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QUEENE MARIE.

THE eternall God calling to his mercie Iames king of Scotland, the fift of that name, Marie his onelie daughter and heire began hir reigne ouer the realme of Scotland, the
1542. eighteenth day of December, in the yéere of our Lord 1542, Francis the first of that name then reigning in France, & Henrie the eight ouer the Englishmen. She was not passing seuen daies old when hir father departing this life, left vnto hir his kingdome, hir mother lieng in childbed in the castell of Lithquo, of which place the lord Leuingston The lord Leuingston. being capteine, had the charge committed to him, both of the daughter & mother, with the mothers good agreement and frée consent.

Moreouer, immediatlie after the kings death (bicause he deceassed without making anie will, or taking anie direction for the gouernement either of the realme, or custodie of the yoong queene his daughter) Dauid Beton, cardiuall and archbishop of S. Andrews, the Dauid Beton cardinall. speciall minister & factor of the French causes, to the aduancement and continuance thereof, inuented and forged [by Henrie Balfure] a will and testament of the late king now departed, His forging of a will. in which (amongst other things) he established himselfe chiefe regent, adioining with him the earles of Murrey, base brother to the king deceassed, Huntleie and Argile, not once mentioning the earle of Lennox then absent in France, nor yet Iames Hamilton earle of Arrane his cousine, being there present in Scotland.

Those that professed the reformed religion, beeing then called protestants, to whome the The protestants espied the cardinals craftie iugling. said cardinall was euer a cruell enimie and sharpe scourge, espied foorth his vniust dealing in this behalfe, and trusting by the gentle nature and good inclination of the said earle of Arrane, to haue some libertie to imbrace the gospell, set him against the cardinall: so that by the helpe of his owne and their friends, he remooued the cardinall and his adherents from the vsurped roome and authoritie, and therewith was the said earle of Arrane proclamed gouernor and protector of the realme. [And therevpon shewing his authoritie, he entereth 1543. Lesle. Fr. Thin. the kings palaces, as saith Lesleus lib. 10. pa. 464. and vseth the kings treasure, and calleth the officers of the treasurie to account, whereof he reteineth some, and changeth others at his pleasure.]

This earle of Arrane made a title to haue and inioie that office and roome, as next in bloud to the yong queene, as descended from a sister of K. Iames the third, maried to his grandfather lord Hamilton, in the yere 1475, by reason of which mariage he was crezted earle of Arrane, as by act of parlement holden the same yeere at Edenburgh, it was agréed and ordeined. The king of England that noble prince Henrie the eight, aduertised of the death of the king of Scots, considered with good aduise, that now there was offered a most readie meane and iust occasion, whereby the two realmes of England and Scotland might be brought into one entier monarchie, without warre or bloudshed, by the mariage of his sonne prince Edward, being then little past six yéeres of age, with the yoong quéene of Scotland.

He therefore being resolued fullie to bring the same to passe, either by quiet meanes or The king of England talketh with the lords of Scotland prisoners for a mariage betwixt his son and their quéene. by force, and sending for the erles of Cassiles, and Glencarne, the lords Maxwell, and Fleming, and other prisoners that had bene taken at Soloway mosse, caused them to be conueied vnto Hampton court, where the seuen and twentith of December they being right curteouslie interteined, he made vnto them an ouerture of his purpose and whole intent, proponing the whole matter vnto them, requesting them for their parts, to helpe (with their consents) that a contract of mariage might be made betwéene his sonne the prince, and their yoong queene; promising to them libertie without ransome, besides other pleasures and benefits, if they would doo their indeuor to persuade the gouernor, and other the nobilitie of Scotland to be agréeable herevnto.

The Scotish earles and lords accepted the kings offer, and withall promised to doo their 1543. Buch. diligence to persuade the rest of the nobilitie in Scotland at their comming home: wherevpon they were licenced to depart, and so comming to Newcastell, remained there with the duke of Suffolke, then the kings lieutenant of the north parts, till he had receiued foorth of Duke of Norffolke. Buchanan. The earle of Angus sent home into Scotland. 1543. Lesle. 1542. A conuention of the Scotish nobilitie. Scotland certeine pledges of the chiefest of these lords, for performance of their promises. Likewise the king of England sent with them the earle of Angus, and his brother sir George Dowglas with his letters to the gouernor, requesting effectuouslie, that they might be restored to their roomes, lands and possessions in that reabue.

These lords anriuing at Edenburgh, about the midst of Ianuarie, declared to the gouernor their message and proposition made by the king of England, with such efficacie, that the gouernor being persuaded thereto by their words, sent for the lords and nobilitie of the realme to come to Edenburgh, to a conuention there, to be holden the seuen and twentith of that present moneth: where they concluded that a parlement should be kept in March next insuing. And doubting lest the cardinall (being there present) should go about to persuade The cardinall committed to ward. the nobilitie not to consent to their desires, they caused him to be put in ward within the castell of Dalketh: the lord Seton béeing appointed to haue the custodie of him. About the same time, sir Robert Bowes, and all other the Englishmen that were prisoners, and had béene taken at Halding rig on saint Bartholomews day (as before yo haue heard) were sent home Halding rig. Sir Rafe Sadler. by the gouernor into England and sir Rafe Sadler was sent ambassadour from king Henrie vnto the said gouernor, and other the lords of Scotland, and came thither before the said parlement to persuade the lords to agree vnto the king his masters monitions, trauelling so diligentlie in the matters wherabout he was thus sent, that it was concluded by act of parlement to send ambassadors into England, for the better satisfaction of king Henries desires.

Ambassadors sent into England. And so the earle of Glencarne, sir George Dowglas, sir William Hamilton; sir Iames Leirmouth, and the secretarie being named and appointed thereto, departed in the moneth of March, and comming into England vnto the king, remained there till the latter end of Iulie. In which meane time, such couenants, contracts, and promises were had and concluded, passed and sealed interchangeablie, as stood with the pleasure and good liking of king Henrie, so as the mariage was fullie contracted, and a peace concluded for ten yeeres, The mariage confirmed. by authoritie of the aforesaid parlement. Héerewith also the lord gouernor shewed himselfe to imbrace the reformed religion, causing one frier Guilliam to preach against images, and fruitlesse ceremonies, and gaue libertie that the bible called The new and old testament, should be had in English, & vniuersallie publisht through the realme of Scotland.

Also he commanded not onelie the cardinall (as before ye haue heard) but also ordeined that the quéene mother should remaine in Lithgow with the yoong quéene hir daughter, vnder some manner of safe custodie, and the cardinall to be remooued vnto his owne castell of saint Andrewes, with warders about him to see him safelie kept. * Not long after, the Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 465. cardinall was restored to vnhoped libertie, and the earle of Angus, George Dowglasse, and the lord Glames, the heire of Iames Hamilton, with manie others, by the consent of the thrée estates, were wholie restored to all their goods, and deliuered from the sentence of banishment.

Iohn Hamilton abbat of Passelew, brother of the gouernor, returning out of France (where he had imploied himselfe to studie) did (with certeine learned men, as Dauid Paniter, and others, whom he had in his companie) visit the king of England, of whome they were most courteouslie interteined. After which this Hamilton returning into Scotland, was made treasuror of the kingdome, which office he discharged with great commendation, so long as his brother kept the gouernement, whom he did not onelie helpe in counsell for ordering of the kingdome, but also shewed him selfe a valiant and industrious man in the warres against the English, for defense of the kingdome of Scotland. About this time, the earle Bothwell, which was banished, and had remained long at Venice, did returne into Scotland, whither he was honorablie welcommed, as a person much desired of his friends and kinred.)

The realme being thus brought in quiet, and vnder good gouernement, the French king The French king misliketh of the match with England. sore misliking this new coniunction of the Scots with England, and doubting least the old former bond of aliance betwixt France and Scotland might thereby be vtterlie dissolued and shaken off, he sent for Matthew Steward earle of Lennox, then abroad in his seruice in the Matthew earle of Lennox. wars of Italie, and vpon his comming backe from thence to the court, he declared to him the deceasse of the late king of Scots, the intrusion of Arrane, and the attempts in that realme begun, with all the circumstances from point to point as he knew; and further discoursed with him what wrong he had to be set aside, and displaced from his right of gouernement; and therefore exhorted him to repaire home to recouer the same, offering not onelie to assist him with men, monie, and munition, but also to ioine his friends in Scotland with him in aid to attaine the place of regiment, and to remooue Arrane and others from it.

The earle of Lennox héerevpon with commission and instructions deliuered to him by the French king, had also letters from him directed to the lords that were of the French faction, wherin the said king requested them to remaine and continue in their former good meanings towards him, and to assist the earle of Lennox in all things, as should be thought expedient. * Now, before the earle of Lennox returned out of France, the cardinall had Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 15. vsed manie persuasions against the English, as well that the Scots set at libertie by the king, should breake their faith with him, as also to draw them to the French faction, and rather to suffer their pledges to receiue what king Henrie would vse vnto them, than by kéeping promise to the English, to conueie the yoong quéene vnto them.

Wherevpon, when the greater part of those nobles (whome the matter touched, could easilie find anie color for the excuse of their fault had consented to the cardinals persuasion, onelie one amongest the rest would not yéeld thereto, which was Gilbert Kennedie earle of Cassiles, who could not be drawen from that constancie (in obseruing his faith) either by bribes, flatteries, or threats. For he (hauing two brothers pledges for him in England) did openlie protest, that he would returne to prison, and by no feare laid before him commit such a fault, as that he would redéerne his life with the bloud of his two brothers: for which cause he went foorthwith to London, although euerie man spake against it. Wherevpon, the king of England did singulrlie commend the constancie of the yoong man, and further (to the end that his vertue might be knowne to all men) did set him at libertie with his two brethren, and sent him home honorablie rewarded.

Now the realme of Scotland being thus in great vprores by means of the quéenes and cardinals factions, whereof the last drew all (such as he could) to support the French league, they sent ambassadors into France, to request the French king to send home Matthew Steward earle of Lennox, as one that was not onelie emulous against Hamilton, but also his deadlie enimie for the slaughter of his father at Limnucho : which yoong Steward (beside his beautie and comelinesse of bodie, in the verie flower of his youth; the memorie, carefulnesse, and dangers of his father, a verie popular man, and beloued of the people; the woorthinesse of that farnilie brought almost to an end, and that the same was of great power, and linked in mariage with manie nobles) did win and draw the minds of manie men, desirous to helpe him, for the great fauor they bare vnto him.

To the which further procurement of the peoples loue also, there might be ioined, that he was next heire to the crowne by the kings appointment, if he died without issue male; the which king Iames, if he had liued, would haue established by parlement: besides which likewise, there wanted not flatterers, which did not onelie stirre vp his noble mind (now gaping after great things, and vndefended against deceits) to the hope of gouerning of the kingdome for these one and twentie yéeres and more, during the quéenes minoritie, and to the rule and power ouer his enimies, whereby he might vse reuenge vpon them: but also they promised him to marrie the quéene Dowager: and in the meane time (if anie thing happened otherwise than well to the yoong quéene) that he should obteine the crowne, whereby he should both be king, and the next lawfull heire of Iames Hamilton latelie deceassed, since the gouernor was a bastard, and could not onelie by law not looke or hope for the kingdome, but also not so much as hope to be heire to his owne familie. To all which were added the persuasions of the French before mentioned. Wherevpon, the yoong man (whose mind was credulous, being tickled and intised with these hopes) determined to go into Scotland.)

The earle therefore fullie instructed by the French king, how to deale and procéed, tooke The earle of Lennox passeth into Scotland. his leaue, and with all spéed taking the sea, directed his course into Scotland, where (after his arriuall) he came to Edeuburgh, in which towne all the lords being assembled togither with the gouernor, he declared to them the effect of his commission from the French king, his request to them, & good affection to mainteine them against England, if in case they would continue the old league with him, and not séeke to make anie new aliance with the king of England.

But perceiuing that the gouernor and his friends were minded to satisfie the king of Englands desires, he would not tarrie for a resolute answer, but by the counsell of the earle of Argile, William earle of Glencarne, and others of the French faction, he suddenlie departed foorth of Edenburgh toward the west countrie, highlie displeased (as should séene) with the gouernor, and taking Lithgow in his way, he conferred with the quéene Dowager (as The earle of Lennox conferreth with the quéene Dowager. they termed hir) deuising how to assemble the noble men of the French side, to bring hir and hir daughter to libertie, out of the danger of the lord gouernor: because it was supposed that he ment to conueie hir into England.

About the same time, through practise of the abbat of Pasleie, brother to the gouernor, 1543. Lesle. The castell of Edenburgh recouered to the gouernors vse. and others, the castell of Edenburgh was got out of the hands of sir Peter Creichton, and the keeping thereof committed by the gouernors appointment vnto Iames Hamilton lard of Stanehouse, But the erle of Lennox, with the assistance of the earles of Huntleie, Montrosse, Mentife, Argile, and others of the French faction in August following, conueied the The yoong quéene conueied to Striueling. yoong quéene with hir mother from Lithgew vnto Striueling. The cardinall also was there with them latelie before, hauing corrupted his kéepers, & gotten abroad at libertie. Héerewith was a day appointed and proclamed for the coronation of the yoong quéene. The earle of Arrane then gouernor, with the earles of Angus, Cassiles, the lords Maxwell, Someruile, and diuerse others, called the English lords, remaining still at Edenburgh, aduertised the king of England of all the drifts of Lennox, and other of that faction, requiring his aduise and counsell how to deale for disappointing of their purposes, that sought to continue the amitie still with France, to the preiudice of peace with England.

The king of England aduertised héereof, as well thus from the gouernor, and other the The king of Englands doubt. Scotish lords, as also from sir Rafe Sadler, his maiesties ambassador there, doubted greatlie least these lords, in whose hands the quéene then was, in respect of the fauour which they bare to the French king, should conueie hir ouer into France: wherevpon he requested the gouernor, and the other lords that fauoured his side, so to deale, that she might be sent into England, there to remaine, till the mariage might be consummate betwixt hir and his sonne prince Edward: hauing in the meane time such lords of hir countrie about hir to attend vpon hir, and to see to hir bringing vp, as should be thought expedient. To conclude, his maiestie not onelie sent his princelie comfort by waie of counsell and good aduise, but also according to their desire, and as by the duke of Suffolke (his highnes lieutenant then in the north) it was thought expedient.

Thomas lord Wharton, with two thousand men from the west marches, and the lord The lord Wharton. The lord Euers. Euers with other two thousand from the east borders, were appointed to enter Scotland, and to ioine themselues with the gouernor and his friends, to assist them against their aduersaries. But as they were in a readinesse to march, through the secret labor of the cardinall wishing the aduancement of the earle of Arrane his kinsman (whome he thought he should well inough frame to be at his appointment) rather than Lennox that was knowne to be of a greater stomach, the matter was so handled, what by the cardinall and the earle of Huntleie of the one part, and the queene Dowager on the other, that the earle of Arrane reuolting The earle of Arrane a faith breaker. from the king of England, came in to the Dowager, and ioined himselfe with the cardinall, and other the lords of the French faction : by reason whereof, they all concluded to mainteine him in the estate of lord gouernor. and not to place Lennox, as their purpose was to haue doons, if Arrane had continued faithfull to the king of England.

Shortlie after, the yoong queene was crowned at Striueling, the cardinall taking vpon him The coronation of quéene Marie. to order things as he thought good, appointing the gouernor to beare the crowne as chiefe person, & next in bloud to the quéene, and the earle of Lennox to beare the scepter. After the coronation, a parlement was called and holden at Edenburgh, at the which, in presence A parlement. of the patriarch of Apuleia the popes agent, and of the French kings ambassadors, The patriarch of Apuleia. monsieur la Brosse, and monsieur Menage, latelie before come into the realme, the earle of Arrane was newlie confirmed gouernor. And for the sure preseruation (as they pretended) of the yoong queene, it was agreed by the gouernor and the estates, that she shuld remaine Order for the custodie of the quéene. with the old quéene hir mother in Sterling castell, during hir minoritie, and certeine rents of that seigniorie were assigned for maintenance of such traine as was thought expedient to be attendant about hir: and further, the lords Leuingston, Erskin, and Fleming [or (as saith Fr. Thin. Buchanan) the lord Grams, Iohn Areskin, Iohn Lindseie, & William Leuiston] were appointed to abide continuallie with hir, for the better safegard of hir person.

Thus was euerie thing ordered as séemed to stand with the pleasure of the cardinall. Wherevpon the earle of Lennox, perceiuing how vncourteouslie he was vsed, to haue his The earle of Lennox his displeasure. aduersarie thus confirmed in authoritie by the French side, and himselfe reiected, he first sent to the French king, informing him thoroughlie of the iniuries to him doone, putting him in remembrance of the promises made to him when he departed from him; also the constantnesse of his seruice, the hazard he had put himselfe in for his sake: and notwithstanding how he was yet vnkindlie dealt with, that through trust of his promised aid and assistance, he was brought out of credit in his countrie, and subiected vnder the commandement and authoritie of his enimie, and wrongfullie disappointed of his right, which he looked to haue recouered, and to haue béene mainteined therein by his support.

In consideration whereof, he renounced his seruice, willing him from thencefoorth not He renounceth his seruice to the French king. to looke for the same anie more at his hands. Héerewith Lennox ioining himselfe with the earles of Angus, Cassiles, and Glencarne, the lords Maxwell, and Someruile, the shiriffe of Aire, the lard of Drumlanrig, and other of that side, called the English lords, set himselfe against the gouernor, the cardinall, and others of that faction, so that the residue of this yeere was spent in ciuill dissention betweene them. And héere is to be noted, that a little Ciuill dissention in Scotland. French ships arriuing in the riuer of Cloide. before that the earle of Arrane reuolted to the French part, there was arriued in the mouth of the riuer of Cloide on the west coast, fiue ships, which the French king had sent to the aid of his friends in Scotland, vnder the conduction of Iames Steward of Cardonold, and of the forenamed monsieur de la Brosse, & monsieur Menage, the French kings ambassadors.

There came with them also the patriarch of Apuleia, of whome ye haue likewise heard before. They had brought aboord in these ships fiftie thousand crownes, and munition to the value of ten thousand crownes. The earle of Lennox therefore, when he first resolued

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