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AFTER the death of Iames the second, his sonne Iames the third a child of seuen yeares of age succeeded, and foorthwith was sent for to the siege of Roxsburgh, whither he was conueied by the quéene, a woman of a stout stomach, representing the manlike race of hir countrie
The stout stomach of the quéene. Gelderland, of the which she was descended. For comming wich hir sonne thus to the siege, she spent not time in lamenting and womanish bewailing the irrecouerable losse of hir husband, but rather in comforting the lords whose part had bin to haue comforted hir: and aboue all things she exhorted them with all diligence to imploie their whole indeuors and forces to the winning of that castell. Whose words so incouraged the capteins and whole armie, that the Roxsburgh castell taken and broken downe. 1461. I.M. siege was continued till the castell was woone, raced, and beaten downe flat to the ground: and the yoong king was crowned at Kelso, with the vniuersall consent and great reioising of all the noble men, and other being there present in the armie.

This doone, they besieged the castell of Warke, which likewise they tooke, and threw 1460. Lesle. downe, and afterwards the king with the nobles of his realme came to Edenburgh, to take Warke besieged and woon. Seuen gouernors chosen. order for the quiet gouernement of the realme. And because the king was yoong, there were chosen seuen regents to gouerne both king & realme, as these, the quéene his mother, Iames Kenedie bishop of S. Andrews, that was sisters sonne to Iames the first, the bishop of Glascow, the earles of Angus, Huntleie, Argile, and Orkeneie. These, so long as Iames Kenedie liued, agréed well togither about the gouernement of the realme; but within a while after his deceasse, they fell at square, or rather before, as appeareth by Hector Boetius, who saieth, that in the second yéere of this kings reigne, there was discord in brewing betwixt the quéene and the archbishop Kenedie, who perceiuing that the woman sought to vsurpe wholie the gouernement vnto hir selfe, withstood hir in that behalfe, in so much that it was doubted least the matter would haue broken foorth into some ciuill warre, if the bishops of Glascow, Dunkeld, and Aberden, and certeine abbats had not taken in hand to trauell betwixt the parties for an attonement, who did so much in the matter, that they compounded the variance in this wise.

The quéene mother was appointed to haue the charge of the kings person, and of his brethren, Alexander duke of Albanie, and Iohn earle of Mar, and likewise of his two sisters; but as for the administration and gouernance of the realme, she should leaue it vnto the peeres. There were therefore elected by common consent as rulers, the bishops of Glascow and Dunkeld, the earle of Orkeneie, the lord Graham, Thomas Boid, and the chancellor. About the same time, one Alane Keir, in hope to get the heritage of his brother, Iohn lord of Lorne tooke him, and kept him in prison. But Colen Campbell earle of Argile, taking great indignation with so presumptuous a part, gathered a power, and comming against Keir, tooke him, and set his brother at libertie, and brought the offendor vnto Edenburgh, where he died in prison. Moreouer, shortlie after Donald lord of the Iles and earle of Rosse, Donald of the Iles eftsoones rebelleth. who had serued obedientlie in the armie at Roxburgh, and was (as outwardlie appeared) well reconciled, began anew to vse his old maners, spoiling & harrieng the whole countrie of Atholl, and tooke the earle thereof, and the countesse his wife captiues with him into the Iles.

To represse his iniurious attempts, the regents togither were preparing an armie; but therewith came true aduertisements, that the said lord of the Iles, and other the principall offendors of his companie, were stricken through the hand of God with a certeine frensie or madnesse, and had lost all their ships and spoiles in the sea, so that the earle of Atholl Donald became mad. Hitherto hath Hector Boetius continued the Scotish historie. He was killed. 1461. Henrie king of England by safe conduct commeth into Scotland. and his ladie were restored, and those frantike persons were brought vnto saint Brides church in Atholl, for the recouerie of their health, but it would not be. Donald himselfe was afterward slaine in the castell of Inuernes by an Irishman that was a minstrell. In the yeare 1461, Henrie the sixt king of England being vanquished by his aduersarie Edward the fourth, purchased of king Iames the third a safe conduct for himselfe and a thousand horsse to enter into Scotland; and herevpon he came to Edenburgh, and was lodged in the house of the friers preachers, with his wife queene Margaret, and his sonne prince Edward. There was also with him the duke of Excester, and the duke of Summerset, with manie other of the English nobilitie.

* And to the end this firme amitie thus begun, might more increase, and be further Fr. Thin. strengthened: the two quéenes Margaret (of England) and Marie (of Scotland) both French Buchanan. (by birth and nature) began to intreat of a mariage (hoping by affinitie to establish that perfect amitie) to be solemnized betweene the daughter of Iames the second king of Scots, and the sonne of Henrie (king of England) being called prince of Wales, although none of them as yet was aboue seuen yeares old. Which mariage, Philip duke of Burgognie (vncle to the quéene of Scots, and deadlie enimie to the quéene of England) labored by all means to hinder, by his ambassador Gruthusius, a noble man and of great iudgement; for this Philip did vse such bitter enimitie against Reinold, grandfather to the son of king Henrie by the mothers side, that he did déepelie enuie anie good successe to happen to anie of that race, whereby it might increase or florish; and therefore sought occasion by all deuise to hinder it: for whose cause, and at whose request, the said mariage was at that time rather deferred, than vtterlie broken off. But the end thereof (which was greatlie feared by this Philip to be the consummation of the mariage) was by the aduerse fortune of king Henrie vtterlie disappointed. For (as after shall appeare) this Henrie being incouraged (by the beneuolence of the Scots towards him) and throughlie confirmed (by the letters of his friend sent vnto him) dispatched his wife into France to Reinold hir father, to procure The quéene went into France for aid. what aid she could of hir friends beyond the seas, to helpe to restore him to the kingdome: which iournie succeéeded not to hir in vaine, obteining succor from thence.)

The same time, king Henrie deliuered the towne & castell of Berwike into the Scotishmens Berwike deliuered to the Scotishmen. hands, whether by couenant thereby to haue the foresaid safe conduct granted, or of his own voluntarie will, to the end he might haue the more support and fauor amongest them, it is vncerteine by the variable report of writers. Neuerthelesse, shortlie after a truce was A truce for 15 yeares. taken betwixt king Iames and king Edward, for the tearme of fiftéene yeares, vpon wha conditions or promises made on king Edwards part I find not. This truce was concluded in the moneth of Maie, in the yeare 1462, at the citie of Yorke, whither had bin sent the 1462. bishop of Glascow, the earle of Argile, kéeper of the priuie seale, the abbat of Holie rood house, sir Alexander Boid, and sir William Crawston knights, ambassadors and commissioners for king Iames.

All things in this season were ordered in Scotland by the aduise and counsell of Iames Iames Kenedie the archbishop gouerneth the realme. Kenedie bishop of saint Andrews, a man of great wisedome and poicie, as well appeared in his prudent & sage gouernement of the realme, as well during the minoritie of this Iames the third, as also in the daies of his father king Iames the second. Pierre de Brezeie, Monsieur de la Varrenne sent foorth of France to aid the part of Margaret quéene of England. otherwise called le Seigneur de la Varenne, great seneshall of Normandie, was sent by the French king Lewes the eleuenth, with two thousand fighting men, to aid the part of king Henrie against king Edward. This Brezeie was one most in fauour with king Charles the seuenth, father vnto the said king Lewes, and therefore (as manie did suppose) he was appointed by K. Lewes (who greatlie loued him not) to be chiefe in this iourneie, to the end his life might be put in hazard and aduenture; notwithstanding, after some danger both of tempest on the sea, and also of the enimies hands, he wan the castels of Bam,burgh and Dunstanburgh, He kéepeth Anwike castell, and is besieged. which he cast to the ground, and after tooke in hand to kéepe the castell of Anwike, and being being besieged therein, sent for aid to the Scots.

George Dowglasse earle of Angus as then warden of the marches, immediatlie raised a He is rescued by the earle of Angus. Alias 13000. power of 23000 men, and comming with the same to the borders, chose foorth of all his numbers fiue thousand of the most able horssemen in all his armie, and comming with them to the castell about the middest of the day, tooke the Frenchmen away with him into Scotland: the English armie that lay there at siege beholding the maner, and not once making profer to fight with him. Some Englishmen there were, that would faine haue fought with the Scots; but other (whose counsell was followed) were otherwise minded, alledging that better it were to let them passe without incounter, sith they left the castell void, than to leopard vpon the doubtfull chance of battell, for though their number were not great, yet were they piked and chosen men, able to atchiue a great enterprise.

After this, the sixtéenth of Nouember, in the yeare 1463, the quéene of Scots, mother to 1463. Iames the third, died at Edenburgh, and was buried in the college of the Trinitie, which The quéene mother died. Adam Hepborns familiaritie with the quéene of Scots, mother to Iames the third. Alexander duke of Albanie taken on the sea. she hir selfe had founded. This woman, after the deceasse of hir husband Iames the second, liued somewhat dissolutelie, procuring Adam Hepborne of Hales a maried man to kéepe hir such familiar companie, as sounded greatlie to hir dishonor: for that she could not within the whole realme find some single man amongest all the nobilitie, with whome she might haue maried, & in some sort to haue auoided the greater open slander & infamie, In the same yeare, Alexander duke of Albanie, and brother to the king, was taken on the sea by the Englishmen in the moneth of Iune, as he was returning from his grandfather the duke of Gilder: but the bishop of saint Andrews Iames Kenedie, caused both the said duke and also the ship, with all the goods there in being, at the time of the taking of it, to be restored; for otherwise (as he flatlie protested) he would not kéepe the truce anie longer concluded betwixt the two realmes.

The duke of Summerset, in hope of great fauor which he should find in England, persuaded 1464. King Henrie returneth into England. king Henrie to passe thither, and with a great companie of Scotishmen he entered England, and manie of the north parts resorted vnto him: but at length, at his comming to Exam, the lord Montacute with a great power was readie to giue him battell, and there discomfited him and his whole armie. The duke of Summerset and the lords Hungerford and Rosse were taken and put to death; the duke at Exam, and the lords at Newcastell. King Henrie escaped verie hardlie into Scotland againe, and there remained a certeine space after, till at length he thought to returne into England in such secret wise, as he should not haue béene once knowen, till he might haue got amongest his friends, which would haue supported him; but such diligent watch was laid for him all alongst the borders, that he was espied, taken, and deliuered to king Edward his aduersarie, who shut him vp in the tower of King Henrie is imprisoned. London till he was at length there made away, as in the historie of England ye may sée more at large.

In the yeare 1466, that famous bishop Iames Kenedie departed this life, and was buried 1466. in the college of saint Sauiour, founded by him within the towne of saint Andrewes in most sumptuous wise. This prelat in prudent policie excelled all other Scotish bishops, of whome anie writer maketh mention. He kept the realme in good quiet, and obserued the truce concluded with the Englishmen, to the great weale and commoditie of the poore commons. He was verie rich, as appeared by sundrie buildings and woorks which he left behind him, as a memoriall of his name. [Whereof the thrée especiall things for rarenesse and Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 314. magnificence, were his college of saint Sauiour (wherein youth might be trained to learning and religion) the other his sepulchre, wherein he was buried (being a statelie péece of woorks, such as before had not béene accustomed for bishops of Scotland) & the third was a ship of woonderfull burden: all which thrée, the common people affirmed were of one price, and stood him in like charge.] Besides his bishoprike, he held in his hands the 1470. Buch. 1468. Lesle. 1469. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 315. 1469. commandarie of the abbeie of Pettinwéme, which was woorth vnto him eight hundred crowns by yeare. [Afterward, at the parlement holden in October and Ianuarie, there were manie edicts made for the benefit of the commonwealth, & chiefelie for the estate of the merchants; at what time also there was a proclamation made, that none of the Englishmen should beare anie office, nor receiue anie benefice or benefit in Scotland.]

In the yeare 1469, on the tenth day of Iulie, king Iames the third, being as then about twentie yeares of age, maried in the abbeie of Holie rood house néere Edenburgh, the ladie The mariage of Iames the third. Margaret, daughter to the king of Denmarke and Norwaie, which ladie was at the same time not past twelue yeares of age, some saie sixtéene. Hir father the king of Denmarke and Norwaie, in name of hir dower, transported and resigned to K. Iames all his right, title The king of Norwaie resigneth his title to the out Iles. and interest which be pretended to the out Iles. The ambassadors that were sent into Denmarke to conclude this mariage, and to conueie the bride into Scotland, were these: Andrew Busdeir bishop of Glascow, the bishop of Orknie, the lord Auandale chancellor of Scotland, and Thomas Boid earle of Arrane, who had maried the kings sister, and was now in his absence run into the kings displeasure; whereof his wife hauing intelligence, hearing of hir husbands arriuall with the other in the Forth, got out of Edenburgh, & comming on shipbord to him, gaue him to vnderstand what displeasure the king had conceiued against him: The earle of Arrane in the kings displeasure. who perceiuing himselfe in what danger he stood if he tooke land, returned backe into Denmarke, taking his wife with him.

The king herewith was so offended, that he caused both the said earle and his father to be attainted of high treason, and sent for his sister backe into Scotland, causing a diuorse in absence of hir husband to be sued & gotten foorth against them, marieng hir afterwards to lames lord Hamilton, to whome he gaue the earldome of Arrane, which hir former husband The lord Hamilton marieth the kings sister. Fr. Thin. had in gift before. Of this mariage, those of the house of Hamiltons are descended, & are néerest of bloud to the crowne of Scotland, as they pretend. [For (as saith Lesleus, lib. 8. pag. 316.) if the line of the Stewards faile, the crowne is to come to them.] But now to shew further what we find written concerning the maner and cause of the banishment of Giouan Ferrerio in his appendix of the Scotish historie. the afore remembred Thomas Boid, Giouan Ferrerie, in his appendix of the Scotish historie annexed vnto Hector Boetius lastlie printed at Paris in the yeare 1574, agreeth not with that which ye haue red before. For as he telleth the tale, the said lord Boid being one of the gouernors of the realme, elected thereto (as before ye haue heard) within short time grew The lord Boid beareth all the rule about the king. so far in fauor with the king, that he might doo all things with him at his pleasure, although his associats in authoritie did neuer so much go about to hinder his deuises: by reason whereof, he séemed to vsurpe the whole rule & administration of the realme into his owne hands, sore to the griefe of those his said associats being ioined with him in like office.

Hereof the state of the common-wealth through the dissention thus bred among the Through default of agréement in the gouernors, euill disposed men wax bold to woorke mischiefe. gouernors, was brought into a miserable plight; for iustice in most places wanted hir due course, so as théeues and robbers taking boldnesse thereof, not onelie vpon the borders, but also elsewhere, began to exercise great outrage, to the breach of publike peace, and namelie the inhabitants of the out Iles fell to their woonted trade of pilfering, so that passing ouer in their long boats or barges, and landing here & there on the shore, they tooke preies of cattell and other goods, greatlie to their profit, and no lesse damage of the people that inhabited on the coasts ouer against them. In the north parts also, seditious tumuits amongest the nobles, gentlemen, and people were raised, to the great disquieting of the whole countrie. Such disorders continued no small time, and because the said Thomas lord Boid bare greatest rule about the king, the blame (as it commonlie happeneth) was imputed to him.

At length, when the king was growen to ripe yeares, aud able to sée to the administration They that be in authoritie be euer subiect to the spitefull blow of enuies dart. of the common-wealth himselfe, he was admonished by certeine graue personages to haue some regard, that such misorders as disquieted the whole state of the realme, might be reformed. Herevpon he called a parlement, in the which, whether through enuie that the lords had conceiued against the lord Boid, or for that his dooings no lesse deserued such complaint, was exhibited by generall voices of the stats against him, that it was decreed by authoritie of the whole assemblie, that he should come to answer in iudgement such crimes The lord Boid is accused. He refuseth to be tried by way of arrainment. wherewith he was charged; but when he refused so to doo, and in contempt of the kings authoritie got togither a power of armed men to defend him from iniurie, that might séeme (as he pretended) to be offered him: at length, the king was driuen of necessitie to make preparation for the leuieng of an armie to apprehend him by force. Whereof Boid being He fléeth into England. aduertised, fled into England, because he perceiued himselfe not able to resist the kings power. The king assured that he was thus auoided out of his realme, banished him for euer, and seized vpon his lands and goods as forfeited.

After this, when the said Boid saw no hope to returne againe into the kings fauor, and finding no great comfort among the Englishmen, he passed from thence into Denmarke, He passeth into Denmarke. where he remained till the mariage was concluded betwixt the king, and the ladie Margaret, daughter to the king of Denmarke, as ye before haue heard: and then in hope by occasion of this mariage to obteine pardon, returned now in companie of the bride, and of those His vaine hope to obteine pardon. ambassadors that were sent to haue the conueiance of hir into Scotland: neuerthelesse, vnderstanding by his wife that came to him on shipboord before he set foot on land, that the kings displeasure continued still towards him so greatlie, that if he came on land, he should be sure to lose his head, he returned into Denmarke, and tooke his wife with him; as before is mentioned. Finallie he went into Italie, where at length he was murthered by He goeth into Italie. He is murthered. one, whose wife he went about to allure for the satisfieng of his sensuall lust. Before he was diuorsed from his wife the kings sister, he begat on hir a sonne, the which in the daies of king lames the fourth, in a priuat quarrell that rose betwixt him and an other noble man, chanced to be slaine. Thus much touching the lord Thomas Boid of Kalmarnocke out of Ferrerio, who also in report of the matter touching the mariage betwixt the king and the daughter of Denmarke, somewhat varieth from an other that writ thereof.

The ambassadors that were sent vnto Christierne king of Denmarke & Norwaie in the 1468. The ambassadors sent vnto Denmarke as Ferrerio saith. yeare 1468, as the said Ferrerio affirmeth, were these; Andrew bishop of Glascow, William bishop of Orkeneie, Andrew lord of Anandale chancellor of the realme, Martine Wane the great almoner, & the kings confessor, Gilbert de Kericke archdeacon of Glascow, Dauid Creichton of Crauston, & Iohn Shaw of Halie. These ambassadors being dispatched into Denmarke in Iulie, in the yeare aforesaid, came at length to Haffnen, where K. Christierne then remained, and were of him ioifullie receiued, & well heard concerning their sute, in so much at length, after he had proponed the matter to his councell about the eight of September, it was agréed in this sort, that the ladie Margaret, daughter to the said king Christierne, should be giuen in mariage vnto K.lames of Scotland, and that the Iles of Orkeneie, being The mariage concluded. The Iles of Orkeneie and Shetland ingaged. in number 28, and likewise the Iles of Shetland, of which there are eighteene, should remaine in possession of the kings of Scotland, till either the said king Christierne or his successors in name of the mariage monie should pay vnto king Iames, or to his successors, the summe of fiftie thousand florens of the Rheine. This mariage was thought, by reason of this ingaging of those Iles, right profitable vnto the realme of Scotland, because of the controuersie and variance which had continued long before those daies betwixt the kings of Scotland and Denmarke, about the right of possessing those Iles.

In the moneth of Nouember next insuing, after the mariage had béene consummate in 1469. lulie before, within the abbeie church of Holie rood house (as before ye haue heard) or in saint Giles church in Edenburgh (as other write) the thrée estates were called to assemble in Edenburgh, where the queene was crowned, and the parlement holden, the most part of the lords remaining still in Edenburgh all the next winter: and in the summer following, 1470. the king and quéene made their progresse into the north parts, and were honorablie receiued in the principall cities and townes where they came, and likewise by the nobles of the countrie, to the great reioising of the whole realme. After their returning to Edenburgh, the king called a parlement in the moneth of Maie 1471, in the which among other things 1471. it was ordeined, that the lords, barons, and burroughs of the realme, should build ships and boats, and prouide nets for fishing. Also it was ordeined that none should weare silks in The like act for shooting was instituted by king Iames the first. An. 1425. Iohn Maior. 1472. dublet, gowne, or cloake, except knights, minstrels, & heralds; except they might dispend one hundred pounds in lands by yéere: and that the football and other vnlawfull games should be debarred, and the exercise of shooting mainteined. Iames eldest sonne to king lames the third, was borne the tenth day of March, in the yéere 1472, who afterwards succéeded his father, and was called Iames the fourth. Christierne K. of Denmarke, to congratulate the happie birth of this yoong prince being his nephue by his daughter, released The right to Orkeneie and Shetland resigned. all the right, title & claime which he or his successors might haue to the Iles of Orkeneie and Shetland.

A strange comet or blasing starre (as we call it) appeared in the south, from the A blasing starre. 1473. seuenteenth day of Ianuarie, vnto the eightéenth of Februarie, and was placed betwixt the pole and the pleiades, that is to say, the seuen starres. A great ship built by Kenedie the late archbishop of saint Andrews, called the bishops barge, brake and was lost beside Banburgh, A shipwrack. being fraught with merchandize, the twelfth of March. Manie merchantmens seruants and other passengers were drowned with hir, some escaped by boat, and were taken by the Englishmen, among whome was the abbat of saint Colme, who was constreined to pay vnto his taker one lames Kar foure score pounds for his ransome yer he could be suffered to depart. The abbasie of Dunfermling being vacant, the couent chose one of their owne moonks called Alexander Thomson, and the king promoted Henrie Creichton abbat of Pasley thervnto, whom the pope admitted, & Robert Shaw parson of Minto was preferred Abbeies giuen by vnlawfull means. by the king vnto the abbasie of Pasley, and then in such wise began promotings of secular priests to abbasies at the princes request, and the laudable elections ancientlie vsed, made void: bicause the court of Rome admitted such as the princes made sute for and named, getting great rewards and notable summes of monie thereby, so that neither the bishops durst admit such as the couents elected, nor such as were elected durst pursue their right, and so the abbasies were bestowed vpon such as followed the court, and liued courtlie, secularlie, and voluptuouslie, to the great slander of religious men, which by the naughtie examples of their gouernors fell to the works of wickednesse, wherevpon dailie much euill increased, and vertue in all estates decaied.

This yéere in September, the indulgence of the sée of saint Andrews was published by The bishop of S. Andrews made archbishop. 1474. Patrike Graham bishop thereof, and the same sée erected into the dignitie of an archbishops sée, at the sute of the said Patrike, who gaue information to the pope, that bicause the archbishop of Yorke was metropolitan of Scotland, and that there was oftentimes warre betwixt the realmes of England and Scotland, the Scotishmen could not haue accesse to their metropolitan, speciallie in cases of appellation. And therefore the pope (as some write) thought it reason to make saint Andrews primat and metropolitan of Scotland, and ordeined Primat and metropolitan. Tweluebishops in Scotland. that the twelue other bishops of Scotland should be vnder his primasie, who would not agrée therto; but promised the king by way of a taxation eleuen thousand marks for his maintenance against the said archbishop: and the prelats sent to Rome about this matter. This yéere was a great death in the realme of Scotland, so that where a parlement was called 1476. in September, it was proroged vntill the twelfe day after Christmas. In Ianuarie the parlement was holden at Edenburgh, in which Iohn lord of the Iles and earle of Ros was atteinted The lord of the Iles atteinted. partlie for his owne euill déeds, but most speciallie for the defaults of his father Donald lord of the Iles.

In Maie, in the yéere 1477, the king raised a puissant armie of the most able men vpon 1446. Lesle. the north side of the water of Forth, to pursue the lord of the Iles both by sea and land. The king raised an armie. The earle of Crawford was made admerall of the armie by sea, and the erle of Atholl the kings vncle by his father was lieutenant of the armie by land. But such meanes was vsed by the earle of Atholl, that the lord of the Iles humbled himselfe to the kings pleasure, The lord of the Iles submitteth himselfe. vpon certeine conditions; and therevpon in the beginning of Iulie next insuing, the said lord of the Iles came to the parlement vnto Edenburgh, and there was the agéement made and confirmed betwixt the king and him: he resigned into the kings hands all the right He resigneth Ros, Cantire, and Knapden. he had to the earledome of Rosse, the lands of Cantire and Knapden, which earledome the king annexed to the crowne, and pardoned him and his seruants of all offenses and transgressions before that day committed, and inuested him anew in the lordship and seigniorie of the Iles, and other his lands not released, to hold the same of the king by the seruice of ward and reliefe. The king also gaue vnto the earle of Atholl for his diligence shewed, in reducing the said lord of the Iles vnto order, the lands and forrest of Clouie.

There was an inquisitor called Husman this yeere sent by pope Sextus into Scotland, to 1477. An inquisitor sent from the pope. The archbishop is not well handled. Depriued. 1478. Lesle. Put in prison. examin by vertue of his commission Patrike Graham archbishop of saint Andrews, whose examination and proofes being sent vnto the pope, he pronounced him an heretike, schismatike, and simoniake, and declared him accurssed, condemning him to perpetuall prison: and so he was degraded from all orders, cure, and dignitie of ecclesiasticall office, and William Schews archdeacon of the same sée was promoted in his place, to whome he was also committed to sée him safelie kept in prison. He was first sent vnto saint Colmes inch, and from thence to Dunfermling, and lastlie to Lochleuin, where he died, and was buried in saint Sarffis Ile in Lochleuin. The said William Schewes was consecrated archbishop of saint 1478. Lesle. 1479. Wil. Schews is consecrated archbishop. Andrews on Passion sunday in Lent, within Holie rood house, the king being present, and manie of the nobles of the realme. And there the said archbishop receiued the pall, as a signe of his archbishops dignitie, and so was confirmed primat and legat of the realme, notwithstanding the impediment made against Graham before by the bishops about the same.

This yéere also Alexander duke of Albanie was committed to prison by the king his The duke of Albanie imprisoned. He escaped. brother, within the castell of Edenburgh, through euill counseil; but he brake out and escaped to Dunbar, where he caused the castell to be furnished with all necessaries: and leauing his seruants within it, passed himselfe into France, and was there of the king honorablie receiued, and louinglie intreated. In the beginning of Maie following, the king besieged Edenburgh besieged. that castell by his lieutenant the earle of Auendale, who lost at that siege thrée good knights, the lord of Lute, sir Iohn Schaw of Sauch, and the lord of Cragiwallase, with the shot of a gun, & lohn Ramseie was slaine with a stone cast by hand. When they within saw they could not long indure, they left the castell and fled awaie by sea, and the earle of Auendale entered, and found it void of all things whereof anie account was to be made.

Doctor Ireland being graduat in diuinitie at Paris, was sent from the French king vnto the 1479. Lesl. Doctor Ireland sent vnto the king of Scots. 1479. Lesl. 1480. Iohn Steward a prisoner. king of Scots, to persuade him to make war vpon England, to the end that king Edward should not aid the duke of Burgognie. And moreouer, he had in charge to mooue for the pardon of the duke of Albanie, and shortlie after returned with answer. The erle of Mar called Iohn Steward the kings yoonger brother, this yéere in the moneth of December, was taken in the night within his owne house, and conueied vnto Cragmiller, where he was kept as prisoner by the kings commandement, and after was conuict of conspiracie for witchcraft which he should practise against the king and herevpon in Cannogate beside Edenburgh, his veines were cut, and so he bled to death. There were manie and diuerse Was put to death. witches and sorcerers, as well men as women conuicted of that crime, and burnt for the same at Edenburgh. The king sent ambassadors into England to make sure to haue the ladie Cicill, daughter to king Edward, ioined in mariage with his sonne lames the prince, which was granted, and the mariage concluded to be solemnized, when the prince of A mariage concluded. 1480. Lesle. Scotland should come to perfect age: as in the English historie it more plainelie appeareth. Doctor Ireland, with a knight, and another religious man, came againe to king lames from the French king, to persuade him to make warres against England: and at length king lames and his nobles condescended to breake the peace, wherewith Thomas Spenser bishop of Bishop Spenser died. Abirden (that was full tenderlie beloued of king Edward, and had beene euer a mediator for peace betwixt the kings of England, France, and Scotland, & the duke of Burgognie) when he heard that warre would follow, he died through griefe of mind and melancholie at Edenburgh, in the moneth of Aprill. The king sent two heralds vnto king Edward, 1481. King Iames sent an ambassage vnto K. Edward. K. Edward sent a nauie into Scotland. requesting him not to aid the duke of Burgognie, nor anie other against the king of France: for if he did, he must néeds support the Frenchmen, by reason of the league betwixt France and Scotland: but king Edward would not admit those heralds to his presence, but kept them still without answer, till he had sent foorth a nauie of ships into the Forth before Lieth, Kingorne, and Pettenwen, and then were the heralds licenced to returne. The English fléet entering the Forth, tooke eight great ships which they found in that riuer, and Ships taken and burnt. landing at Blacknesse, burnt the towne, and a great barge that laie there at rode, and so returned.

The king assembled an armie from all parts of the realme, and amongest other, the lord of The king of Scotland prepared an armie. A legat inhibited him. the Iles came with a great companie: and now the king being readie to enter into England, there came to him a messenger of king Edward, sent from a cardinall legat that was resident as then in England, commanding king lames by authoritie apostolike, not to procéed anie further in his purposed iournie, to the end that peace being obserued, all christian princes might bend their powers against the Turke & Infidels. This commandement did king lames obeie, and so discharged his armie, notwithstanding that king Edward sent foorth his nauie againe into the Forth, to the Ile of Ins Keith, but they did no hurt: for the countrie An other nauie sent into Scotland. Berwike assieged by an armie of Englishmen. men kept them off. The Scotish borderers inuaded the English marches, destroied townes, and led manie prisoners awaie with them into Scotland. The king of England caused Berwike to be assieged both by sea and land all the winter season, and ouerthrew a wall that was newlie made about it for defense thereof: but the Scots within it defended the towne for that time so stoutlie, that the enimies might not win it from them.

The duke of Albanie, after his wife was dead, whom he had maried in France, perceiuing 1482. The duke of Albanie commeth into England. himselfe not so well intreated as before, came ouer into England, where king Edward receiued him verie honorablie, promising (as some haue written) to make him king of Scotland: and therevpon assembled an armie of thirtie thousand men, with a great nauie by sea to inuade Scotland, and appointed capteins and leaders of the armie by land, his owne brother the duke of Glocester, the duke of Albanie, and others. The king of Scots hearing of their approch to inuade his realme, raised a puissant armie to resist them, and came forward with the same vnto the towne of Lowder, where being incamped, the principall nobles of his realme, as Archembald earle of Angus, George earle of Huntlele, lohn earle of The presumptuous demeanour of the Scotish nobilitie. Lenox, Iames earle of Buchquhane, Andrew lord Greie, Robert Iord Lile, and diuerse other being armed, entered the kings lodging, where they accused him of diuerse things doone and practised by him contrarie to his honor and the common-weale of his realme; and speciallie, because he vsed yoong counsell of lewd persons, vnwoorthie and base of birth, such as Thomas Cochram, whome of a mason he had made earie of Mar, through whose deuise and Thomas Cochram. Imbasing of coine. counsell he had caused to be coined certeine monie of copper, not conuement to be currant in anie realme, which the people refused, and so great dearth and hunger was raised through the countrie. Moreouer, that he would not suffer the noble men to come néere his presence, nor to take their counsell in gouerning the realme, but gaue himselfe to voluptuous pleasure, setting naught by the quéene his lawfull wife, kéeping a naughtie harlot called the The kings concubine named Daisie. Daisie in hir place.

Also they laied to his charge, that he had put his brother the earle of Mar to death, and banished his other brother the duke of Albanie, and therefore they could not suffer him and the whole realme to be longer misled by such naughtie persons. And héerevpon they tooke Thomas Cochram earie of Mar, William Roger, and Iames Hommill tailor, who with Cochram earle of Mar and other hanged. others being conuicted, were hanged ouer the bridge at Lowder. Onelie Iohn Ramseie a yoong man of eightéene yéeres of age, for whome the king made great instance, was pardoned of life. This doone, they returned to Edenburgh, and appointed the king himselfe to be kept The king kept vnder arrest. in the castell by the earle of Atholl, and in the meane time, the second of August, they sent Andrew Steward elect bishop of Murrey, & Iohn lord Darneleie to the English armie, lieng then at Tuider, to take truce for thrée moneths: but the dukes of Glocester and Albanie came forward vnto Restalrig, where they incamped without anie resistance. The English nauie lieng also in the Forth was readie to assist their fellowes by land.

Heerevpon, certeine noble men of Scotland, as the archbishop of saint Andrewes, the bishop of Dunkeld, Colin earle of Argile, and Andrew Steward lord Auendale, great chancellor of Scotland, went to the English campe, & treating with the two dukes, agréed vpon certeine articles, whereby the duke of Albanie was receiued into his countrie againe The duke of Albanie is reconciled. in peaceable wise, and had giuen to him the castell of Dunbar with the earledoms of March and Mar. He was proclamed also generall lieutenant to the king. And so the Englishmen. returned homewards, and came vnto Berwike, where they hauing woone the towne as they passed that waies into Scotland, had left the lord Stanleie, and sir Iohn Eldrington, with foure thousand men, to kéepe a siege before the castell, and now they inforced the same: but the lord of Halis then capteine within that castell, defended it verie manfullie, sending to the duke of Albanie and other, the lords of the councell, for reliefe to raise the siege. The The castell of Berwike is taken. duke in déed raised an armie, and came to Lamer moore, but when they within perceiued that through dissention betwixt the king and the nobles of the realme, they were not like to be rescued, they yéelded the castell into the Englishmens hands, the 24 of August, in that yéere 1482, after it had remained now at this time in the Scotishmens hands the space 1482. of 21 yeeres.

The king remaining as prisoner in Edenburgh castell, all things were ordered by the The king a prisoner. duke of Albanie, Andrew Steward lord of Auendale, chancellor, and others, till the said duke, the archbishop of saint Andrewes, the chancellor, the earle of Argile, and diuerse others, went to Striueling to visit the quéene and prince, where the duke was persuaded by the quéene, without knowledge thereof giuen to the other, to go vnto Edenburgh, and to restore the king vnto libertie. The duke accordinglie to the quéenes pleasure comming to The king is set at libertie. Edenburgh, besieged the castell and wan it, remooued the earle of Atholl, and set the king and all his seruants at libertie, for the which good turne, the king shewed great tokens of loue to his brother the duke, although it lasted not long. The earle of Argile, the bishop of saint Andrewes, the chancellor, and others, which remained at Striueling, when they heard those newes, fled into their owne countries: and shortlie after, the bishop of S. Andrewes, at request of the king, resigned his bishoprike in fauor of maister Andrew Steward prouost of The archbishop resigneth. Glenelowden, and was content in recompense thereof, with the bishoprike of Murrey. This yéere there was great theft, reiffe, and slaughter in diuerse parts of the realme, by occasion of 1483. the variance betwixt the king and his nobles.

* Charles the eight, king of France (in the beginning of his kingdome) sent into Scotland Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 323. certeine ambassadors, which were Beroald or Bernard Steward, lord of Aubignie, marshall of France, and Peter Mallart doctor of both lawes, to renew the old league betwéene this Iames the third, and the king of France: for which cause the king of Scots and the nobles assembled at Edenburgh, where (with the French ambassadors) séeking all the rols of all the ancient leagues, they reconfirmed the same, with the seales of both parts set therevnto; 1483. which doone, the Frenchmen (with whome were sent into France diuerse Scots) returned home. Amongest the Scots, one Robertson was the chiefe, a man famous for the feates of battell, and hauing imploied his seruice on the parts of the French in the Italian warres, which being ended, the said chosen soldiors following the conduct of Beroald Steward, went into England with Henrie earle of Richmont, after king, whose part they tooke against Richard at that time vsurper vpon the English, for which cause the earle of Richmont (when he was after king) did deerelie loue the Scots.

The seditions also, which a long time did burne in France, caused deadlie wars to grow betwéene the king of France and the duke of Burgognie. Wherevnto, when the death of Charles (the last duke of Burgognie, slaine at Nants by the duke of Loraine) did set end: Charles the eight of that name, king of France (assembling a great armie) did applie all his force and deuise to expell Alphonse out of the kingdome of Naples, who at that time succéeded happilie vnto him, by reason that Alphonse was then easilie remooued. But after, when the Neapolitane people did reuolt (from the French faction) to Ferdinand the son of Alphonse, there arose great flames of warre and sedition through Italie, ech part studieng to support the strength of his owne. The administration of which warre against Ferdinand, was chieflie performed by the Scots, as principall capteins of that armie, or at the least equall with the best. Of which Scots the chiefe were Alexander duke of Albanie, son to Iames the second king of Scots, Iohn also duke of Albanie sonne of this Alexander, George Montgomerie lord of Lorges, Bernard Steward (who was after made viceroy of Naples, which office he wiselie manie yéeres did execute) Robert Steward marshall of France, Nicholas Scot, and others, wherof manie (for their woorthie exploits) were by the French honorablie rewarded with great possessions. Who also (as manie of the Scots before had doone) planting themselues in Isubria, became the authors of manie ancient families. For though Certeine noble families in Italie and Isubria sproong from the Scots. by the euill custome of common spéech, they reteine the name of Scot (as taken of their countrie) yet by the ensignes, and tokens which they had and vsed, it may easilie be knowne of what families the Scots their ancestors did descend.

Wherefore it followeth by most certeine coniecture, that the ancient familie of the earles (to whome vse of spéech hath long obteined the surname of Scots) flourishing in Placentia, had their originall from the stocke of the Dowglasses, as the armes of them both doo well witnesse: which kindred (besides manie other earles thereof) is at this day notablie beautified by Christopher Scot, who (with singular pietie and learning) dooth gouerne the church of Caualion. Againe, there is another familie of Scots, commonlie called the Scoties in Isubria, whereof Bernard Scotia and Horace his brother (the one a senator of Mantua, and the other a prelat) are both famous, as well for their vertue, as nobilitie: also Francis Scotia, lord of Pine and Mondone, and other nobles of the marquesdome of Saluce, are descended from the Scots, with the large familie of the Schities (descended of lames Orlando Scot, which we haue heard confirmed by the armes of that familie) are well aduanced about Cremona, Mantua, and Verona, as are also the Paparons in Rome (so called for their armes and ensignes) whose ancestors to be of the Scotish nobilitie, is witnessed by a woorthie monument thereof in the church of saint Marie the great, in which the father and the son called Paparons, being there buried, are both adorned with the ensignes of knighthood out of Scotland.)

The duke of Albanie, for that he vnderstood there was poison giuen to him in drinke in Poison giuen. the kings chamber, and therefore stood in feare of his life, fled from the court vnto the castell of Dunbar, whereby insued great discord. The king fearing the displeasure of his nobles, got him also into the castell of Edenburgh. The earles of Angus, Buchquhane, and others, The king is forsaken. Lords are summoned. left the king, and assisted the duke of Albanie. And the king through counsell of certeine meane persons whome he had againe taken vnto him, summoned the duke and other his assistants, to come to answer for such treason as he had to lay against them, & withall prepared an armie to besiege Dunbar, wherof the duke being aduertised, fled into England, and afterwards being accompanied with the earle of Dowglasse, and a great number of Englishmen, inuaded Scotland vpon the west marches, where manie Englishmen were slaine Scotland inuaded. and taken by the resistance of the lords Cokpull, Iohnston, and others, the duke was put to flight, and the earle of Dowglasse taken and brought to the king, who because he was an aged man, and had béene long banished his countrie, was sent to the abbeie of Lundoris, where Earle Dowglasse sent vnto an abbeie. The duke of Albanie is blamed. he remained the rest of his daies, and at length, departing this life, was buried there.

The duke of Albanie for the losse of that armie, was blamed of the king of England, and therevpon taking a misliking, secretlie departed ouer into France by the helpe of Iohn Liddell, sonne to sir Iames Liddell knight, who afterwards lost his life for the same. The duke was well interteined in France by the king there: and finallie running at tilt with Lewes duke of Orleance, was hurt with the splint of a speare, and thereof died. He left behind him two sonnes, Iohn duke of Albanie, that was after gouernor and tutor to king lames the fift, and Alexander that was after bishop of Murrey, and abbat of Scone. This yéere the lord Hume, Torreklis, Oliphant, and Drummond, were made lords of the parlement. In the yéere 1484, the king sent the archbishop of saint Andrewes vnto Rome, for certeine 1484. The archbishop is sent to Rome. The pope sent to intreat for peace. Commissioners appointed on the behalfe of the king of England & Scotland, to treat for a peace at Nottingham. priuileges which he obteined. And the same yéere, pope Innocent the eight of that name, sent the bishop of Imola to treat of peace, betwixt Richard king of England, & Iames king of Scotland. Iames king of Scots, hauing not long before made diuerse incursions and rodes into England, and that to his profit, he sued therevpon for a truce, which came to passe euen as king Richard wished, so that condescending to haue a communication, commissioners were appointed for both parts to méet at Notingham, the seuenth day of September next insuing.

For the king of Scots there appeered Colin earle of Argile, the lord Campbell, the lord chancellor of Scotland, William bishop of Aberden, Robert lord Lile, Laurence lord Oliphant, Iohn Drummond of Stubhall, Archembald Quitelaw archdeacon of Lawden, and secretarie to king Iames, Lion king of armes, and Duncan Dundas. For king Richard, there came Richard bishop of saint Assaph, Iohn duke of Norffolke, Henrie earle of Northumberland, Thomas lord Stanleie, George Stanleie lord Strange, Iohn Greie lord Powes, Richard lord Fitzhugh, Iohn Gunthorpe kéeper of the kings priuie seale, Thomas Barrow maister of the rols, sir Thomas Brian chiefe iustice of the common plées, sir Richard Rateliffe knight, William Catesbie, & Richard Salkeld esquires. These councellors in the later end of September, after sundrie meetings and communications had togither, concluded (as followeth) a peace to be had A peace concluded for thrée yéeres. betwixt both the realmes for the space of thrée yéeres, the same to begin at the rising of the sunne, on the 29 of September in the yéere 1484, and to continue vnto the setting of the sunne on the 29 of September in the yéere 1487.

During which terme, it was agréed, that not onelie all hostilitie and warre should ceasse betwixt the two realmes, but that also all aid and abatement of enimies should be auoided, & by no colorable meanes or waie in anie case vsed. The towne and castell of Berwike to remaine in the Englishmens hands, for the space of the said terme, with the same bounds as the Englishmen possessed it at that season, when it was deliuered to the Scotishmen by king Henrie the sixt. It was likewise condescended, that all other castels, holds and fortresses, during the tearme of the said three yéeres, should abide in the hands of those that held them at that present, the castell of Dunbar onelie excepted. This castell of Dunbar The castell of Dunbar in the Englishmens hands. was deliuered vnto the Englishmen by the duke of Albanie, when he fled into France, and so remained in their hands at that time of concluding this truce.

Héerevpon (by reason the Scotish commissioners had not authoritie to conclude anie full An article for the castell of Dunbar. agréement for that castell, vnlesse the same might be restored vnto the king their maisters hands) it was accorded, that if the king of Scots, within the space of fortie daies next insuing, did intimate his resolute refusall to be agreeable, that the said castell should remaine in the Englishmens hands aboue the space of six moneths, that then during that terme of six moneths, those that kept the castell for the Englishmen should remaine in quiet, and not be troubled nor molested by anie kind of meanes by the said king of Scots, or anie other by his procurement, so that they within the castell likewise absteining from making anie issues or reisses vpon the Scotish people. And if after that the said terme of six moneths were once expired, it should chance that anie warre arose for defending or recouering the said castell, yet the truce should indure for all other rights and possessions; notwithstanding that it might be lawfull to doo what lay in anie of their powers, either for winning or defending the foresaid castell, as though no trcce had béene concluded.

It was further agreed, that no traitor of either realme should be receiued by the prince An article for traitors. of either realme; and if anie traitor or rebell chanced to arriue in either realme, the prince thereof to deliuer him vpon demand made. Scots alreadie abiding in England & sworne An article for Scotishmen alreadie being in England. An article for the wardens of the marches. A clause to be put in safe conducts. An article for such as should serue either princes in warre. to the king there, may remaine still, so their names be certified to the Scotish king with in fortie daies. If anie warden of either realme should inuade the others subiects, he to whome such warden is subiect, shall within six daies proclame him traitor, and certifie the other prince therof within 12 daies. And in euerie safe conduct this clause should be conteined; Prouided alwaies that the obteiner of this safe conduct be no traitor. If anie of the subiects of either prince doo presume to aid, helpe, mainteine, or serue anie other prince against anie of the contractors of this truce, then it shall be lawfull for him, to whome he shewed himselfe enimie, to apprehend and attach the said subiect, going, comming, or tarieng within anie of his dominions.

Colleagues comprised in this truce (if they would assent thereto) on the English part Colleagues comprised in the truce. were these: the king of Castile and Leon, the king of Arragon, the king of Portingale, the archduke of Austrich & Burgognie, and the duke of Britaine. On the Scotish part, Charles the French king, Iohn king of Denmarke and Norwaie, the duke of Gelderland, and the duke of Britaine The Iordship of Lorne in the realme of Scotland, and the Iland of Lorne & Lundaie excepted. Lundaie lieng in the riuer of Seuerne, in the realme of England, were not comprehended in: this agréement. This concord, peace, and amitie thus concluded, was appointed to be published the first day of October, in the most notable cities and townes of both the realmes.

For the sure obseruation, kéeping, & performance of this truce & league, there were appointed for conseruators on the Scotish side, Dauid earle of Crawford and lord Lindseie, George earle of Huntlie lord Gordon and Badzenath, Iohn lord Darnleie, Iohn lord Kenedie, Robert lord Lile, Patrike lord Haleene, Laurence lo:d Oliphant, William Lord Borthwike; sir lohn Rosse of Halkheid, sir Gilbert Iohnston of Eiphinston, sir Iohn Lundie, sir Iohn Ogiluie of Arlie, sir Robert Hammilton of Fingalton, sir William Baize of Lamington, sir Iohn Kenedie of Blarqhone, sir Iohn Wemes, sir William Rochwen; Edward Stochton of Kirke patie, Iohn Dundas, Iohn Rosse of Mountgrenan, esquires.

It was further agréed, that commissioners should meet at loughmaben on the eightéenth Commissioners appointed to méet at Loughmaben. day of Nouember, as well for redresse of certeine offenses doone on the west marches, as also for declaring and publishing the peace. On the English part, the lord Dacres, the lord Fitzhugh, sir Richard Ratcliffe, sir Christopher Moresbie, sir Richard Salkeild, or thrée of them. For the Scots, the lord Kenedie, the lord Mountgomerie, the lord Lile, Iohn Maxwell steward of Annandale, Robert Creichton of Sanquhan, or thrée of them. Also there were assigned commissioners to méet at Roidenborne for the east marches, Commissioners to méet at Roidenborne. And at Haldan Stanke. the first day of December; and at Haldan Stanke for the middle marches, on the fourth day of the same moneth. At which two places for Scotland, there were assigned to appeere the earle of Huntleie, the earle of Angus, the earle of Argile chancellor of Scotland, the lord Auandale, the lord Seiton, the lord Oliphant, the lord Stubhall, with others.

For England, the earle of Northumberland, the lord Greistocke, the lord Scroope of Massan, sir William Gascoigne, sir Robert Constable, and other. The same commissioners had authoritie to assigne certeine persons, to view and declare the bounds and limits apperteining to Berwike, according to the true meaning of the league. For the battell ground it was The battell ground. accorded, that the same should remaine without sowing, earing, building, or inhabiting, as it had doone before. Shortlie after the concluding of this truce, king Richard intreated for a A mariage concluded betwixt the duke of Rothsaie and the ladie Anne de la Poole. mariage to be had betwixt the prince of Rothsaie, eldest sonne to king lames & ladie Anne de la Poole, daughter to lohn duke of Suffolke and to the ladie Anne his wife, that was sister to the said king Richard. For the concluding of this mariage, both the kings sent their ambassadors againe vnto Notingham, where their treatie had such successe for that time, that the mariage was agréed vpon, and writings thereof drawen, ingrossed, and sealed, and affiances made and taken by proctors and deputies on both parts. The foresaid yoong ladie was immediatlie called princesse of Rothsaie, but by the short life of king Richard hir vncle she shortlie after lost that name.

King lames within a while after the conclusion of this league and mariage aforesaid, for the expressing and declaring of his opinion touching the castell of Dunbar, whether he would be agreeable that the same should remaine onelie six moneths, or else during the tearme of the whole truce in the Englishmens possessions, he wrote vnto king Richard a louing letter, King Iames by letters singnifieth his mind touching the articles of Dunbar. signifieng vnto him, that he was not minded to séeke the recouerie of the said castell by force of armes, but rather to leaue it in his hand, during the whole terme of the truce. Neuerthelesse, he instantlie required him for the bond of that loue and familiaritie, which now by treatie and aliance was sproong vp betwixt them, that he would redeliuer the said casteli into his hands, according as reason might moue him thereto; considering the Englishmen had no right to it, being onelie deliuered to them by traitors of their natiue countrie, without anie reasonable cause, or commission lawfullie authorised.

King Richard dalied in this matter with pleasant letters and faire words féeding foorth K. Richard would not deliuer the castell of Dunbar. 1486. K. Richard ouerthrowne by the earle of Richmond. king lames, without minding to gratifie him in that sure, so that as long as king Richard liued, king lames could neuer get it for anie thing he might doo. In the yeare 1486, Henrie earle of Richmond comming out of France with a power of men, of the which Bernard Steward a Scotishman was chiefe capteine, landed in Wales, and passing through the countrie into England, at length incountred king Richard, and slue him, so obteining the crowne of that realme. And after he was somewhat quietlie established in the same, he came into the north parts, where he remained the most part of the next summer, and regarding northing more than to haue the loue and friendship of his neighbors, & to be confederat with the kings and princes ioining next vnto him, he sent from Newcastell one of his An ambassage sent into Scotland. councellors Richard Fox bishop of Excester, and sir Richard Edgcomb knight, ambassadors vnto king Iames, to treat a contract, and renew the bond of peace and truce betwixt the said kings and their realmes.

These ambassadors were gladlie receiued of king lames, who declared vnto them, that he The kings answer. bare great fauor and loue vnto their maister, and would be glad to pleasure him in all he might: howbeit, that his subiects were not of so good a mind towards the English nation as he himselfe wished, and therefore he willed them to be contented with a truce for seuen yeares, sith further he could not doo, for doubt to offend his nobilitie and subiects. But he promised secretlie, that when those seuen yeares were expired, he would renew the His promise. same for the tearme of other seuen yeares, and so from seuen yeares to seuen yeares so long as he liued. This he did, because he perceiued that his people had him in such hatred, that they would not consent to anie bond that he should make. The ambassadors perceiuing his good meaning toward king Henrie, confirmed the truce for those seuen yeares, Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 12. 1487. and so returned home to king Henrie, who was glad of that they had doone.

* In the meane time died the quéene, a woman of singular beautie and goodnesse, who was supposed greatlie to mitigat the vnbridled force of hir husband. At what time also in France died Alexander the kings brother, leauing behind him two sonnes, which were Alexander borne of his first wife (daughter to the earle of Orkeneie) and Iohn (borne of his second wife) being after made gouernor of Scotland.) Immediatlie after that this truce was thus concluded betwixt the two realmes, king Iames caused the thrée estates to assemble in A parlement. parlement at Edenburgh the first of October in the yeare 1487, in the which order was No pardon to be granted to offendors for the space of seuen yeares. taken, that iustice oires should be holden through all the parts of the realme, & that no pardons should be granted for anie great crime that shuld be committed for the space of seuen yeares to come, so that the king began to vse sharpe execution of iustice in all parts, which was right displeasant to manie.

At the same time was an ambassador sent to the king of Romans, for the calling in of a Ambassadors sent to the king of the Romans. The king giueth himselfe to satisfie his lust in kéeping women and gathering treasure. After the deth of king Richard, Dunbar is deliuered. letter of marque, which had béene granted against Scotish merchants, at the sute and instance of certeine Hollanders and Burgognions, and was shortlie after herevpon reuoked. After the parlement was ended, the king remooued vnto Striueling, leauing his wife the quéene. and hir sonne the prince at Edenburgh castell, whilest he kéeping persons about him of meane calling, gaue himselfe to take his pleasure with women, & to gather vp gold and siluer, greatlie to the offense of his subiects. Yet in the meane time, now after the death of king Richard, whether it was by treson or appointment, the castell of Dunbar was deliuered to the hands of king lames, and that to his great ioy and high contentation; for he that ruled his kingdome more with rigor than with anie tractable meane of fauorable iustice, stood euer in feare of some troublesome tumult that might be raised by his owne people, if occasion were ministred either through hope of forren aid or otherwise.

So long therefore as the castell was in the Englishmens hands, he doubted least through practise, some conspiracie should be contriued betwixt his owne subiects and the English nation, greatlie to the annoiance of his estate, & therevpon he was the more desirous to reduce the same castell into his possession. But the onelie meane to haue assured himselfe from The meane whereby king Iames might haue auoided danger of deth by his subiects. the hands of such as sought his life, had beene to haue changed his wilfull maner of gouernment, & to haue leaned vnto such counsell as would haue aduised him for the wealth of his whole realme, and not vpon desire to please, haue mainteined his vndiscréet opinions, to the wronging aswell of his commons as of the nobles and peeres of his realme; for the nobilitie of Scotland, namelie the earles of Angus, Argile, and Lenox, the lords Halis, Hume, Drummond, Greie, and others, perceiuing themselues oppressed by such as from base birth The conspiracie of the Scotish lords against king Iames the third. had risen (without woorthie deseruing) to the degrée of counsellors, and therewith aduanced to so high authoritie, as all things were ordered at their appointment, conspired togither, & determined by force of armes to sée a reformation in such a disordered maner of gouernement.

But yet because it should not be thought that they minded the destruction of their countrie, but rather the aduancement thereof, they made the lord lames duke of Rothsaie sonne to the king (a child borne to goodnesse and vertue) the chiefe capteine in this their enterprise, and that in maner against his will; hereby openlie protesting, that they minded and purposed the suppressing and confusion of an euill king, and not the subuersion of their natiue countrie. By which their craftie imagined inuention, they thought to remooue all suspicion of their purposed vntruth and shamefull disloialtie. They had sent to the earle of Dowglasse, who remained prisoner (as ye haue heard) in the abbeie of Lundoris, and required him to assist them in their begun enterprise, promising that they would restore him againe to his lands and former dignitie, and honor him as principall of their faction. But that noble, wise, and ancient earle, being alreadie schooled with troubles, and hauing learned by experience (to his great griefe) what such matter meant, refused to breake his ward, or to assist them in anie wise, dissuading them from their enterprise, because it séemed to him neither godlie nor honorable, sithens both himselfe and his friends had tasted for the like, great hinderance, which might be an example to him and others to beware in time to come.

The king being once informed of this rebellion and conspiracie against him, was sore King Iames gathereth an armie. disquieted in his mind, and to meet their mischiefous attempts, gathered an armie. Yet before the vsing of anie force, he sent messengers to his sonne, and to the nobles with him, to trie if he might come to some agréement with them. He sent also letters to the king of He sendeth letters to the kings of England & France. Eugenius 8. Buchanan. England, & to the French king, requiring them to take some paines in the matter, to procure an attonement betwixt him and his nobles. And besides this, he wrote to pope Innecent about the same purpose, praieng him to intermeddle his authoritie by sending some legate into Scotland, to appease the troubles thereof. But the Scotish nobilitie, and such of the people as were vp in armor against him, were so desperatlie set, and wholie bent on reuenge, that no wholesome counsell nor medicinable aduise might appease their furious rage, so that for answer to his messengers, they sent him word, that if hee would resigne the title of his The answer of the rebels to the kings message. crowne and realme, & depose himselfe of his whole regall dignitie, then they would come to some communication with him or else not. The like answer was giuen to the ambassadors of England and France, that were sent vnto them from the kings of both those realmes, which sore lamented the fortune of their friend and alie the Scotish king.

But Adrian the bishop of Romes legat came too late, as who should say, a day after the faire: for when their grounded malice and spitefull hatred conceiued against him might not be qualified by anie maner of means, but that they were now comming forward with all their puisance to Striueling, where he then remained, he would not staie till the erles of Huntleie, Erroll, Atholl, Crawford, Rothus, Sutherland, Cathnesse, & Marshall; the barons, Forbes, Ogiluie, Granth, Fraiser, and others, were arriued with their powers, amounting to the number of fortie thousand men, with the which they were comming foorth of the north parts to his aid: but rashlie and without good aduise he issued out of the towne, accompanied with the earles of Glencarne & Montros, the lords Graham, Ruthuen, Maxwell, and certeine others, and forthwith ioined battell with his aduersaries at Banockesborne, within two miles of Striueling.

Now when nothing might quiet them, at length they met thus in a pitched field, where They méet in a pitched field. The king is put to the woorsse. He is slaine. after great slaughter & murther made of an huge multitude of people, the king being put to the woorsse, fled into a mill, whither being fiercelie followed and found therin, he was cruellie slaine, and vnreuerentlie left starke naked. ¶ A notable mirror to all princes, that calling to remembrance such a miserable and most dolorous sight, they may take héed by what maner of persons they suffer themselues to be led and abused. For if this prince king Iames the third had not followed vpon a wilfull pretense, and obstinat mind, the counsell and aduise of vantperlors, and such as (being aduanced from base degrée vnto high authoritie) studied more to keepe themselues in fauor, than to giue true aduertisements, and faithfull aduise vnto their prince, he might haue reigned longer by manie daies & yéeres, in great and high felicitie. [In which conflict was on the kings part slaine (as saith Buchanan) Fr. Thin. Alexander Coningham, earle of Glencarne.] He was thus slaine neere Striueling, on the seuenth day of Iune, the yéere after the incarnation 1488, being also the 29 of his reigne.

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