previous next


IAMES the first made away through the traitorous practise of the earle of Atholl (as before is specified) his eldest sonne Iames the second of that name being as then but six yeares
1436. of age succéeded to the crowne, as lawfull heire to the same, and by his mother and the nobilitie of the realme was brought to Scone, where, by the vniuersall consent of the three estates he was crowned king of Scotland, being the 102 king of that realme from Ferguse the first. Buchan. 103. He was surnamed Iames with the fierie face, by reason of a broad red spot which he had in one of his cheekes. This Iames at his comming to mans state prooued a stout prince, and maried the daughter of the duke of Gelderland, as after shall appeare. In the beginning The daughter of the duke of Gelderland maried to Iames the second. he had some trouble and businesse, by reason of the great authoritie and rule which the high barons of the realme sought to beare & mainteine, as the Dowglasse, and other, but in the end he subdued them all.

Shortlie after his coronation, because he was not of himselfe able to gouerne, by reason of his tender age; the nobles and estates of the realme chose sir Alexander Leuingston of Sir Alexander Leuingston gouernor. Sir William Creichton L. chancellor. Disobedience in the Dowglasse. Calender knight, gouernor of the king and realme, and sir William Creichton knight was confirmed in his office to inioy the same as he before had doone, the K. being committed to his keeping, togither with the castell of Edenburgh. Archembald earle of Dowglas remained in his countries of Dowglas & Annardale, and would neither obeie gouernor nor chancellor, wherby great trouble was raised within the realme. Within a short time also, the gouernor and chancellor were diuided. The gouernor with the queene remained at Striueling, but the chancellor had the king still with him in the castell of Edenburgh; and what the one commanded to be doone, the other forbad: whereby neither of them was obeied, nor anie execution of iustice put in practise, so that through all the countrie, reiffe, spoiles, and oppression were exercised without feare of punishment. The quéene perceiuing such mischiefe to reigne 1437. A policie wrought by the quéene. throughout all parts of the realme, deuised a meane to aduance the gouernors side, and herevpon with a small companie repaired to Edenburgh, where she to bring hir purpose to passe, did so much by great dissimulation, that she persuaded the chancellor to suffer hir to enter the castell, and to remaine with the king; but within thrée daies after, she feigned one morning to go on pilgrimage vnto the White kirke, and caused the king hir sonne to be handsomlie couched in a trunke, as if he had beene some fardell of his apparell, and so packed vp, sent him by one of hir trustie seruants laid vpon a sumpter horsse vnto Lieth, from whence he was conueied by bote vnto Striueling, where, of the gouernor he was ioifullie receiued, The king conueied vnto Striueling. commending the quéene highlie for hir politike working, in deceiuing so wise a man as the chancellor was. Then raised he a great power of his friends and well-willers, and besieged the chancellor in the castell of Edenburgh.

The bishop perceiuing in what danger he stood through the womans deceipt, sent to the earle of Dowglas, desiring his assistance against the quéene and gouernor. But the earle refusing either to helpe the one or the other, alledging that they were both ouer ambitious in seeking to haue the whole gouernment of the realme in their hands. The chancellor An agréement made. then perceiuing himselfe destitute of all helpe, made agreement with the gouernor, vnder certeine conditions, that he should reteine still the castell of Edenburgh vnder his possession, and likewise continue still in his office of chancellor. Shortlie after the earle of Dowglasse The earle of Dowglasse departeth this life at Lestelricke. 1439. deceassed at Lestelricke, in the yeare 1439, against whome aswell the gouernor as chancellor had conceiued great hatred. He left behind him a sonne (begot of the earle of Crawfords daughter) named William, a child of fourtéene yeares of age, who succeeded his father in the earldome of Dowglasse, appearing at the first to be well inclined of nature, but afterwards by euill companie he waxed wild and insolent.

About this season, Iames Steward sonne to the lord of Lorne, maried the quéene Dowager, and fauored the earle Dowglasse in his vnrulie demeanor: wherevpon, both the said Iames and his brother William, with the quéene, were committed to prison in the castell of The quéene imprisoned. Striueling by the gouernors appointment; but shortlie after they were released by the sute of the lord chancellor, sir William Creichton, and Alexander Seton of Gurdon, who became suerties for their good abearing, vnder great forfeiture of sufficient band. About the same time, or rather somewhat before, Alane Steward lord of Dernlie was slaine at Palmais thorne, Alane Steward is slain. by sir Thomas Boid. And in the yeare following, the same sir Thomas was slaine by Alexander Steward of Bolmet and his sonnes; where through there rose great troubles in the west part of Scotland. William earle of Dowglasse sent Malcolme Fleming of Cumernald, and Alane of Lowder, vnto Charles the seuenth, king of France, to obteine of him the duchie of Towraine, which was giuen to Archembald Dowglasse at the battell of Vernoill in Perth; and the last earle, father to this earle William, had inioied the same all his life time, wherevpon that sute was the sooner obteined: which made the yoong earle more insolent than before.

He kept such a port, and vsed' to haue such a traine attending vpon him, speciallie when The great port of the erle of Dowglasse. he came to the court, that it should séeme he had the king in small regard; for he thought himselfe safe inough in mainteining the like state and port, or rather greater than euer his father at anie time had mainteined before him: insomuch as he would ride with two thousand horsse, of the which number there were diuerse errant théeues and robbers, that were borne out in their vnlawfull and wicked practises by the same earle. Certeine capteins of the Iles, as Lachlane, Makelaine, and Murdac Gipson, with a wicked number of the inhabitants of the same Iles, haried, spoiled, and burnt the countrie of Lenox, and slue Iohn Lenox is haried. Iohn Colquhouen, or Coguhuin slaine. A dearth. Pestilence. Colquhouen lord of Lute vnder assurance. They also slue women and children, without respect to age or sex. In this yeare chanced a great dearth in Scotland, the like was neuer heard of before, and such a death by pestilence, that few escaped that were taken therewith, and so the realme was plagued with reiffe, oppression, dearth, and death of people. This yeare also the gouernor tooke the whole administration vpon him, wherewith the chancellor was displeased, and leauing the king and him in Striueling, repared to Edenburgh, where he deuised the way how to recouer the king from the gouernor, and so on a morning tooke foure and twentie men with him, and rode to the parke of Striueling where the king was then hunting, and the gouernor absent at Perth.

* At what time the chancellor with great courtesie drawing towards the king, did salute Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 11. him, being in some feare to sée such companie come vnto him, hauing so few in his traine. Which when the chancellor perceiued, he praied the king to be of good comfort, and in few words (fit for that time) exhorted him that he should looke to himselfe and the kingdome, and deliuer himselfe from the imprisonment of Alexander the gouernor, liuing fréelie from hencefoorth after a kinglie maner; that he should not accustome himselfe to obeie the pleasure and couetousnes of others, that he should vse to command his subiects in all iust and lawfull causes; and that he should deliuer his people from these euils which increased vpon them, by the ambition and couetousnesse of the rulers, which he could not now well remedie or resist, except the king would take on him the gouernement, the which to doo, he had without all danger or trouble prouided a meane. For he had in a readinesse sufficient number therefore, which should attend vpon the king where so euer he would go, or to vse anie other matter as néed should require. Which the king taking with a pleasant countenance (either because the matter liked him well, or to dissemble the feare he had of the chancellor) did fullie approoue, and went with his small vnarmed companie and the chancellor toward Edenburgh.)

The chancellor (as Hector Boetius saith) had caused the number of foure thousand The king went with the chancellor to Edenburgh. horssemen of his seruants, tenants, and friends, secretlie to be readie that morning about the town of Striueling, to resist his aduersaries if they should haue vsed anie force against him: and now vnderstanding of the kings going thus with the chancellor, they came to him on the way, and attending him, brought him safelie and without further trouble vnto Edenburgh, where he was ioifullie receiued. The gouernor when he was aduertised hereof, was grieuouslie displeased; but because he knew not how to remedie the matter, he went to Edenburgh, and there got Iohn Iunes bishop of Murrey, and Henrie Lichton bishop of The gouernor and chancellor are made friends. Aberdene, to labor some agreement betwixt him and the chancellor: which they did in this wise: the king to remaine in the kéeping of the chancellor, and the gouernor to continue his office. And so by this accord they were made friends.

* During which turmoiles, William Dowglasse (that with a certeine pride of mind had Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 294. Buchan. lib. 11. highlie borne himselfe, disobeieng the rule of the gouernor, & disdaining to ioine in societie of the chancellor) did vew the dedlie hatred of them both against him; for which cause they séeke by all means vtterlie to take him awaie. For the dooing whereof (to the end it might be performed without anie tumult) they appoint a parlement to be holden at Edenburgh: whither came not a few (as at other times in such assemblies it alwaies hapheth) but almost the whole countries came flocking thither, to complaine of the iniuries which they had receiued: of which sort, there was such a miserable shew, that men could not behold the same without great motion of a pitifull mind: when euerie one for himselfe, the father for the children, the children for the fathers, and the widows for their husbands, did complaine that they were by the robbers spoiled of all their substance. Wherevpon (as it happeneth alwaies through pietie of gentle harts, to rue the afflicted) there arose great enuie against the capteins and leaders of the wicked dooers of such spoile, whose euils were now growne to such excesse, as by no means they might be suffered; whose factions were so largelie spread ouer the realme, that none could defend their life or liuehood: but such as did yéeld themselues to their actions, and whose riches were so increased, as the weake could not well find anie helpe (in the authoritie of the magistrate) against their violence.

Wherevpon it liked the wiser sort (since their force séemed not almost able to be broken, or their parts to be seuered) to flie to policie and leaue strength, not daring openlie to call the earle Dowglasse by that name of capteine of them, although they well knew him to be the chiefe author and fautor of those people. Wherefore the gouernor and the chancellor (for a time dissembling the hatred which they harboured against Dowglasse) persuaded the whole parlement, that it were more conuenient with faire spéeches to pacifie Dowglasse, than with shew of suspicious and euill words to stirre him to further heat: especiallie considering that he was of that great wealth and power, that he alone, if he stood against them, might hinder all the decrees of the parlement: but if hée ioined with the nobilitie, there might be easie remedie found to salue all these present euils. Through which wise and subtill persuasion of Alexander the gouernour, it was decréed amongst them, that there should be honourable letters directed to him in the common & speciall name of all the nobilitie, which should admonish him, that being mindfull of the honorable place which he possessed (and of his woorthie ancestors, by whome the common-wealth of Scotland had receiued manie singular benefits) hée should repaire to the parlement, which well could not, and willinglie would not, either kéepe or determine any thing in the same without his presence. In which assemblie, if hée would complaine of anie wrongs or griefes offered vnto him, hée should be satisfied so fullie as they might lawfullie.

And if he or anie of his friends or familie had committed anie disordered part, the nobilitie there met would rullie remit the same, as well for the nobilitie of his, and the woorthie me. morie of the déeds doone by his ancestors; as for that they rather attributed such actions to the iniurie of the times, and the frailtie of his age, and the persuasion of others, than vnto him, of whome there was conceiued a singular hope of great towardnesse, for the aduancement of his name and benefit of his countrie. Therfore if he would come and ioine with them, he should receiue in gouernement what part, place, and office of the common-wealth pleaseth him, to the end that as in times past, their countrie had béene manie waies deliuered out of most heauie dangers by the hand of the Dowglasses, so at this present, the same might also by his presence and furtherance, be againe aduanced and strengthened from and against those intestine euils wherewithall it now fainted. The yoong man (by nature and age gréedie of glorie) being mooued with these flatteries, and the other persuasions of his friends (whereof euerie one was blinded with a certeine hope of good to happen to himselfe) they now déemed it best (forgetting all former dangers) to thinke vpon their priuate commodities, and with that resolution tooke their iournie to come to the parlement.

The chancellor when he vnderstood they were on there way, rode foorth of Edenburgh manie miles to méet the Dowglasse, and courteouslie inuited the earle to his castell of Creichton, which laie in his waie as he should ride, at which place he was most honourablie interteined by the chancellor. Where, when they had remained two daies, the chancellor (after hée had shewed manie tokens of a friendlie mind vnto him) bicause he would vtterlie banish from the earle all suspicion of him, that he had anie mislike in the said earle) began familiarlie to persuade him, that (rememembring the kings dignitie, and the office of him whome the lot of inheritance, their countrie lawes, and the consent of the parlement had aduanced to the gouernement and administration of all things) he should in all humilitie acknowledge him for his chiefe lord and king; that he would permit the large patrimonie obteined by the bloud of his ancestors to descend to posteritie by lineall inheritance as he himselfe receiuedit; that he would clearelie deliuer the name and familie of the Dowglasses (no lesse famous for their dutie, than their déeds) not onelie from the filthie spot of treason, but also from all note of suspicion thereof; that he would refraine himselfe and his from offering iniuries to the weake and common people; that he would remooue from him all such as were giuen to robberie and spoile; that he would from hencefoorth applie himselfe to the defense of iustice, to the end that his former offenses (if there were anie) might rather be attributed to euill counsell of the wicked, than to the naturall disposition of himselfe: for so the repentance of his yoong yéeres might be taken for proofe of his innocencie in such euils. With these and such like spéeches, declaring the faith of a wel-willing mind, he allured the earle to come to Edenburgh with Dauid his brother partaker of all his counsels and actions.

This faire tale of the chancellor, more than in times past or then beséemed the place which he possessed, with the manie messengers sent to him from Alexander the gouernor (to meet him on the way) almost euerie houre, draue a déepe suspicion in the heads of the earles companie riding with him to Edenburgh, of some trecherie to be ment towards him. Wherevpon the same began to be blundered from one to another of the traine, and came so fast to the friends of Dowglasse, that some of them did boldlie and liberallie admonish him, that he should remaine in that purpose (which once he did) to staie, to returne, and not to go forward with the chancellor: and at the least (if he would aduenture himself) to send home his brother Dauid, to the end that hée might not hazard the whole familie vnder the fortune of one stroke, as his father had before admonished him when he died. Whereat the vnaduised youth of this man, being mooued to anger against his friends, did by the voices of some of his men (as it were by one that should make proclamation therfore) pacifie the secret murmurings that were amongest the companie; and answered such of his friends as found fault therewith, that he sufficientlie knew, that it was the common plague of all great families, alwaies to haue such men about them, as being impatient of quiet and ease, respect not the danger and miserie of their patrons, so it maie be commoditie vnto them: who (bicause they would not be restreined within the bounds of peacefull lawes) are authors of sedition, in which (when all things are in turmoile) they may the better wander abroad to satisfie their euill humor: whose speaches hée regarded not, since hee rather respected and trusted the approoued wisedome of the chancellor and the gouernor, than the slouthfull & rash minds of such seditious persons.

After which (to cut awaie occasion from the rest to answer) he set spurres to his horsse, and hastened his iourneie more than he did before, with his brother and a few of his other friends, taking his right course into the castell, and (as it were by a certeine destinie) casting himselfe hedlong into the snares of his enimies. At such time as he came to the castell, the gouernor (according to his promise) was readie there to méet him, to the end the matter might séeme to be wrought by common consent, and the weight of so great enuie might not light vpon the head of one man. Dowglasse being honorablie and friendlie by the gouernor receiued into the castell, was for dinner placed at the kings table. But in the middest of this sweet meat (sower sawce being prepared) there was a bulles head set before him, which in those daies was a signe of death. Wherewith the yoong man amazed (and greatlie troubled in his mind, inwardlie repenting that he followed not the aduise of his followers) was about to rise from the table: but being apprehended by armed men (appointed to that function) he was caried into the court next to the castell, and was there (in reuenge and punishment of his vnbrideled youth) beheaded, with his brother Dauid, and Malcolme Fleming, who (next vnto his brother) was in greatest credit with him. Whose death the king now entring into his adolescencie or yéers (as we tearme it) of discretion, is said heauilie with teares to lament, which the chancellor (grieuing to sée) did greatlie rebuke in the king such vntimelie and inordinate mourning, for the death of his and the common-wealths enimie, whose life (said hée) would haue taken awaie all peace and tranquillitie in the realme.

After the death of the said earle, the state of the realme became more quiet: for his vncle Iames Dowglasse baron of Abircorne that succéeded him, being a man of great stature, and verie fat, gaue himselfe to quietnesse, and liued but thrée yeeres after. The foresaid William had but one sister, that was called the faire maiden of Galloway, and was maried to one William Dowglasse, sonne to this earle Iames before his deceasse, that the heritage should not be diuided: bicause the earledome of Dowglasse was intailed vpon the heires male, and the lands of Wigton, Balwanie, Annardale; and Ormont remained to hir as heire generall. This earle William, after the deceasse of his father earle Iames, began to wax vnrulie, and to follow the vntoward maners of the other William Dowglasse latelie beheaded (as before ye haue heard) so that by support manie disobedient persons would not obeie the gouernor and chancellor, whervpon sundrie great slaughters and oppressions were committed.

* Againe (by the mariage of this earle William with his rich kinswoman) he did (besides Fr. Thin. his vnrulie behauiour) aduance himselfe in pride, whereof grew secret enuie, and of that rose open malice: but he incountering sufficientlie with them, partlie by force, & partlie by subtiltie, mainteined his people in those oppressions and robberies, in despite of the proudest: which occasioned the nobilitie to iudge, that the said earle was priuie of their misdemeanor. Amongest which euill disposed companie, there was one Iohn Gormacke of Atholl, who (when he had infected all the countrie about him with this miserable plague of robberie) did set vpon William Ruwene (shiriffe of Perth, and had almost killed him) because he had led a théefe of Atholl to execution. But at the length (true men being Buchanan. lib. 11. alwaies better than théeues) the shiriffe recouered the battell, and killed the capteine Gormacke, with thirtie of his companie, and put the rest to flight into the mounteins.

In the yéere 1445, not manie daies after, the castell of Dunbreton (which is not by 1443. strength to be subdued) was twise taken within a few daies: for Robert Semplier that was capteine of the inferior castell, and Patrike Galbrith capteine of the higher castell, did so diuide their gouernement of the said castell (being a thing of great circuit) that euerie one had a peculiar and seuered entrance into his owne part without offense of the other. But yet these two (as most part of the realme of Scotland then was, and as it alwaies, or most commonlie happeneth in the minoritie of the prince, when euerie one will be a king) wanted not their factions, whome they did follow: for Patrike was secretlie thought to fauour Dowglasse, for which cause Semplier, or (as some haue Simplie) the other capteine perceiuing the part of the castell wherein Patrike ruled to be more negligentlie kept, than dutie or the state of the time required, found opportunitie to expell Patrike from thence, and to cause all his furniture to be caried out of the same, conuerting the said castell to his owne vse. In the end (the next day after) Patrike vnderstanding thereof, and comming with foure vnarmed persons (to fetch awaie his furniture and houshold-stuffe) entered into the castell; and first finding the porter alone, turned him awaie, then taking armor, expelled the others out of the higher castell: after which, calling aid out of the towne next adioining, he shut them also out of the inferior castell, and got possession of the whole castell to himselfe.)

The king, after he came to the age of fouretéene yéeres, would not anie longer be vnder 1444. The king wil rule himselfe. the gouernement of others, but tooke the rule vpon himselfe. The earle of Dowglasse informed thereof, came to him at Striueling, and put himselfe and all he had to remaine at his pleasure: wherevpon the king receiued him, pardoned all his passed misdemeanors, and admitted him to be one of his speciall friends and priuie councellors in all his affaires. By his persuasion shortlie after, sir Alexander Leuingston, & William Creichton being discharged of their offices, were also put off from the councell, and all their friends banished the court, and they themselues were summoned to appéere before the king: which because they refused to doo, they were proclamed rebels, and put to the horne. The earle Dowglasse then for the old grudge he bare them, raised an armie, and harried their lands. In reuenge wherof, sir William Creichton spoiled the earle of Dowglasse his lands, so that great trouble was raised through the whole countrie, and the lands of Strabroke, Abircorne, & the towne of Blacknesh were burnt and destroied.

The earle of Dowglasse ruled wholie about the king, & made Archembald his brother 1445. Lesle. earle of Murrey, by ioining him in mariage with a ladie of the house of Dunbar inheretrix therof. Morouer, Hugh Dowglasse was made earle of Ormont. Thus the earle of Dowglasse aduanced his name, and ioined in friendship with the earle of Crawford, with Donald earle of the Iles, and with the earle of Rosse, to the end that ech of them should be assistant to others. In this meane time, the earle of Crawford at the request of the earle of Dowglas, tooke a great preie of goods out of the bishop of S. Andrews lands in Fife, which bishop was called Iames Kenedie, sisters son to king Iames the first: where through the earle of Crawford on the one part, and the earle of Huntleie with the Ogiluies on the other, met at Arbroth in set battell, where the earle of Crawford was slaine, and diuerse barons on his side, although the victorie and field remained with his sonne, the maister of Crawford, who succeeded his father, and was called earle Beirdie. On the earle of Huntleies side were slaine, Iohn Forbes of Petslege, Alexander Berkelie of Gartulie, Robert Maxwell of Teline, William Gurdun of Burrowfield, sir Iohn Oliphant of Aberdagie, and fiue hundred more on their side, and one hundred of the victorers were also slaine, as Hector Boetius saith.

The same writer reporteth that the occasion of this battell did chance, through the variance that fell out betwixt the earle of Crawfords eldest sonne Alexander Lindseie, and Alexander Ogilbie or Ogiluie (as some write him) about the office of the bailiffewike of Arbroth, the which the maister of Crawford inioieng, was displaced and put out by the said Ogiluie. Wherevpon the maister of Crawford, to recouer his right (as he tooke it) got a power togither with helpe of the Hamiltons, and with the same seized vpon the abbeie, and Ogiluie with helpe of the earle of Huntlie, came thither with an armie to recouer the place againe out of his aduersaries hands, and so vpon knowledge héereof giuen vnto the earle of Crawford, he himselfe comming from Dundee vnto Arbroth, at the verie instant when the battels were readie to ioine, caused first his sonne to staie; and after calling foorth sir Alexander Ogiliue to talke with him, in purpose to haue made peace betwixt him and his sonne, was thrust into the mouth with a speare, by a common souldier that knew nothing what his demand ment, so that he fell downe therewith, and presentlie died in the place: wherevpon togither the parties went incontinentlie without more protracting of time, and so fought with such successe, as before ye haue heard. The earle of Huntleie escaped by flight: but Alexander Ogiluie being taken and sore wounded, was led to the castell of Fineluin, where shortlie after he died of his hurts. This battell was fought the 24 of lanuarie, in the yéere of our Lord 1445.

* The king thus ruled by the troope of the Dowglasses, the earle Dowglasse sent to sir Fr. Thin. 1445 Io.Ma. 1446. Lesl. Buchanan. lib. 11. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 279. William Creichton knight, to deliuer vp the castell of Edenburgh. But Creichton (saieng that the castell was committed to his gouernement by the whole realme, and that the king had not anie thing to doo therewith vntill he came to his full age) had all his goods foorthwith confiscat to the kings vse, with his castell of Creichton, which the kings people entered into and possessed. But least they should séeme to offer anie manifest wrong to the said Creichton, they gaue out the same edict (as a veile of their malice and enuie) which Creichton had before caused to be established and proclamed. For he first of all others made a law, that whosoeuer did denie or resist the king, demanding the deliuerie of aniecastell, should be in danger of treason; the breach and execution of which law did first come and fall by and vpon him, by whome that might be worthilie said (which is vsed to be spoken in common prouerbe) He is fallen into the snare which he prepared for others. Wherevpon the Dowglasse (since the castell would not otherwise be deliuered) sharpelie besieged the same by the space of nine moneths, which in the end Creichton surrendered into his hands, on certeine conditions to be performed. At which time also the said Creichton 1446. Lesle. was reinuested with the honor of the chancellorship, although he neuer after intangled himselfe with affaires of the kingdome, hoping that in time to come (when the darke clouds of the wicked men, which had now ouerspread all things, were ouerblowen) a better forme of gouernement would be brought in, as a certeine light to giue shine to the commonwealth.

Iames Steward a woorthie knight (not he that was surnamed The blacke) was slaine at Kirkepatrike, two miles from Dunbreton, by Alexander Lilie, and Robert Boid, whose crueltie not being satisfied with his bloud, they laboured to bring his wife (great with child, Buchan. lib. 11. & vpon point of deliuerance) within their danger. For the performance whereof, they sent a priest vnto hir, that (in haste and as it were troubled) should tell hir in what distresse she now rested, and that there was no meanes to relieue himselfe by anie waie (since euerie place was beset with horsse and footmen) vnlesse she escaped by bote to Robert Boid at Dunbreton, who further vpon oth promised hir, that he would safelie bring hir backe to hir owne house.

The woman being credulous (and ignorant that Robert Boid was present at the death of hir husband) and caried out of Cardrosse, into the Dunbreton castell, might easilie perceiue hir selfe hardlie beset on euerie side by the deceipt of hir enimies, who (being so deceiued and ouercome with feare & griefe) was deliuered of child before hir time, and (togither with hir sonne) died there within few houres after. Almost at the same time, Patrike Hepburne (gouernour of Halis) held the castell of Dunbar, where he had Iane Buchan. lib. 11. Seimer the quéene with him, to whome she fled for succour in the times of these tumults. Archembald Dunbar (supposing this to be a iust cause of anger) in the night did set vpon Halis the castell of Hepburne, which he tooke at the first assault, by sleaing of the watch, who being stroken with a great feare for the same, did (in few daies after) restore the same to earle Dowglasse, with conuenant that all they which were within, should depart in safetie without anie danger.)

Sir Iames Steward surnamed the Blacke knight, husband to the quéene the kings mother, Iames Steward is banished the realme. was banished the realme for speaking woords against the misgouernement of the king and realme, wherewith he offended the earle of Dowglasse. As he passed the seas towards Flanders, he was taken by the Flemings, & shortlie after departed this life. The quéene his wife He died. The quéene died. being aduertised of his death, died also within a while after, and was buried in the Charterhouse of Perth the fiftéenth of Iulie, in the yeere 1446. Hir name was Iane Summerset, 1446. daughter to the earle of Summerset. Iames the first maried hir (as before ye may read) in England. She had by him eight children, two sonnes, and six daughters, which were all honorablie maried: the first named Margaret, to the Dolphin of France: the second Eleanor, to the duke of Britaine: the third, to the lord of Terueer in Zeland: the fourth, to the duke of Austrich: the fift, to the earle of Huntleie: and the sixt, to the earle of Morton. And by Iames Steward hir second husband, she had thrée sonnes: Iohn earie of Atholl, Iames earle of Buchquhane, and Andrew bishop of Murrey.

After the death of the quéene, Hepburne deliuered the castell of Dunbar (to the king) Fr. Thin. being emptie, and without companie. ¶ In August, Alexander earle of Crawford did put to death at Toadune Iohn Leonton, as an ingratefull person to him, since by his fathers helpe he had béene aduanced to great riches, and to the kings affinitie and kinred. Soone after, 1448. Lesle. sir William Creichton, with the bishop of Dunkeld, and Nicholas Oterburne a canon of Glascow, were sent in ambassage vnto the duke of Gelderland, for his daughter called Marie, to be ioined in mariage with king Iames. Their sute was obteined, and the Iadie King Iames maried a daughter of the duke of Gelderland. sent into Scotland noblie accompanied with diuerse lords both spirituall and temporall. At hir arriuall she was receiued by the king with great triumph, and the mariage solemnized by the assistance of all the nobles of Scotland, with great banketting, ioifull mirth, and all pleasant interteinment of those strangers that might be.

In the yeere 1447, there was a parlement holden at Edenburgh, in the which sir 1447. 1448. Lesle. Alexander Leuingston of Kalendar late gouernour, Iames Dundas and Robert Dundas knights, at the pursute of the earle of Dowglasse were forfalted and condemned to perpetuall prison in Dunbreton, and Iames Leuingston his eldest sonne, Robert Leuingston treasuror, and Dauid Leuingston knights, lost their heads. Iames before his execution made a verie wise Iames Leuingston made an oration. declaration to the standers by, declaring the instabilitie of fortune, and change of court, exhorting all persons to beware thereof; sith enuie euer followed high estate, and wicked malice neuer suffered good men to gouerne long. In the same parlement, sir William W. Creichton condemned. Creichton was also forfalted for diuerse causes, but principallie for that his seruants would not deliuer the house of Creichton to the kings herald, who charged them so to doo. This forfalture was concluded in parlement by vertue of an act which the said William (when he was chancellor) caused to be made, and so being the first inuentor, was also the first against whome it was practised.

The yéere next insuing were sundrie incursions made betwixt Scots and Englishmen on Incursions made. 1448. the borders, Dunfreis was burnt, and likewise Anwike in England: but shortlie after a truce was concluded for seuen yéeeres, great offers of friendship made by the Englishmen for to haue the wars ceasse on that side, because the warre betwixt them and France was verie hotlie pursued, and ciuill dissention disquieted the state of England, which was raised betwixt the two houses of Lancaster & Yorke. * This yeere there were manic méetings Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 300. or parlements of the nobilitie, in which were lawes established for brideling the wicked facts of such as applied themselues to spoiling of other men; wherevpon a long peace followed in Scotland: beside which, there were other lawes made for auoiding of treasons, and chieflie of such as touched the kinglie maiestie. This lawe of treason was afterward executed first vpon Dowglasse, which was author thereof. In this parlement were manie 1446. earles and lords created, whereof the chiefe were Alexander Seton baron of Gordon, who was made earle of Huntleie, and George Leslie baron was made earle of Rothsaie, both men singularlie famed for their wisedome and valure.)

The English borderers of the west marches fetched a great bootie of cattell out of Englishmen fetch booties out of Scotland. 1450. The Scots inuade England. Scotland, notwithstanding the truce, in reuenge wherof the Scots inuading England, wasted the countrie, burnt townes and villages, slue the people, & with a great preie of prisoners, goods, and cattell, returned home into Scotland. Héerewith followed dailie rodes and forraies made on both sides betwixt the Scots and Englishmen, and that with such rage and crueltie, that a great part of Cumberland was in manner laied wast: for on that side the Scots chieflie made their inuasions, because that from thence the first occasion of all this mischiefe might séeme to haue had the beginning. When such things were certified to the king of Englands councell, an armie was appointed foorthwith to inuade Scotland, vnder the leading of the earle of Northumberland, and of one Magnus surnamed Redberd, a capteine of great A knight named Magnus. experience, as he that had beene trained vp from his youth in the warres of France. The Scots, because of his long red berd, called him in scorne and derision, Magnus with the red mane.

The Scots hearing of the approch of this armie towards their borders, leuied a power: The earle of Ormont generall of the Scotish armie. George, or rather Hugh Dowglasse earle of Ormont by the kings commission, hauing the conduction thereof, who vnderstanding that the enimies would enter into Annardale, drew thither with the said armie to resist their attempts. The Englishmen passing ouer the riuer The English armie inuadeth Scotland. of Sulweie and Annand, came to another riuer called Sarc, & there pitched downe their tents. And on the next day they began to rob and spoile the countrie on ech side: but aduertised that the Scots were at hand-with an armie, they that were thus gone foorth, were with all spéed called backe to the campe by sound of trumpet, and foorthwith their armie was brought into order of battell. Magnus with the red mane was appointed to lead the right wing, and sir Iohn Penneinton a verie skilfull warriour gouerned the left wing, in the Sir Iohn Penneinton. which the Welshmen were placed. The battell or middle ward the earle of Northumberland himselfe ruled.

The earle of Ormont on the other side ordered his battels in this wise. He appointed a verie valiant knight called Wallase of Craggie, with an hardie number of souldiers to Wallase of Craggie. incounter with Magnus. And against the Welshmen he placed the lord Maxwell, and lord Iohnston, with a chosen companie of lustie Scotishmen, and commanding himselfe in the battell or middle ward, had scarse set his people in araie, when the trumpets in the English armie began to sound to the battell. He therefore exhorting his men to doo valiantlie, put The earle of Ormont exhorteth his armie. them in remembrance that they had put on armor, being thereto prouoked by iniurie which their enimies had first offered them, wherevpon they might conceiue good hope of victorie by the fauour of the righteous God, who giueth the vpper hand (for the most part) to that side that hath iust cause to make warre. He willed them then to put all feare out of their harts; and as they had force inough to vanquish their enimies that came thus to brag and threaten them with vtter destruction: so he besought them to shew no lesse manlike stomachs to deliuer their countrie by hardie fight from iniurie of the same enimies.

He had no sooner made an end of his speech, but that the arrowes came so thicke from The battell is begun. the English archers, that the Scots began to looke about them, as it were to sée which waie they might best escape by flight. But Wallase perceiuing their faintnesse of courage, with lowd voice reprooued their cowardise, and with most pithie words exhorted them to remember their duties, and to follow the example of him their leader, whome they should perceiue to haue fullie vowed to spend his life in defense of his countrie. The Scots heerwith seemed to be so incouraged, that they rushed forward with great egernesse vpon the right wing of the Englishmen where Magnus stood, and so laied about them with speares, axes, and such like hand weapons, that with great slaughter they draue the Englishmen to breake araie and to flee: Magnus heerewith being more chafed than afraid, as should appéere, preassed forward vpon Wallase with great violence, and séeking to approch vnto him that he might haue wroken his griefe vpon him, was inclosed among the Scotish troopes, and slaine with a few other of his friends and seruants that followed him.

Magnus is slaine. The slaughter of this man, in whome consisted no small hope of victorie on the English part, put the residue of their armie in such feare, that they were not able longer to resist the Scotishmens violent impression, but turning their backs fled amaine, whom the Scots pursued in chase verie fiercelie, so that manie of the Englishmen died in the battell, but more The English men put to flight. now in the chase: for the tide being come in, staied manie of them that made their course to haue escaped thorough the riuer, whereby diuerse that ventured into the water were drowned; & other that durst not take the water, were oppressed by the Scots that followed them. There died in this battell of English men, to the number néere hand of three The number slaine. thousand, and amongest other, Magnus (as before ye haue heard) with eleuen other knights of no small account and estimation. Of Scots were lost somewhat aboue six hundred. There were taken prisoners of Englishmen sir Iohn Penneinton, and sir Robert Harington Prisoners taken. The earle of Northumberland escapeth by flight. knights, and the lord Persie, sonne to the earle of Northumberland, who holpe his father to horsbacke, whereby he escaped by flight: & beside these, a great number of other were by the Scots taken prisoners, whome the swoord and water had spared.

The earle of Ormont hauing got this honorable victorie, conueied the chiefest of the prisoners to the castle of Lochmaben, and after repaired to the court, where he was of the king ioifullie receiued, honorablie feasted, and highlie rewarded. After this, the Scots that dwelled vpon the borders, liued for a season in better quiet: for though the Englishmen wished to haue béene reuenged for this losse and ouerthrow of their people, yet by reson of ciuill wars that shortlie after followed, they were constreined to forbeare to make anie further wars against the Scots, till better occasion might serue. And for the auoiding of 1448. Buch. 1450. Lesl. A truce for thrée yeares betwéene England and Scotland. The earle of Dowglasse goeth into Italie. danger that might insue in time of this intestine trouble by forren enimies, they sued to haue a truce with the Scots, which for the terme of thrée yeares was granted. In this yeare, William earle of Dowglasse, with a great companie of nobles and gentlemen, as the lords Hamilton, Graie, Salton, Seiton, and Oliphant; also, Calder, Vrquhart, Cambell, Frasier, and Lauder, knights, went into Italie, and was at Rome in time of the Iubile which was kept there that yeare. He left behind him to gouerne his lands in Scotland, Hugh earle of Ormont that was his brother: but in his absence (by counsell of such as were about him) the king summoned the erle to appeare before him within 40 daies; & because he came not within that set time, he was put to the horne, & his lands inuaded & spoiled.

*Wherevpon the king sent William Sentclare earle of Orcades at that time chancellor Fr. Thin. first into Galloway, and then into Dowglasse, where he appointed collectors to take vp (to the kings vse) the reuenues of the Dowglasse. But when Sentclare was not of sufficient Buchanan. strength to performe what he would, because some & the most part reiected (though others imbraced) him, he returned home without dooing anie thing. Wherewith the king greatlie moued (because he saw his authoritie contemned) called all the Dowglasses into law, and declared them publike enimies and detractors of his gouernement. And therevpon (prouiding an armie against them) he goeth into Galloway: where, at their first comming (since their capteins were all in prison) a small part of the armie (séeing the enimies dispersed into rougher parts of the countrie to hide themselues) turned backe to the king without anie thing doone. Whereat the king highlie offended (in that such wandering théeues should so lightlie dare to contemne his power) followed them into their starting holes and caues, and with no great labor tooke the castell of Lochmaben, reducing the countrie of Dowglasse (with extreame labor of his soldiors) to his subiection, at what time he leuelled the castell thereof equall with the ground.)

The earle aduertised hereof, with all spéed returned home through England, and sent his brother Iames vnto the king, to know his pleasure: who commanding the earle to sée his countries (namele Annandale) purged of theeues and robbers, pardoned him of all offenses, and receiued him into fauor againe, so that he was also eftsoones proclamed the The earle of Dowglasse goeth into England without licence of the king of Scots. kings lieutenant; but shortlie after going into England without the kings licence, to common with the king of England about the recouerie of losses susteined by the Englishmen by certeine inrodes (as he alleged) the king tooke the matter in verie euill part, for that he should séeme so to be had in contempt of the earle: and withall he mistrusted also, least there were some secret practises in hand to the prejudice of him and his realme: so that he stormed not a little towards the earle. Who being thereof aduertised, came in humble wise to the king, & besought him of pardon, if he had in anie wise offended him, assuring him The earle of Dowglasse sueth for pardon. that from thencefoorth, he would neuer commit anie act that might tend to his maiesties displeasure.

Herewith the quéens also and other noble men made sute to the king for the earles pardon, so that in the end he was receiued againe into fauor, but yet discharged of bearing anie publike office, which pinched him so sore (namelie for that his aduersaries William He enuieth those that bare rule about the king. He séeketh to destroie the L. chancellor. Chreichton lord chancellor, and the earle of Orkneie séemed to beare all the rule about the king) that he sought to dispatch the chancellor, procuring certeine of his seruants and friends to assault him on a morning as he was comming foorth of Edenburgh, but yet he escaped to his castell of Chreichton, although wounded in déed right sore, and within few daies after, gathering a power of his kinsmen, friends, & alies, he returned againe to Edenburgh, and had destroied (as was thought) the earle of Dowglasse at that present, if he The Dowglasse constrained to flée out of Edenburgh. He maketh a part. had not shifted away the more spéedilie, who being thus to his great gréefe, and no small dishonor chased out of Edenburgh, deuised which way he might best be reuenged; and for the more easie accomplishment of his purpose, he procured the earles of Crawford and Rosse to ioine with him in that quarell against Chreichton and other his complices, by force of which confederacie they couenanted to assist one another against the malice of the said Chreichton, and all other their aduersaries.

The earle of Dowglas hauing concluded this bond of confederacie, bare himselfe verie The earle of Dowglasse presumeth of assistance at the hands of his friends. The Lord Herres his lands spoiled. high, in presuming further thereof than stood with reason: and this was one great cause of the kings displeasure now passinglie increased against the said earle. An other cause was this: a sort of théeues and robbers brake into the lands of the lord Iohn Herres, a noble man, and one that had continued euer faithfull to the king, taking with them out of the same lands a great bootie of cattell. And whereas the said lord Herres complained vnto the earle of Dowglasse of that wrong, because the offendors were inhabiting within his roome, and yet could haue no redresse; he attempted to fetch out of Annardale some preie, wherewith to satisfie in part the wrong which had béene offered him by those limmers and robbers. But such was his euill hap, that taken he was with his retinue, and committed to prison, and shortlie after by commandement of the earle of Dowglasse he was hanged as a fellon, The Lord Herres hanged. notwithstanding that the king by an herald commanded the contrarie.

The king being sore offended herewith (as he had no lesse cause) passed ouer his displeasure with silence, till he saw time and opportunitie to reuenge the same: but in the meane season manie an honest man bought the bargaine right déerelie, being spoiled of that he had, and otherwise euill intreated, and yet durst not the meaner sort once complaine for feare of further mischiefe: where the higher powers also sore lamented the great disorders dailie increasing, and yet were not able in anie wise to reforme the same, insomuch as it The confederacie mistrusted. was greatlie doubted, least the earles of Dowglasse, Crawford, Rosse, Murrey, and other of that faction ment to put the king beside his seat. Which dout being put into the kings head, brought him into no small perplexitie, wherevpon by courteous messages he sent for The king sendeth for the earle of Dowglasse. the earle of Dowglasse, willing him to repaire to his presence, soiourning then in Striueling castell, which he refused to doo, till he had assurance vnder the kings great seale for his safe comming and going (as some haue said.) And then about Shrouetide in the yeare 1451, he came to the court of Striueling, where the king tooke him aside, & in secret talke 1451. moued and requested him to forsake the league and bond of friendship betwixt him and the earle of Crawford, and other such his confederats.

There was a secret murmuring amongst a number, that this earle of Dowglasse purposed to make a proofe on a day to get the garland beside the kings head. In déed by reason of his kinsmen and alies, he was of more puissance in the realme, than (as it was thought) stood with the suertie of the kings estate, vnlesse he were the more faithfull. He had at the same time two brothren that were also earles, as Archembald earle of Murrey, and Earles of the surname of the Dowglasses. The linage and great aliance of the Dowglasses. Hugh, or (as other haue) George earle of Ormont, beside the earle of Angus, and the earle of Mortoune, that were of his surname and bloud, with a great number of other lords, knights, and men of great possessions and liuings, all of the same surname, and lincked in friendship and aliance with other the chiefest linages of all the realme. Hereto (by reason there had béene so manie valiant men and woorthie capteins of the Dowglasses one after another, as it had béene by succession) the people and commons of Scotland bare such good will and fauour towards that name, that they were readie to ride and go The loue that the people bare toward the name of the Dowglasses. with them, they cared not whither, nor against whome. It is said, that the earles of Dowglasses might haue raised thirtie or fortie thousand warlike persons readie at their commandement, whensoeuer it had pleased them to call. In déed the Dowglasses had euer the gouernement of all matters perteining vnto the defense of the realme, so that the men of war had them still in all the estimation and honor that might be.

But now to the purpose, touching the conference had betwixt king lames the second, and The earle of Dowglas answereth the king ouerth wartlie, and is slaine. 1442. Buch. His brethren make warre against the king. the earle of Dowglasse: it chanced in the end (vpon what occasion I know not) that the earle answered the king somewhat ouerthwartlie, wherewith the king tooke such indignation, that the earle herevpon was slaine by him, and such other as were there about him, on Shroue éeuen. Then after the earle was thus made awaie, his brethren made open warre against the king, and slue all such of his friends and seruants, as they might incounter with: insomuch that those which trauelled by the high waies, were in doubt to confesse whether they belonged to the king, or to the Dowglasses. The Lord of Cadzow being in the towne of Striueling, with a great companie of the earl of Dowglasses friends, in reuenge of his Striueling is burnt. death incontinentlie burnt that towne, and did manie other great displeasures to the king and his subiects, setting foorth proclamations against the king and his councell, for the violating of the assurance granted (as before is said) to the earle of Dowglas.

*And that with such despite, as in the 6 kalends of Aprill, binding a woodden trunchion Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 11. to an horsse taile, they fasten therto the safe conduct of the king and the nobles, which they forbeare not to traile vp and downe the stréets (not sparing to reuile the king) with bitter and heauie words of contumelie and exclamation. With which not satisfied, when they were come into the market place, they did with the noise of fiue hundred hornes, and by the mouth of a crier, proclame the king and all such as were about him, faithbreakers, periured, and such persons as were to be denounced enimies of all goodnesse and good men. And yet supposing this not a sufficient reuenge to quench the furie of their rebellious minds, they run with like rage, and with like order doo spoile the countries & possessions of all such as tooke part with the king, and stedfastlie remained in the execution of their obedient dutie. For they besieged the castell of Dalketh, binding themselues (as coniured and periured enimies of all vertue) not to depart from thence, before they had taken and spoiled the same, being grieuouslie offended with Iohn the lord of that place, bicause that he with the earle of Angus had seuered themselues from the opinion & faction of the Dowglasses, whose furie (growing still to extremitie) found such support (by the inclining multituds) that the king was put to his shifts) that he was determined to haue left the realme, and to haue The king would haue fled. fled by sea into France, had not Iames Kenedie the bishop of saint Andrews caused him to staie, on the hope he had of assistance onelie by the earle of Huntleie, which earle hearing that the Dowglasses had gathered an armie in the south against the king, raised an other armie in the north to aid the king.

On the other side the earle of Crawford, hauing assembled a great power, incountered him at Breithune, in purpose to stop the earle of Huntleies passage, where betwixt them was fought a sore battell, and the earle of Crawford chased into Finwin, so that manie noble men, gentlemen, and commons were slaine, and amongest other the earle of Crawfords brother was one. Hector Boetius writeth, that Iohn Cullace of Bannamwin, whome the earle of Cullace of Bannamwin betraieth the erle of Crawford. Crawford had appointed to lead them that bare the battell axes, or (as I maie terme them) the bilmen, in the left wing of his armie, fled of purpose in the hotest of the fight, & so left the midle ward naked on the one side of the chiefest aid that the said earle had, and so the victorie by that meanes onelie inclined to the kings standard, which the earle of Huntleie had The earle of Huntleie victorer. there with him. But howsoeuer it was, the said erle of Huntleie had the honor of the field, who neuerthelesse lost diuerse of his men also, though nothing so manie as his aduersaries did. This battell was fought the eightéenth of Maie, being the Ascension day, 1452.

1452. The earle of Huntleie the same day before the battels ioined, gaue lands to the principall men of those surnames that were with him, as to the Forbesses, Leslies, Iouings, Ogiluies, Grants, and diuerse other. Which bountifulnesse of the earle made them to fight more Lands giuen to the earle of Huntleie. valiantlie. In recompense wherof the king gaue to the said earle the lands of Badzenot & Lochquhaber. In the meane time, Archembald Dowglas earle of Murrey burnt the peill The earle of Murrey. of Straboggie, perteining to the erle of Huntleie, and haried the lands thereabouts. In reuenge wherof, the erle of Huntleie at his returning backe, burnt & haried all the lands of the earledome of Murrey. In the meane time, at a parlement holden at Edenburgh, The earle of Crawford forfaited. Lords cited to appeare. the earle of Crawford was denounced a traitor, and all his lands and goods deemed to be forfeited into the kings hands. Iames earle of Dowglas, Iames lord Hammilton, the earles of Murrey, and Ormont, the lord of Baluay, and manie other of that faction, were by publike proclamation made by an herald, commanded to appeare by a day to vnderlie the law. But in the next night that followed the day of this proclamation, certeine of the Dowglasses seruants that were sent priuilie to Edenburgh, to vnderstand what was doone there, fastened Writings set vp in cōtempt of the king. writings vpon the church doores, seeled with the Dowglasses seale in this forme. The earle from hencefoorth will neither obeie citation, nor other commandement. Beside this, in the same writings, they charged the king with manie heinous crimes, calling him a murtherer, periured, false, and a bloudsucker.

The king therefore assembled an armie, and went foorth against them: but bicause the time of the yéere was contrarie to his purpose, he could doo no great hurt to his enimies, although he burnt vp their corne and droue awaie their cattell. But the Dowglas séemed to passe little for the kings malice, and the erle himselfe maried his brothers wife the countesse The earle of Dowglas marieth his brothers wife. Beatrice, & sent to Rome for a licence to haue that mariage made lawfull: but by the kings agents in that court, the earles sute might not be obteined. Neuerthelesse, he kept hir still in place of his wife, and continuing in rebellion against the king, the next spring, and for the more part of the tearme of two yéeres next insuing, he haried and spoiled the kings possessions; and the king on the other part wasted Annandale, and all other the lands and possessions that belonged to the said earle of Dowglas or his friends: but shortlie after, as the king passed through Angus, to go into the north parts of the realme, the earle of Crawford came The earle of Crawford submitteth himselfe to the king, and is pardoned. He departed this life. 1455. Buch. 1454. A parlement. The Dowglasses forfalted, or (as I may say) atteinted. and submitted himselfe vnto him, crauing mercie in most humble and lamentable wise, and obteined the kings pardon thorough mediation of Iames Kenedie bishop of saint Andrews, and sir William Creichton; but the said earle liued not past six moneths after, departing this life by force of an hot ague in the yéere 1454.

The same yéere, the king called a parlement at Edenburgh, in the which Iames earle of Dowglas, and his brothers wife the countesse Beatrice (whome he had taken to him by waie of a pretensed & feined mariage) Archembald Dowglas earle of Murrey, George Dowglas earle of Ormont, and Iohn Dowglas baron of Baluay, were forfalted & condemned of treason. The earledome of Murrey was giuen to sir Iames Creichton, or rather restored to him from whome it had béene wrongfullie taken by the vniust sentence of William earle of Dowglas, who had procured it to be assigned vnto his brother the forsaid Archembald, though the right remained in the said sir Iames Creichton. But yet when the said sir Iames Creichton could not kéepe that earldome without enuie of diuerse and sundrie persons, hée handled the matter so, that shortlie after it returned againe to the kings hands. Moreouer at this Creations of noble men. parlement, George Creichton was created erle of Cathnesse, & William Haie constable of Scotland was made earle of Erroll. There were also diuerse created lords of the parlement, whose titles were as follow; Darlie, Halis, Boid, Lile, and Lorne. After the breaking vp of the parlement, the king made a iournie against his aduersaries into Galloway, and with small adoo brought all the castels of that countrie into his possession, and then turning into Dowglasdale giuen in spoile to the men of warre. Dowglasdale, bicause the inhabitants thereof would not obeie him, he abandoned the spoile thereof vnto his souldiors, who practised no small crueltie against the inhabitants.

Herevpon the Dowglasses being driuen to their shifts, the lord Iames Hammilton of The counsell of the lord Hammilton. Cadzow was sent from them into England to sue for aid, but in vaine, for none there would be granted: wherevpon returning to his friends, he counselled the earle of Dowglas to trust to his owne forces; and sith the same were farre superior in number of men to the kings power, he gaue likewise counsell without delaie, to set vpon the king, that the matter might bée tried by chance of battell, the onelie meane to assure them of their liues and estates, for otherwise he saw not how anie vnfeined agreement might be concluded, the matter being now passed so farre foorth to an extremitie. But the earle of Dowglas vtterlie (as some write) Io. Maior. refused to fight against his souereigne and true liege lord, if any other meane might be found. Wherevpon diuerse great lords which were with him there on his side, being men of great wit, and no lesse experience, aduised him yet to keepe togither his host, till by their trauell and assistance a peace were concluded, and pardon obteined for all parts: for if the armie were once broken vp, all hope was then past (as they alledged) for anie indifferent conditions of peace to be obteined.

Herewith also, the lord Hammilton being wiser than the residue, bad the Dowglas farewell, The lord Hammilton departeth from the Dowglas. and so departed, concluding that he should neuer sée so faire a day againe, wherein he might haue cast the dice for the whole kingdome. And being thus departed from the Dowglas, he repaired to the king as then lieng at the siege of Abircorne, who sent him to the castell of Rosleine, there to remaine vnder safe kéeping with the earle of Orkenie, to whom the said castell belonged: but at length, the king did not onlie pardon the lord Hāmilton of all passed offenses, but also receiued him into such fauor, that he gaue him his eldest daughter in mariage, as after shall appeare. But now vpon the withdrawing thus of the said lord The earle of Dowglas his companie shrinketh from him. He withdraweth into England. Hammilton from the Dowglas, bicause the king had set foorth an open proclamation of pardon to all those that would forsake the earle of Dowglas, the most part of the same earles companie departed from him, by reason whereof he fled into England, togither with his brethren. The king lieng at the siege of Abircorne, lost diuerse of his men, besides manie that were wounded; but yet taking first a strong tower, being one of the chiefest limmes of that fortresse, shortlie after hee wan the rest.

The earle of Dowglas being withdrawne (as yée haue heard) into England, within a while after got togither certeine companies of men, and with the same returned againe into He inuadeth Scotland. Scotland by the west borders, in hope to find friends in those parties: but such as the king had appointed there to defend the countrie, assembling themselues togither, and setting vpon him, discomfited his people, siue his brother Archembald, and tooke the erle of Ormont The earle of Dowglas discomfited. Archembald Dowglas earle of Murrey slaine. Earle of Ormont taken. Donald earle of Rosse. prisoner, being first sore wounded. The baron of Baluay escaped into a wood, and so got away. The earle himselfe also (as Hector Boetius saith) escaped by flight, and got vnto Dunstafage, where finding Donald earle of Rosse and lord of the Iles, he procured him (being of nature inclined and readie inough to follow such counsell) to make warre in his fauour against the king. And after he had once set him on worke, he got him backe againe into England. Donald wasted not onelie the kings possessions that lay néere to Dunstafage, but also passing through Argile, did much hurt in all places where he came. He inuaded also the Ile of Arrane, and chased the bishop of Lismore, constreining him to take sanctuarie. This doone, he entered into Lochquhabir, and so into Murrey land, where he burnt the towne of Inuernes, and wan the castell by a guilefull traine.

In the meane time, the earle of Ormont after he was recouered of his hurts (as the said Boetius writeth) was presented to the king, and after he had remained in prison a certeine time, he was at length beheaded. Moreouer the countesse Beatrice, after The earle of Ormont beheaded. The countes of Dowglas Beatrice submitteth hir selfe to the K. The countes of Ros. she saw no hope left that the earle of Dowglas should recouer his former estate, came to the king, and submitted hirselfe, laieng all the blame in the earle, who had procured hir vnto such vnlawfull mariage with him, being hir former husbands brother. The king receiued hir right courteouslie, and gaue to hir the baronie of Baluay, to mainteine therwith hir estate. Shortlie after also the countesse of Rosse fled from hir husband, & came to the king for feare of hir husbands crueltie, wherof partlie she had alreadie tasted. The king because he had made the mariage betwixt hir and hir husband, assigned hir foorth sufficient reuenues also for the maintenance of hir estate. About the same time Patrike Patricke Thornton. Thornton one of the kings seruants, but a fauourer of the Dowglasse, siue Iohn Sandlands of Calder the kings cousine, and Alane Steward at Dunbreton, for that they fauored the contrarie faction: but the king getting the offendor into his hands, caused him and his complices to die for their wicked offense committed. The vniuersitie of Glascow was founded about this The vniuersitie of Glascow founded. 1455. Death of noble men. time by one Turnbull, bishop of that see. In the yeere following, died William Haie earle of Erroll, and constable of Scotland: also George Creichton earle of Catnes, and William Creichton chiefe of that familie.

In this meane while, the earle of Dowglas remaining in England, procured the Englishmen diuers times to make rodes into Scotland, wherby he lost (as the Scotish writers affirme) the loue of his owne countrimen, when they saw him thus ioine with the Englishmen, to the damage of his natiue land. At one time, Henrie earle of Northumberland, and the said earle of Dowglas inuaded the Mers, but taking little héed to themselues, and suffering their people to ride abrode to harie the countrie without order; Dowglas earle of Angus with a mightie armie of Scotishmen set vpon them, and put them to flight, sleaing diuers, and taking to the number of seuen hundred prisoners. Thus (as should appeare) the earle of Dowglas in vain sought to disquiet his countrie, for all his friends in Scotland continued faithfull to the king, who had granted peace to all other of the Dowglasses and their complices: for it was Gods will the matter should be taken vp without more bloudshed, that the right line of the Scotish kings might be preserued. [For (as it appeareth) he was Fr. Thin. 1454. Lesleus. lib. 8. pag. 305. amongst the English inuading Scotland, subdued and taken by the barons Iohnston and Cokpull, who presented him vnto the king, wherevpon the king after a sort banished him into the monasterie of Lendore, where he was bountifullie and honorablie receiued (according to his nobilitie) of the religious persons, in which place he liued manie yeeres, and then died.]

And though the almightie God might haue brought that to passe by other meanes, according as it should haue pleased his good will and omnipotent power; yet he chose this way, whereby the effussion of much bloud might be auoided, which by ciuill battell had béene spilled, if the parties hauing their harts filled with rancor & ire, had buckled togither in battell. But the K. vsing the aduise of his kinsman Iames Kenedie archbishop of S. Andrews, Iames Kenedie archbish of S. Andrews, chéefe chancellor to the king. compassed his purpose in the end, dispatching out of the way such as he anie waies foorth mistrusted, of which number namelie were the Dowglasses, whose puissance and authoritie not without cause he euermore suspected. Many haue reported (as before is said) that in the beginning king Iames the second, through feare of the great power of these Dowglasses, was in mind to haue fled the realme, but being recomforted by the counsell and authoritie of the said bishop Iames Kenedie, he aduanced his studie to matters of greater importance.

The said Kenedie turned the earle of Angus, being of the surname of the Dowglasses, The practise of bishop Kenedie. and brother to him by his mother, to take part with the king. He procured also diuers other of the same bloud and surname, to reuolt from the other confederats, and to submit themselues vpon promise of pardon vnto the kings mercie; and so infeebling the forces of such as were aduersaries to the king, in the end he had them all at his pleasure. It was Great power cause of suspicion. thought, that forsomuch as the Dowglasses had their lands lieng so vpon the west and middle marches of the realme, (that no man might beare anie rule in those parts, but onelie they themselues) if they had happilie ioined with the Englishmen, considering the great intelligence beside, which they had in all other parts of the realme, what by kinred and aliance, the realme might haue fallen into great perill: for truiie it is a dangerous thing (as Io. Maior saith) for the estate of a realme to haue men of great power and authoritie inhabiting on the borders and vttermost parts therof. For if they chance (vpon anie occasion giuen) to renounce their obedience to their naturall prince & supreme gouernor, the preiudice may be great and irrecouerable, that oftentimes thereof insueth; as well appeareth in the earles of March, and other before mentioned in this historie: and likewise in France by the duke of Burgognie, Britaine, and Normandie: for till those countries were incorporated and annexed vnto the crowne of France, the kings of that realme were oftentimes put to great hinderance through rebellion by them, whome they accounted for their subiects.

But now to returne where I left. After the Dowglasses were once dispatched, and things quieted, King Iames the second began then to reigne and rule reallie, not doubting the controlment of anie other person. For then he ordeined lawes for his people as seemed best to Lawes ordeined. his liking, commanding the same to be kept vnder great penalties and forfeitures. And being counselled chieflie by the bishop of saint Andrews, Iames Kenedie that was his vncle, and the earle of Orkenie, he passed through all the parts of his realme, granting a generall A generall pardon granted. pardon of all offenses passed. And so he ruled and gouerned his subiects in great quietnesse, and caused iustice so dulie to be ministred on all sides, that it was said in his daies, how he caused the rash bush to kéepe the cow. In the yéere 1455, the king held a 1455. A parlement holden. The Iles & high land quietlie gouerned. parlement, in which were manie good lawes made and established for the weale of all the realme, as in the bookes of the acts of parlement is conteined. He vsed the matter also in such wise with the principall capteins of the Iles, and of the hie lands, that the same were as quietlie gouerned, as anie part of the low lands, shewing all obedience as well in paieng such duties as they owed to the king for their lands, as also in readinesse to serue in the warres with great companies of men, as became them to doo: speciallie Donald lord of the Iles and earle of Donald earle of Rosse, and lord of the Iles. Rosse, who had before ioined himselfe in confederacie with the earles of Dowglas and Crawford against the king, and had taken into his hands the kings house, and castell of Inuernesse (as before ye haue heard) naming himselfe king of the Iles.

Neuerthelesse, he was now at length reconciled to the king, and gaue pledges for his good demeanor, and afterwards brought to the king three thousand men in aid at the siege of Roxburgh, * whose reconciliation was after this maner. When this Donald perceiued Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 11. aduerse fortune to besiege him on euerie side, he sent messengers to the king, crauing peace and pardon for himselfe and for his offenses. Who comming before the king (and with manie humble spéeches, remembring the manie parts of clemencie which the king had vsed to the earle of Crawford, and such as followed his faction) they did so purge the fault of Donald (by transferring the same to the fatall rage and iniurie of the present times, and by promising in his behalfe that hereafter he should liue most quietlie in dutifull obedience) that they mooued the kings mind to haue compassion vpon him.

But yet the king answered in a meane sort betwéene both, not vtterlie pardoning, nor flatlie reiecting him: "for (saith he) there be yet manie shewes extant of his wickednesse, and he hath not giuen foorth anie one token of a changed mind. Wherefore, to the end that we may beléeue the same to be true (which you haue promised in his behalfe) heereafter to become a dutifull subiect and louing neighbour to vs, and to those which are about him, he must with repentance (procéeding from an vnfeined toong) craue pardon from vs whome he hath greeuouslie offended, and (with sufficient restitution) recompense those whome (by spoiling) he had iniured: besides which also, he must with some woorthie exploit wipe awaie the memorie and blot of all his former committed wickednes. And although I well know that no vertue dooth more beséeme a kinglie maiestie than clemencie, yet we ought so to prouide, that (measuring all things by the line of reason) the wicked wax not so proud and rebellious (by ouermuch lenitie and loose gouernement) as the good may be excited to the honest performance of their dutie by fauour and iustice. Wherefore I will inioine a time to Donald, and the rest of his associats, wherein they may openlie shew some deeds of an altered disposition, and from hencefoorth we will so account of him, as his woorks and not his woords shall iustifie him to be. But in the meane time, I will him to rest in quiet, leauing it in the power of him and his, whether I, he, and they, will héereafter be accounted (by due deserts) happie or miserable." Which said, the messengers departed, and Donald rested satisfied.)

In the meane while great dissention rose in England betwéene the two houses of Dissention in England. Lancaster & Yorke; the king being principall of the house of Lancaster, was taken himselfe at the battell of saint Albons. But the queene with hir sonne the prince, and Henrie the yoong duke of Summerset, with diuers other fled into the north parts of England, and sent to the king of Scotland to desire him of aid, who vpon good aduise taken with his councell, for that king Henrie had euer kept well the peace with the realme of Scotland, and also for reuenge of his vncle the duke of Summerset his death, prepared an armie of twentie thousand men to passe into England: and in the meane time all the north parts of England, hearing that king Iames was readie to support the quéene of England, ioined with hir, and past forward into the south parts, constreining the duke of Yorke to flée the realme, and so king Henrie inioied the gouernement of his realme againe, and for that time concluded an agreement with the duke of Yorke his aduersarie; which lasted not long.

The duke of Yorke remembring how readie king Iames was to prepare an armie in support of his aduersarie king Henrie, procured the borderers to make incursions vpon the Scotish subiects, & would suffer no redresse to be had, nor daies of truce to be kept on the borders, as in time of peace the custome was. Wherevpon king Iames raised a power, and in King Iames inuadeth England. person entered with the same into England, dooing great hurt by destroieng diuers townes, castels and peiles in Northumberland, the bishoprike and other parts, till at length vpon faire promises made by the Englishmen, he returned into his owne countrie. [At this time, Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 308. The art of printing first inuented. 1458. the art of printing was first inuented in the citie of Mentz in Germanie, but whether to great commoditie or discommoditie of learning, I leaue to the iudgement of others, saith Lesleus.]

After this, king Henrie of England, perceiuing that the duke of Yorke by the counsell of the earle of Warwike, ceassed not to practise conspiracies against him, sent eftsoones to king Iames, requiring him of aid against them, and promised therefore to restore vnto the king of Scotland the lands in Northumberland, Cumberland, the bishoprike of Duresme, and such like, which the kings of Scotland had held before. This offer was accepted, and by treaties and contracts accorded, sealed, and interchanged betwixt the two princes (as the Scotishmen alledge.) The yéere next following, at the quéene of Englands desire to support hir against 1459. the house of Yorke, king Iames with a great armie entered England, but after that the quéene in the meane time had slaine the duke of Yorke, & got the vpper hand of hir enimies, at the same quéenes request, he retired into Scotland againe. Neuerthelesse shortlie after, when the earles of March and Warwike sought still to mainteine their quarrell against the quéene of England, she was constreined to withdraw into the north parts, and to desire 1460. king Iames to approch eftsoones with his armie vnto the borders: which he did, meaning to win the castels of Rocksburgh and Warke, which were amongest other things promised to be deliuered vnto him by king Henrie, and so comming to Rocksburgh, laied his armie round about that castell, and planted his siege in full warlike manner.

Héere the king hauing great experience in knowledge of shooting great artillerie, departed from his campe, accompanied with the earle of Angus, and others, and came to the trenches where the great ordinance was planted, which he caused to be shot off. And héere by great King Iames the second is slaine. misfortune, this woorthie prince Iames the second, was slaine by the slice of a great péece of artillerie, which by ouercharging chanced to breake, and slue not onelie the king standing somewhat néere it, but also hurt the earle of Angus, with other: being a notable president Alias 17. 23. Buchan. 1460. The buriall of Iames the second. The lamentation of the people. The amiable conditions of Iames the second. The issue of Iames the second. Iames the third king of Scotland. from hencefoorth, how such great princes approch so néere within danger of such péeces of ordinance, when they are shot off. He was thus killed the third day of August, in the yéere of his life 29, of his reigne 24, and after the incarnation 1460. His bodie was buried with all funerall obsequies according to his estate, within the monasterie of Holie rood house at Edenburgh, the people generallie lamenting his death with no lesse sorow and dolefull mone, than as is séene in a priuat house for the deceasse of the welbeloued maister and owner thereof.

In time of warre, amongest his subiects in the campe, he behaued himselfe so gentlie towards all men, that they séemed not to feare him as their king, but to reuerence & loue him like a father. He would ride vp and downe amongest them, and eat & drinke with them, euen as he had béene fellowlike with the meanest. He had issue by his wife quéene Marie thrée sonnes, and two daughters. His eldest sonne named Iames, succeeded him in the kingdome; the second named Alexander, was created duke of Albanie; and his third sonne called Iohn, was made earle of Mar. The eldest of his daughters the Hammilton had Alexander duke of Albanie. Iohn earle of Mar. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 310. in mariage (as before is said) and also after shall be mentioned.

* All the time of the reigne of this king, christian religion did greatlie flourish amongest the Scots: for there were amongest them twelue notable and famous bishops, whereof the chiefest were Iames Kennedie bishop of saint Andrewes, Turnebull bishop of Glascow, Thomas Spenser bishop of Aberden, and Henrie Lichton bishop of Murrey. At what time likewise there were manie religious abbats that kept such great houses, as both the nobilitie and communaltie trauelling through out the kingdome, did neuer almost lodge in anie publike hosterie, but in the monasteries: which were neuer vexed or spoiled, during the time of the ciuill warres of the kingdome. Beside these men of eminent learning, there flourished also Nicholas Deidone, and Iohn Eldmaire, singular diuines, with manie other doctors laudablie seene in all kind of learning. In the reigne of which king also, Charles the 7, king of Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 300. France, for singular seruice doone vnto him by the Scots, in the warres (betwéene the English and the French) did honorablie indow manie of the Scots (for recompense thereof) with manie rich possessions in Aquitaine, who by that meanes (setling themselues in that countrie) were the originall of manie woorthie families of that prouince, amongest which is that famous kinred of Caldell de la Campania in Tolouse, at this time greatlie flourishing, which had his beginning from Caldell a thane (or baron) being knight in the north parts of Scotland: for the grandfather of him which is now liuing, head of that house, did inioy the place of magistrat or ruler of the Capitoline in that citie, hauing that title confirmed to his posteritie. This mans sonne Peter Caldell being a senator in the high court of Tolouse (commonlie called the parlement) was for his singular learning and wisedome had in great honor of all men during his life, which stretched to extreame age. In whose place came Iohn (the eldest sonne of the said Peter) who dooth at this day possesse the roome of his father, as a senator of the said court of Tolouse. And his other children with great honor are indued with other offices of gouernement in the said citie.)

Some strange sights there appéered before the death of this king Iames the second: for the day before he was slaine, a blazing star was plainlie séene, which signified (as was A blasing starre. An hermophrodyt, that is, a person being both man and woman. thought) the death of the said king. In the yéere before the siege, there was in Dundee an hermophrodyt, that is, a person with both shapes, but estéemed for a woman onelie, till it was prooued, that lieng with hir maisters daughter nightlie where she dwelt, she had got the yoong damsell with child; for the which act, because she had counterfeited hir selfe a woman, and yet had wrought the part of a man, she was condemned to be buried quicke, and suffered according to that iudgement. At the same time, there was a certeine theefe, that with A wicked théefe that vsed to kill yoong persons and to eat them. his familie liued apart from the companie of men, remaining secretlie within a den in Angus called Fenisden, who vsed to kill yoong persons, and to féed on their flesh, for the which abhominable offense, being apprehended with his wife and all his familie, they were burnt to death. One of his daughters that was scarse twelue moneths of age, onelie excepted, the which being preserued and brought vp in Dundée, before she came to the age of twelue His daughter falleth to the like practise. yéeres, she was taken in the like crime for the which hir father died, wherevpon she was iudged to be buried quicke: and going to execution, when the people in great multitudes followed hir, in woondering at so horrible an offense committed by one of hir age and sexe, she turned to them that thus detested hir wicked dooing, and with a countenance representing hir cruell inclination, said to them: What néed you thus to raile vpon me, as if I had Hir words going to execeution. doone an heinous act contrarie to the nature of man? I tell you, that if you knew how pleasant mans flesh is intaste, there would none of you all forbeare to eat it. And thus with an impenitent and stubborne mind she suffered the appointed execution.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: