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AFTER that Constantine (as is said) was entred into religion, the before named Malcolme the sonne of Donald was admitted king, or rather regent: who although he perceiued right well how the force of the realme was so inféebled, that there was no hope to mainteine warres abroad; yet his chiefe studie was by all means possible to defend the borders of the Scotish dominion, and before all things to procure peace with the Englishmen. But as he was about to haue sent ambassadours vnto king Athelstane, to haue treated for peace, he was crediblie informed, how Athelstane had giuen Northumberland vnto
Aualassus had giuen him Northumberland. Aualassus, and made a league with him to haue his aid against the Scots. Which newes put Malcolme in woonderfull dread, for that he vnderstood how his realme was vnpurueied of skilfull capteins to make resistance. Yet he caused a councell to be called, wherein when A councel called. such as were assembled proponed manie fond and childish reasons, it might happen there was small hope of anie good conclusion; but euen as they were at a point to haue broken vp without anie certeine resolution, word was brought how through seditious discord, which had chanced betwixt the Danes and Englishmen being assembled togither in campe, they The Englishmen and the Danes fall out togither, and fight. had fought a right cruell and bloudie battell, the victorie in the end remaining with the Englishmen, who ceased not to pursue the Danes in chase, so long as anie day light appéered in the skie.

Aualassus with such Danes as he might get togither after that ouerthrow, fled into Aualassus fled into Westmerland, rifled the Ile of Man, and got him into Ireland. Westmerland, and within thrée daies after, in such ships as he found there vpon the coast, he sailed ouer into the Ile of Man, and spoiling the same, with all the preie he passed from thence ouer into Ireland. In the meane time king Athelstane hauing lost no small number of his people in the foresaid battell, omitted his iournie-into Scotland, and lay still in Northumberland, no man vnderstanding what he intended to doo. Which newes were so They go in procession in Scotland for ioy. pleasant to the Scotishmen, that there was common supplications and processions made through the whole realme, in rendering thanks to almightie God for deliuering the people by this means from so great and present a danger.

Shortlie after came ambassadours from Athelstane vnto Malcolme, to mooue means for a Ambassadors sent vnto Malcolme. peace to be concluded betwixt the Scotish and English nations, according to the articles of the old league, which motion was ioifullie heard of Malcolme, though he set a countenance of the matter as though he passed not whether he had warre or peace: but in the end, for that (as he said) peace was most necessarie for all parts, he shewed himselfe willing to haue the old former league renewed betwixt the Englishmen and Scots, with anie reasonable conditions which should be thought requisite.

After the returne of the ambassadours, the league was newlie confirmed betwixt the two The league was confirmed againe. Northumberland allotted vnto England. Cumberland and Westmerland to doo homage vnto England. kings and their people, with the semblable articles as were comprised in the old league, with this article onelie added therevnto; that Northumberland, being as now replenished most with Danish inhabitants, should remaine to the Englishmen; and Cumberland with Westmerland to the Scots: vpon this condition, that he which should succeed as heire vnto the crowne of Scotland after the kings deceasse, being heire apparant, should hold those regions, and doo homage vnto the king of England as his vassall perpetuallie for the same. The peace being thus established betwixt these nations, Indulph the sonne of Constantine the third was proclamed prince of Cumberland, and inheritour to the crowne of Scotland.

After this, Malcolme passed the residue of his life in good quiet, without anie troubles of warre, as a man onelie studieng to mainteine the state of his realme in good order, as well for the wealth of the temporaltie, as spiritualtie, wherevnto he was equallie inclined. At length, as he rode about the prouinces of his realme, to sée the lawes dulie ministred, at Virine a village in Murrey land, where he caused iustice to be somewhat streictlie executed vpon offendors, he was murthered in the night season by treason of a few conspirators, in King Malcolme was murthered. The conspirators were put to execution. The murtherers weretorne with horsses. the fiftéenth yeare of his reigne. But such as did this wicked déed with their complices, by diligent examination were tried out, and on the next day being apprehended, suffered due execution, according as they had deserued, being torne in péeces with wild horsses, and those péeces sent vnto sundrie cities, where they were hanged vp on the gates and towers, vntill they rotted away.

They that were the deuisers of the murder also, and procured the dooers therevnto, were The procurers of the murther were staked. thrust quite through vpon sharpe stakes, and after hanged vp aloft on high gibbets; and other of the conspirators were put to other kinds of death, as the case séemed to require. The death of Malcolme chanced in the yeare after the death of our Sauiour 959. ¶ Here 959. The mistaking of the names and times of the English kings in the Scotish writers. we haue thought good to put you in remembrance, that either the Scots are deceiued in their account of yeares; or else mistake the names of the kings of England: for where they write that this Malcolme departed this life about the 22 yeare of Athelstane king of England, that can not be; if Malcolms deceasse chanced in the yeare 959, for Athelstane was dead long before that time, to wit, in the yeare 940, and reigned but sixtéene yeares.

Moreouer, where the Scotish writers make mention of the warres which king Edmund that succéeded Athelstane had against Aulafe and the Danes of Northumberland, in the daies of king Indulph that succéeded Malcolme, it can not stand by anie means (if they mistake not their account of yeares:) for the same Edmund was slaine in the yeare 948. But verelie this fault in the iust account of yeares is but too common in the Scotish historie, and therefore to him that should take vpon him to reforme the errors thereof in this behalfe, it were necessarie to alter in a maner the whole course of the same historie. And therefore we will not wish anie man to giue anie credit vnto their account in yeares, touching the reignes of the English kings, further than they shall see them to agrée with our writers, whome in that behalfe we may more safelie follow, and by conferring the same with the Scotish writers in some places, happilie perceiue the true time, aswell of the reignes of their kings, as of acts doone, to fall out in yeares and seasons, much differing from their account: whereof to admonish the reader, aswell here as in the English historie, we haue thought it not impertinent.

And albeit that some may aske what reason we haue to mooue vs to doubt of their account of years, more than we doo of that in our owne writers? We will referre the same vnto their iudgements that are learned, and haue trauelled indifferentlie alike, aswell in perusing the one as the other without affection. But as the errors are sooner found than amended, so haue we thought good to set downe in the margent of this booke, the yeares as we find them noted in the Scotish writers, speciallie in places where we differ anie thing from them, because we will not séeme by way of controlment to preiudice the authors, further than by due consideration the well aduised reader shall thinke it expedient.

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