men were slaine on 5000. Buchan. 15000 men slaine. both parts: and of that number a third part at the least was of Englishmen (as was crediblie reported) but (as our English writers affirme) there died of Englishmen not past fiftéene hundred.

But yet the Scotishmen hold, that there died more of the Englishmen than of their nation at this field, and that manie thought it was not the bodie of king Iames which the Englishmen found in the field, and tooke it for his; but rather an other Scotish mans corps, called the lard of Bonehard, who was also slaine there. And it was affirmed by sundrie, that the king was seene the same night aliue at Kelso: and so it was commonlie thought that he was liuing long after, and that he passed the seas into other countries, namelie to Ierusalem to visit the holie sepulchre, and so to driue foorth the residue of his daies, in dooing penance for his former passed offenses: but he appeared not in Scotland after as king, no more than Charles duke of Burgognie did appeare in his countries after the battell of Nancie, although his people had the like vaine opinion that he escaped from that discomfiture aliue.

But now to returne to the truth of the matter where we left. In the night folowing after this terrible battell, the residue of the Scotish armie returned homewards the same way they The Scotish men returne home againe. They were reuiled of their owne people. came, wasting and spoiling the English borders as they passed. At their comming home, euerie man spake euill of them, for that as cowards and naughtie persons, they neither sought to reuenge the death of their noble king, nor yet to succour their fellowes that were beaten downe and slaine before their faces. But namelie Alexander Hume lord chamberlaine was reprooued, as cause of all that mischiefe, which behaued himselfe not as a capteine, but as a traitor or enimie to his countrie. * Vpon the honor of this victorie, Thomas Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 13. Haward earle of Surrie (as a note of the conquest) gaue to his seruants this cognisance (to weare on their left arme) which was a white lion (the beast which he before bare as the proper ensigne of that house) standing ouer a red lion (the peculiar note of the kingdome of Scotland) and tearing the same red lion with his pawes.]

Thus haue you heard how through rashnesse and lacke of skilfull order, the Scotish armie was ouercome, and that worthie prince king Iames the fourth brought to his fatall end, on the ninth day of September, in the twentie and fift yéere of his reigne, and thirtie and ninth of his age, which was in the yéere from the incarnation 1513. For his politike gouernment and due administration of iustice, which he exercised during the time of his reigne, hée deserued to be numbred amongest the best princes that euer reigned ouer the Scotish nation. All theft, reiffe, murther, and robberie ceassed in his daies, by such rigorous The sauage people reformed themselues. execution of lawes penall as he caused to be exercised through all the bounds of Scotland: insomuch that the sauage people of the out Iles sorted themselues through terror and dread of due punishment to liue after the order of lawes and iustice, where otherwise of themselues they are naturallie inclined to sedition, & disquieting of each other. To conclude, men were in great hope, that if it had pleased the hie determinate power of almightie God to haue lent to him longer life, he should haue brought the realme of Scotland to such a flourishing estate, as the like in none of his predecessors times was yet euer heard of.

There died with him in that infortunate battell, of noble men (beside others of the meaner sort) the archbishop of saint Andrewes his bastard sonne, the bishop of the Iles: the abbats of Inchaffreie and Kilwennie: the earles of Montrosse, Crawford, Argile, Lennox, Glencar, Cathnes, Castelles, Bothwell; Arrell high constable of Scotland, Addell, Atholl, and Morton: the lords Louet, Forbois, Elueston, Roos, Inderbie, Saintcleare, Maxwell, and his thrée brethren, Daunlie, Sempill, Borthicke, Bogonie, Arskill, Blackater, and Cowin: knights and gentlemen of name, sir Iohn Dowglas, Cuthbert Hume of Fast castell, sir Alexander Seton, sir Dauie, maister Iohn Grant, sir Dunkin Cawfield, sir Sander Lowder, sir George Lowder, maister Marshall, maister Key, maister Ellot, maister Cawell clerke of the chancerie, the deane of Ellester, Macke Kene, Macke Clene, with manie others.

*This Iames the fourth was of a firme bodie, of iust stature, of most comelie countenance, Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 13. and of sharpe wit, but altogither vnlearned, as the fault of that age was. But he did diligentlie applie himselfe to an old custome of the countrie, cunninglie to cure wounds, the knowledge whereof in times past was a thing common to all the nobilitie, being alwaies vsed to the warres. He was easilie to be spoken vnto, gentle in his answers, iust in his iudgements, and so moderat in punishments, that all men might easilie sée he was vnwillinglie drawen vnto them. Against the detraction of the euill, and admonishment of the good, there was such woorthinesse of mind in him (confirmed by the quiet of a good conscience, and the hope of his innocencie) that he would not onelie not be angrie, but not so much as vse a sharpe woord vnto them. Amongest which vertues, there were certeine vices crept in by the ouermuch desire to please the people, for whilest he labored to auoid the note of couetousnesse (obiected to his father) and sought to win the fauour of the common sort (with sumptuous feasts, gorgeous shewes, and large gifts) he fell into that pouertie, that it seemed (if he had liued long) that he would haue lost the fauor of his people (woone in old times) by the imposition of new taxes. Wherefore his death was thought to haue timelie happened vnto him.)

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