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ROBERT.

THEN was Robert Steward conueid to Scone, and there crowned with great
Robert Steward is crowned king of Scotland. 1370. solemnitie, and was called Robert the second. This came to passe in the 47 yéere of his age, on our ladie day in Lent, called the Annuntiation, being the yéere of Christ 1370. Moreouer, that the firmer amitie & friendship might continue and be nourished betwixt this king Robert and his subiect the earle of Dowglasse aforesaid, it was accorded that Eufemie eldest daughter to king Robert, should be giuen in mariage to Iames sonne to the earle of Dowglasse aforesaid. ¶ Thus ye may perceiue how the Stewards came to the crowne, The first comming of the Stewards to the crowne. Fr. Thin. whose succession haue inioied the same to our time: queene Marie mother to Charles Iames that now reigneth, being the eight person from this Robert, that thus first atteined vnto it [of whose first originall and descent you shall see before in the life of Duncan.]

He had to wife at the time of his atteining to the crowne, Eufemie daughter to Hugh earle of Rosse, by whome he had two sonnes, Walter and Dauid. But before he was Elizabeth Mure king Roberts concubine. maried to hir, he kept one Elizabeth Mure in place of his wife, and had by hir thrée sonnes, Iohn, Robert, and Alexander, with diuerse daughters, of the which one was maried to Iohn Dunbar erle of Murrey, and another to Iohn Leon lord of Glames. The earledome How the Dowglasses came by the earledome of Murrey. of Murrey continued in possession of the Dunbars onelie during the life of this earle Iohn & his sonne, in whom the succession failed touching the name of the Dunbars, in the inioieng of that earledome: for leauing a daughter behind him that was married to the Dowglas, the same Dowglas came by that means to the said earledome of Murrey. King Robert after his coronation made sundrie earles, lords, barons, and knights. Amongst other Iames Lindsev of Glenneske was made earle of Crawford. His wife quéene Eufemie deceassed the Eufemie the quéene deceaseth. third yeare after hir husband atteined the crowne, and then incontinentlie he maried Elizabeth Mure [or Moore, daughter to sir Adam Mure knight] his old lemman, to the end Fr. Thin. Elizabeth the Mure maried to king Robert. Fr. Thin. the children which he had by hir might be made legitimate by vertue of the matrimonie subsequent. [Although before he had procured this Elizabeth to be giuen in matrimonie to one Gifford a noble man in Louthian, which also died (as fortune serued) when Eufemie first wife of the said Robert died, whereby they (being now both at libertie) might renew their owne old loue, and in wedlocke possesse that which before they inioied in adulterie.]

Not long after, by authoritie of a parlement assembled, he made his eldest sonne Iohn, The preferment of the kings sonnes to dignitie. begotten on Elizabeth Mure aforesaid, earle of Carrike: his second sonne begotten on hir, earle of Menteith and Fife: and his third sonne Alexander, begotten likewise on the same mother, he created earle of Buchquhane, and lord of Badzenoch. [Besides which hée had Fr. Thin. also two daughters by hir.] His eldest sonne Walter, begotten on Eufemie his first wife, was made earle of Atholl, and lord of Brechin: his second sonne Dauid, begotten on the same Eufemie, was made earle of Stratherne. The said Walter procured the slaughter of Iames the first, for that he pretended a right to the crowne, as after shall appeare. Shortlie An act for sucession of the crowne. after, he called an other parlement at Perth, where it was ordeined, that after the death of king Robert, the crowne should descend vnto Iohn his eldest sonne, and to his issue male; and for default thereof, vnto Robert his second sonne, and to his heires male; and for default of such heires to Alexander his third sonne, and to his heires male; and in default of them, to remaine to his sonne Walter, begotten on Eufemie his wife, & to the heires male of his bodie begotten: and if such succession failed, then it should descend vnto his yoongest sonne Dauid the earle of Stratherne, and to his heires generall either male or female. And all the nobles of the realme were sworne to performe this new ordinance touching the succession of the crowne, and that in most solemne mane.

About this time, the borderers, which are men euer desirous of warres and trouble, to the The borderer desirous of warre. end they may applie their market, whereby they most chieflie liue, that is to say, reife and spoile of their neighbors goods, through enuie of long peace and quietnesse, vpon a quarell piked, slue certeine of the houshold seruants of George earle of Dunbar at the faire Roxburgh faire. of Roxburgh, which as then the Englishmen held. Earle George sore offended herewith, sent an herald vnto the earle of Northumberland, warden of the English marches, requiring that such as had committed the slaughter might be deliuered to receiue according to that they had deserued: but when he could get nought but dilatorie answers, full of derision rather than importing anie true meaning, he passed ouer his displeasure till more opportunitie 1370. Buchanan. The truce violated. Roxburgh surprised by the earle of March. of time might serue. In the yéere following, against the next faire to be holden at Roxburgh aforesaid, the said earle of March, with his brother the earle of Murrey gathered a power of men secretlie togither, and comming to the said towne, tooke it, slue all the Englishmen found within it, put their goods to the sacke, and after set the towne on fire, and so departed.

Herevpon the Englishmen shortlie after enter with an armie into Scotland, burning and The English men inuade Scotland. dooing much hurt vpon the lands of sir Iohn Gordon, for that they ioined to the earle of Marches lands. Sir Iohn Gordon verie desirous to reuenge this iniurie, came into England with an armie, and getting togither a great bootie of cattell, returned therewith homewards, but being incountered by the way at a place called Carran or Carram, by Iohn Lilborne and other Englishmen, there was a sore fight betwixt them, the victorie for a time shewing it selfe so variable and vncerteine, that sir Iohn Gordon was sore wounded, and the Scots were fiue times that day had in chase, and as oft got the like aduantage of The English men discomfited. Sir Iohn Lirborne taken. Fr. Thin. their enimies. In the end the Englishmen were clearelie discomfited, and their capteine sir Iohn Lilborne, with his brother and diuerse other brought prisoners into Scotland [the maner whereof Iohn Maior condemneth and laieth the fault of breach in earle Dowglasse.]

To reuenge their displeasures, Henrie Persie earle of Northumberland entered into Henrie Persie erle of Northumberland. Scotland with seuen thousand men, & comming vnto Duns, there pitched downe his tents; but the night following came the herds and other people of the countrie, hauing prepared certeine bagges made and sowed togither, of drie leather like to bladders, into the which A policie to afright horses. they had put small peble stones, & running vp & downe about the place where the Englishmens were incamped, made such a noise with those bags full of stones, that the Englishmens horsses breaking their halters and bridles wherewith they were tied, ran from their maisters and kéepers, and were scattered so abroad in the countrie, that the Scotishmen got hold of them, and so in the morning the Englishmen that had watched all night (for doubt to haue béene assailed by their enimies) perceiuing themselues set on foot, returned home without anie further attempt.

In the meane time, Thomas Musgraue capteine of Berwike, comming to the succours of Tho. Musgraue capteine of Berwike taken prisoner. the earle of Northumberland, chanced to méet with sir Iohn Gordon vpon the way, by whom he was taken, and lead into Scotland as his prisoner. Neither had the Scots the better thus onelie on the east marches, but also on the west, where sir Io. Iohnston had sundrie skirmishes with the Englishmen, and went euer awaie with the vpper hand. [All Fr. Thin. which before (vntill the death of Eufemie the quéene) Buchanan appointeth to the first two yéeres of the king, before the death of the quéene.] About this time, pope Gregorie A legat from the pope. the 11 sent 2 legat from Auignion to king Robert, forbidding him in any wise to meddle with the goods perteining to the church, after the decease of anic bishop, person, or vicar. [About this time happened the death of Edward the third, king of England. And Fr. Thin. 1375. Buchanan. Charles the fift king of France sent ambassadors into Scotland, to renew the old leage betwene the two nations, and to persuade him to warre vpon England, to the end the warres might thereby be withdrawne out of France: which was performed accordinglie.

On the 22 day of October, in the yéere 1378, Dauid Steward was borne, which afterwards 1378. Berwike taken by Scots. Recouered againe out of their hands. 1380. The faire of Pennire. The third time that the pestilence cam into Scotland. was made duke of Rothsaie, and on saint Andrews day next following, towne of Berwike was taken by sir Iohn Gordon, and six or seuen other knights, but it was not long kept for a number of English men entring by a posterne of the castell, recouered the towne easilie againe out of the Scotishmens hands. After this, William earle of Dowglas came with twentie thousand men to the faire of Pennire within England, and spoiled all the goods found as then in the same faire, and so returned with great riches into Scotland: but the Scotishmen smallie reioised at this gains, for with such cloth & other wares as they brought awaie with them from the foresaid faire, they drew into the countrie such a violent and sore pestilence, that the third part of all the people (where it came) died thereof. This was the third time that the pestilence was knowne to haue doone anie great hurt in Scotland, being in the yéere after the incarnation 1380.

1380. Fr. Thin. The English men inuade the Scotish borders. The Englishmen [with the number of 1500, vnder the conduct (as saith Buchanan) of Talbot] to reuenge the displeasure doone by the erle of Dowglas at Pennire, raised a great armie, and came with the same ouer Sulway, and inuading the Scotish borders on that side most cruellie, spared neither fire nor sword. In the meane time, the Scots gathered to the number of fiue hundred men, & stood in a streict till the Englishmen should come and passe by them, and then with such huge noise and clamor they set on the Englishmen slaine and drowned. Englishmen, that in giuing backe there was foure hundred of them slaine, and a great number of the residue for hast drowned in the water of Sulway, and hereby was all the bootie of cattell & goods recouered againe by the Scots, and the most part of it restored to the owners. Charles the sixt as then French king, hearing of such prosperous aduenturs dailie Ambassadors frō the Frēch king. chancing to the Scots, sent ouer his ambassadors vnto king Robert, exhorting him to follow his good fortune, and occasion thus offered to reuenge old iniuries against the Englishmen, now that their hearts séemed to faile them through losses susteined diuerse waies of late at 1381. Les. Anno Reg. 11. The renuing of the league betwixt Scotland and France. the Scotish mens hands. Another cause of their message was also (as the Scots doo write) to renew the old league & band betwixt Scotland and France, which being doone in solemne wise according to the maner, they returned into France, & with them went ambassadors from king Robert vnto their master the said K. Charles, Walter Wardlaw, cardinall & bishop of Glascow, with manie other noble men, who in like maner there renewed the same leage & bond of friendship, to the high contentation of both the princes. This was in the eleuenth yéere of king Robert his reigne.

In which yéere Iohn Lion chancellor of Scotland was slaine by lames Lindesay, earle The chancellor of Scotland slaine. of Crawford. This Iohn Lion grew into so high fauour with king Robert, that he gaue to him his daughter the ladie Elizabeth in mariage, with diuerse possessions and lands, called Glammis. Of him the surname of the Lions is descended: and in memorie thereof, they beare in their armes the lion & lillies, with the tresse in forme and fashion as the king of Scotland beareth his, saue that their lions are placed in a blacke field. The cause why Enuie & spite. the earle of Crawford thus slue the chancellor, was onelie vpon enuie and spite, for that after he had maried the kings daughter, he atteined to such estimation and authoritie, that he might doo all things with the king, according to his owne will and pleasure. For The earle of Crawford in exile. this offense the earle of Crawford remained in exile certeine yeeres after, and durst not returne home, till finallie through earnest sute made to the king by the earles of Dowglasse and March, his pardon was begged, and then at length he was reconciled to the His pardon is begged. kings fauour.

In the meane time, Edward king of England, the third of that name, departed this life, and Richard of Burdeaux, sonne to the blacke prince Edward, that was sonne to the said Anno reg. 12. 1382. I. Ma. 1381. English ambassadors sent into Scotland. Fr. Thin. A truce taken. king Edward, succéeded, in the fourth yéere of whose reigne, being after the birth of our Sauiour 1381, Iohn of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, with other English lords, came into Scotland in ambassage [to whome were appointed lames earle of Dowglasse, and Iohn Dunbar earle of Murrey] to treat for the appeasing of the discord as then continuing betwixt the two realmes: and in the end the matter was so handeled, that a truce was concluded to indure for three yéeres. As the said duke was returning homewards, he was Rebellion in England. informed of the rebellion and insurrection made by the commons of England against the nobles, hauing one Iacke Straw and others to their capteins, wherevpon doubting to passe Iack Straw. thorough his owne countrie till things were better appeased, he returned into Scotland, and was conueied by William earle of Dowglasse, and Archembald Dowglas lord of Galloway, to holie rood house beside Edenburgh, where he remained till he heard that the rebels were suppressed, and their capteins slaine or taken, and put to execution.

As soone as the truce was expired, Archembald Dowglasse lord of Galloway, The truce expired. The garison of Lochmaben Anno reg. 14. 1381. Io. Ma. 1384. displeased in his mind that the Englishmen lieng in garison within the castell of Lochmaben, did dailie harrie and rob the villages and countrie townes of Galloway and Annandale, raised a great power by support of the earls Iames of Dowglasse, and George of March, and therewith laid a strong siege vnto the said castell of Lochmaben, & hauing lien thereat the space of nine daies, they fought with a number of Englishmen that came out of Carleill to rescue this castell, whom hauing put to flight, they gaue therewith also a sharpe assalt to the castell, and put them within in such feare, that sir The castell of Lochmaben rendered to the Scots. William Fetherston then capteine thereof, and the residue consented to yéeld the house vnto the Scots euen the same day without more adoo, vpon condition they might depart with their goods in safetie into England.

But Fourdon writing of the winning of this castell, speaketh not of anie ouerthrow Iohn Fourdon. giuen to those that should come from Carleill, in maner as other write. For thus he saith. When Archembald Dowglasse had got knowledge that the same castell was vtterlie vnprouided both of men and vittels necessarie for the defense thereof, he assembled an armie togither, with the helpe of the earles of Dowglasse and Dunbar, who ioining with him, inuironed the castell about with a strong siege, so that no succour could enter to the reliefe of them within at anie hand. Heerevpon the capteine sir William Fetherston Sir William Fetherston. knight, sent letters vnto the lord wardens of the English marches, requiring aid, and letting them to vnderstand in what danger he stood for lacke of men and vittels. The Buchanan. wardens wrote to him againe, that he should doo his best for eight daies to hold out; and if no succour came within that terme, then to doo as he should sée cause. Héere. vpon sir William Fetherston requiring a truce of the Scotish lords for the space of those eight daies, within which terme if no succour came to remooue their siege, he would yéeld the castell vnto them, the liues and goods of them within saued. This was granted, and the Scots ceassed further to annoy them within by assalts: and when the ninth day was come, and no aid from England appeered, they receiued the castell into their possession, according to the couenant. And so the Scots hauing thus woone the castell of Lochmaben, raced it quite downe to the earth.

It is rased. King Richard hearing that the Scots had atchiued this enterprise, appointed the baron of Graistocke with a certeine number of men to go with vittels and munition vnto Roxburgh, for doubt least if the Scots came to lay siege to that fortresse, and finding it vnprouided, they might peraduenture bring it into further danger than would lightlie be remedied. As this baron was come within a mile of Roxburgh, he was The baron of Graistocke taken. Anno reg. 15. 1383. I. Ma. An armie by sea and an other by land, prepared against the Scots. The duke of Lancaster commeth with an armie to Edenburgh. taken by the earle of March, and brought to Dunbar with all his prouision. The king of England being informed also of this mishap, appointed two armies, one by sea, and another by land, to inuade the Scots; the duke of Lancaster hauing the generall charge and conduct of them both, who giuing order to them that should passe by sea what they should doo, entered himselfe by land, and wasting the countries of March and Louthian, came to Edenburgh, and tooke the towne. But whereas his souldiors would haue spoiled and burned it, he compounded with the inhabitants for a summe of monie, and so returned without dooing anie more damage.

His nauie being as then arriued in the Forth, taried behind, first burning the abbeie of saint Colmes Inch, a number of the souldiers with their capteins landed in Fife, and spoiled diuerse townes and villages there: but in the end, Thomas and Nicholas Erskinnes being brethren, Alexander Lindsey, and William Cunningham of Kilmauris, set vpon The Englishmen discomfited in Fife. The strength of Tiuidale recouered. The earle of Dowglas deceasseth. them, and slue the most part of them, so that few in number escaped againe to their ships, being pursued hard to the water side. The same yéere the earle of Dowglasse recouered all the strengths of Tiuidale out of the Englishmens hands, which they had held euer since the battell of Durham vnto those daies. This earle of Dowglasse, one of the most valiant personages in those his daies, within the whole realme of Scotland, died within his castell of Dowglasse, shortlie after he had atchiued this enterprise, and was buried in the abbeie of Melrosse.

After his deceasse, his sonne Iames, or (as saith Buchanan) William succeeded in the Iames earle of Dowglasse. earledome of Dowglasse, a verie fierce and hardie knight, the which shortlie after appointed by the king to haue the guiding of an armie, he passed with the same into The Scots inuade Northumberland. 1385. Iohn de Vian admerall of France. 200. Buchan. 26 barons, 800 men of armes or knights. I. Fourdon. I doubt whether there were any hagbuts vsed in those daies, though guns were somewhat before that time. England, and burnt the countrie so farre as Newcastell. But being countermanded home, he returned and came vnto Perth, where he found the lord Iohn de Vian, admerall of France, and earle of Valentinois, who about the same time was arriued in Scotland with two hundred and fortie ships well and perfectlie furnished for the warres, and in them two thousand and fiue hundred armed men, diuerse of them being lords and barons, besides gentlemen and others. Also there was amongest them 400 hagbutters (as Bellenden saith) and two hundred with crosbowes: the residue bare pikes, halberts, and such like weapons. They were paied their wages for one whole yéere aforehand, and had brought vittels with them to serue them as long. They had brought also with them foure hundred paire of white curets, foure hundred halfe long swoords, & fiftie thousand franks, to be giuen among the nobles of Scotland, accordinglie as king Robert should appoint and thinke expedient.

The admerall and other the nobles of France, being thus come into Scotland to make warres on the Englishmen, were highlie feasted by the king and lords of the realme, as then present with him; and when the earle of Dowglasse was once come, by common consent of them all there assembled togither in councell, it was ordeined that an armie should be raised with all spéed, that ioining with these Frenchmen they might passe immediatlie into England. The earle of Fife sonne to king Robert was appointed to be generall of this The earle of Fife. An armie of Scots and Frenchmen enter into England. Castels woon. armie, hauing with him the earles of Dowglasse, and March, Archembald lord of Galloway, and diuerse other of the Scotish nobilitie. This armie when they were all togither, amounted to the number of fiftie thousand men, the which entring into England, tooke the castels of Warke, Fourd, and Cornewall. After this, by robbing and spoiling the countrie betwixt Berwike and Newcastell, they did much hurt in all parts where they came; but through continuall raine which fell as then in great abundance, they were constreined to returne into Scotland, where they pitched downe their field néere to the castell of Rockesburgh, purposing to haue assaied the winning thereof: but forsomuch as they could not agrée in whose name it should be kept if it were woone, they left that enterprise. For the Frenchmen required that if they wan it, that then it might be kept by them, in the name The Frenchmen & Scots cannot agrée. and to the behoofe of the French king, wherevnto the Scots would not agrée.

Yet after this, the Frenchmen wishing to accomplish some other enterprise, went to the west borders, where ioining with Archembald Dowglas lord of Galloway, they passed ouer Sulway sands; and so entering into Cumberland, did woonderfull much hurt in that They inuade Cumberland. countrie. At length they determined to lay siege vnto Carleill, but being called from thence they returned into Scotland, and then (as some authors write) and not before, they laid siege to Rocksburgh, and raised from thence within eight daies after, by reason of the variance before alledged. At Allhallowentide next insuing, the Frenchmen returned into The Frenchmen returne into France. France, hauing indured no small trauell and paines, since their first comming foorth of their countrie. After they were gotten a shipboord to returne homewards, the Scots againe enter into England with an armie, remaining there for the space of two moneths (as the Scotish writers say.) And in the meane time king Richard assembled a mightie power, and King Richard inuadeth Scotland. inuading Scotland, passed through the Mers and Louthian, putting all the townes, countries, and houses vnto vtter ruine, as in the English historie more plainlie may appéere.

In the yeere next insuing, Walter Wardlaw bishop of Glascow and cardinall, departed 1387. this life. Also within a while after that king Richard was returned backe into England, Robert Steward earle of Fife, with Iames earle of Dowglas, Archembald Dowglas lord of Galloway, entred into England with an armie of thirtie thousand men, comming so secretlie An armie of thirtie thousand Scots inuaded England by the west marches. Cokermouth taken vpon the sudden. thorough the water of Sulway, that they came to Cokermouth in such spéedie wise vppon the sudden, that the people had not leasure to conueie away their goods: so that the Scots remaining there for the space of thrée daies, got a rich bootie togither, and returned with the same thorough the countries of Westnerland and Northumberland safe, and without incounter againe into Scotland. Amongest certeine other things, found in rifeling and ranracking of houses in this iournie, there was a charter found of certeine lands giuen by king Athclstane, in this forme; I kng Athelstane giues to Paullane, Odhiam and podhiam, als The forme of an old deed of gift. guid and als faire, als euer yay mine waire, and yarto witnesse Mauld my wife. ¶ By tenure of which déed it may appeere, that our ancestors gaue more credit to the true meaning of a few woords barelie expressed in their writings, than that there needed so long The true mening of men in old time. processe and circumstance as is now vsed with long studie of penning, nothing being thought sufficient to assure the parties of their couenanted bargaines, and concluded agreements.

In this last iournie against the Englishmen, William Dowglas bastard sonne to Archembald William Dowglas honoured for his high prowesse. Dowglas lord of Galloway, wan great fame and honor for his high prowes and noble valiancie, shewed as well in certeine approches made vnto Carleill, as in diuerse other skirmishes elsewhere. The king also herevpon began to fauour him in such wise, that he thought him woorthie of some high aduancement; and therevpon gaue him his daughter in mariage, named Giles, a ladie of such excellent beautie, as hir match in those daies was not to be found: [with whome for hir dowrie, he gaue the lands of Niddesdale.] He begat Fr. Thin. on hir a daughter, which was after maried to the earle of Orkenie. This William Dowglas (as Iohn Fourdon noteth) was of a blackish or swart colour, not ouercharged with flesh; but big of bone, a mightie personage, vpright and tall, valiant, courteous, amiable, full of liberalitie, merrie, faithfull, and pleasant in companie, but herewith he was of such strength, that whome soeuer he stroke either with mace, swoord, or speare, downe he went were he neuer so well armed. At one time (as the same Fourdon saith) he hauing with him but eight hundred, fought against thrée thousand Englishmen, of whome two hundred he slue in the field, & brought fiue hundred prisoners with him into Scotland.

In the yéere 1388, Robert earle of Fife, and Archembald Dowglas lord of Galloway, 1388. Irishmen fetch preies in Galloway. William Dowglas inuadeth Ireland with fiue hundred men, as Iohn Fourdon saith, Carlingford beseeged. The craftie dealing of the townesmen. The Irishmen assaile the Scots in two seuerall places. entered with a proud armie into England, and in the meane time came sundrie Irishmen by sea to the coasts of Galloway, and landing in diuerse places, fetched awaie great booties of cattell, and other goods of the inhabitants: whereof William Dowglas, sonne of the said Archembald being informed, got a conuenient power of men togither, by support of his brother in law, Robert earle of Fife, and by licence of the king passed ouer with the same, shipped in certeine vessels into Ireland, where being got on land, he laid siege to the towne of Carlingford. The townesmen doubting to be taken by assault, purchased a truce for certeine daies, promising to giue a great summe of monie to haue their towne saued: but in the meane time, they assembled the number of eight hundred men, through helpe of an other towne not farre off, called Doundalke, and ioining with them, they diuided themselues into two parts. One part set vpon Robert Steward of Durisdeir, who hauing the conduct of the earle of Fifes men, was gone abroad into the countrie to fetch in some preie: and the other part assailed William Dowglas, that lay still afore the towne.

Neuerthelesse, the said Robert and William receiued the enimies with such manhood, that The Irishmen put to flight. Carlingford woone by assalt. they put them in both places to flight, and immediatlie after gaue assault to the towne, and entring the same perforce, put all the goods found therein to the sacke, and then set it on fier, and burned it to ashes. This doone, they tooke threescore ships which they found in diuerse hauens and creeks there on that coast, and fraughting fiftéene of them with such spoile as they had got, they burned the residue, and then returning homewards, spoiled the Ile of The Ile of Man spoiled. Englishmen burne in the Mers. Man by the way as they passed. Shortlie after their returne home, the king of England sent an armie into Scotland, which did much hurt in the Mers, in burning and ouerthrowing dìuerse towers and houses. King Robert being certified hereof, as then remaining in the north parts of Scotland, assembled the nobles of his realme at Aberden: and there by all their aduises it was concluded, that the whole puissance of the realme should be raised with all spéed, to reuenge those iniuries doon by the Englishmen. Héerevpon were two armies Two armies of Scotishmen assembled. assembled, the one, wherein were fiftéene thousand men, was committed to the gouernance of the earle of Fife, hauing with him the earle of Menteith, Archembald Dowglasse lord of Galloway, and Alexander Lindseie of Walcop. The other conteining like number of men, was appointed to the guiding of the earles of Dowglas and March, hauing with them Iames Lindseie earle of Crawford, Iohn Dunbar earle of Murrey, and the lord Haie the constable of Scotland, with diuerse other of the nobilitie [both which (saith Froissard) amounted to Fr. Thin. the number of 40000 men.]

These two armies parting in sunder at Jedworth, the earle of Fife with his people entered into Cumberland by the west marches, and the earles of Dowglas and March with theirs, Cumberland inuaded. Northamberland inuaded. entered on the other side into Northumberland, passing thorough the countrie, spoiling and wasting the same, till as farre as Durham; and on the other part, the earle of Fife spared neither fier nor swoord, all the way as he passed. At length both these armies met togither about a ten miles from Newcastell. Here the earle of Dowglasse chose foorth ten thousand Ten thousand of the choisest men with the earle of Dowglas. The assemblie of the Englishmen at newcastle. of the most able men that could be found amongest all the numbers, with the which he went to Newcastell, to trie if by anie meanes he might take the towne. There was gathered into Newcastell before his comming thither, the most part of all the chosen men from Yorke to the borders, with the earle of Northumberland, who by reason of extreme age was not able to sturre abroad (anie thing to purpose) himselfe, but he had with him two of his owne sonnes, the one named Henrie, and the other Rafe, verie forward and lustie gentlemen. This Henrie being the elder, was surnamed for his often pricking, Henrie Hotspur, as one Henrie Hotspur. that seldome times rested, if there were anie seruice to be doone abroad.

The earle of Dowglasse comming to Newcastell, incamped with his people on that side The earle of Dowglasse incampeth fast by Newcastle. the towne towards Scotland, and viewed the towne earnestie, which way he might best come to giue assault to win it. Henrie Persie desirous to shew some proofe of his singular manhood, wherein he greatlie trusted, required to fight with the earle of Dowglasse man to man; which request the earle granting, togither they ran, mounted on two great coursers with The earle of Dowglas and Henrie Persie run togither. The Persie dismounted beside his horsse. An assault giuen to Newcastell. sharpe groond speares at the vtterance. The earle of Dowglasse in this incounter bare himselfe so well, that in the end he droue the Persie out of his saddle. The Englishmen that stood without the gates, made to the rescue, recouered him on foot, and brought him foorthwith backe into the towne. Incontinentlie hervpon, the earle of Dowglasse caused the assault to be giuen, and filling the ditches with haie and fagots, came with ladders to the wals: but the Englishmen so well defended themselues, that the Scots were beaten backe, not without great losse and slaughter of their people.

¶ Froissard making mention of this enterprise thus made by the Scots, varieth somewhat Froissard some what varieth from the Scotish writers. from the Scotish writers in this place: for he speaketh nothing that the Dowglasse and the Persie should thus run togither on horssebacke (as before is specified) but that in giuing assault to the towne, it chanced, that as the Englishmen defended their barriers without the gate, the Dowglas fortuned to be matched hand to hand with Henrie Persie, and there by force plucked the Persies staffe from him, and in returning hoisted it vp on heigth, saieng, he would carrie the same for his sake into Scotland: and the next day after, he raised his campe and departed homewards towards the borders, & comming to a place called Dowglas incamped at Otterborne. Otterborne, about twelue or foureteene miles from Newcastell, pitched downe his tents there, that his souldiors might take some rest, & refresh themselues after their great trauell, for they had not rested of all the day nor night before, nor to anie purpose, since their first entering into England.

In the meane time the English power was highlie increased at Newcastell, for a great The English power increased. Henrie Persie followed the Scots. nmumber of the countrie came, and entered into the towne the same night that followed the day of the assault. Henrie Persie then perceiuing his number sufficient to fight with Dowglasse, set them in order of battell, & determined to issue foorth vpon the Scots, and to giue them an incounter: but when he vnderstood that they were gone homewards, he followed them with all spéed, for he would by no means that they should passe into Scotland without battell, trusting to recouer the dishonor which he had susteined by losing his staffe at the barriers before the gate of Newcastell. Earle Dowglasse aduertised that the enimies The Dowglasse exhorteth his men to fight manfullie. The Persie with comfortable words incourageth his men. were comming to giue him battell, exhorted his people with few words to remember their woonted manhood, that by gaining the victorie, they might win euerlasting fame and honor, with safegard to themselues and their countrie. The Persie likewise for his part, incouraged his men, willing them to fight manfullie in reuenge of their iniuries doone to them and their friends by the Scots, and herewith commanding the trumpets to sound, he gaue the onset fiercelie.

Here both the armies ioining togither, a right terrible incounter insued: but because the The onset is giuen. night was at hand, before they began to ioine, through want of light to sée what was to doo, they were seuered in sunder for that time; but remembring that the moone would They were seuered by comming on of the night. shortlie rise, they determined so soone as she began to giue light, to renew the battell againe. As soone therefore as the moone began to appeare, they ioined againe with more malice than before. The Englishmen fought so egerlie, that putting the Scots backe, and The battell is renewed. causing them to giue ground, they had woone the Scotish standards, and so by all likelihood got the vpper hand, had not Patrike Hepborne with his sonne, & such other of his Patrike Hepborne releeueth the Scots at point to be ouercome. The valiancie of the earle of Dowglasse. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. companie as attended him, come to the rescue, by whome the fight was begun afresh. Herewith also came the earle of Dowglasse, and with a great mace in his hand laid such sore strokes round about him, that none came within his reach, but downe he went.

*The said Dowglasse the yoonger, hauing with him Robert & Simon Glendoure, was (all which notwithstanding) most grieuouslie wounded, whom his friends (comming about to succor) found then cast vpon the ground, next vnto whome lay one named Hart most miserablie wounded also. At what time a priest (which had faithfullie assisted this This priest was William archdeacon of Aberden, as saith Io. Maior lib. 6. cap. 3. & Lesleus lib. 7. pa. 263. calleth him William Loundie archdeacon of saint Andrews, kinsman to Dowglasse. Dowglasse in all distresse) did (now the bodie being faint and decaied) defend the same from other hurt of the aduersarie. Dowglasse lieng in this estate, his neere friends (Iohn Lindseie, Iohn and Walter Seintclere) came vnto him, demanding how he did. To whome he stoutlie answered (as one whome the presence of death nothing dismaied) that he was verie well; for said he, I doo not now die in my bed (by sluggish destinie) but in the field, as almost all my ancestors haue doone. Wherefore, this shall be the last thing that I will require of you; first to keepe my death most secret, secondlie that you suffer not my standard to be throwne downe, and lastlie that you reuenge my death; the which if I may before hand by your promise hope to be performed, I shall with more patience indure all other things. Wherevpon they first seuered his bodie that it should not be knowen; then they erected his standard, crieng (as the maner is) A Dowglasse a Dowglasse. At which voice, there This Dowglasse was hurt in the shoulder in the lower part of his brest, and in the thigh with seuerall arrows, and had a deadlie blow on his head being vncouered. Io. Maior. lib. 6. cap. 3. The English men put to flight. Rafe and Henrie Persie taken prisoners. Fr. Thin. Other persons taken. The number of prisoners taken. Fr. Thin. There were slaine but fiue hundred Englishmen as Hector Boetius saith. The death of Iames earle of Dowglasse. Sée more of this matter in England. Archembald Dowglasse succéeded Iames the earle of Dowglasse. was so great a concursse of people, & such a ioifull assault vpon the enimie; that forthwith they draue them from the place of the battell. For at the verie name of Dowglasse, not onelie the common people, but Iohn earle of Murrey (supposing that the same side was in distresse) prepared in all hast to succour them.]

Finallie, the whole number of the Scotishmen bare themselues so manfullie, that the Englishmen being broken and put to flight, were slaine & borne down. The chase continued till the breake of the day with killing and taking, as in such cases is euer séene, though the more part in déed were taken with their liues saued after they once fell in the chase. Amongest other, Rafe Persie and his brother Henrie, were taken by Keith, the marshall of Scotland, somewhat before the Englishmen began to turne. [But Lesleus. lib. 7. pa. 263. saith that Henrie Hotspur was taken by Montgomerie, who for his ransome did build the castle of Pounune, which his heirs to this day doo inioy. There was also taken besides the two Persies, diuers other men of name, as Robert Ogill, Thomas Halberke, Iohn Lilborne, William Wauchlut, Robert Heron, the baron of Hilton, Iohn Colwell, and Patrike Louell knights. There were taken in all of Englishmen, to the number of a thousand and fortie, and slaine what in the field and chase (as Froissard recounteth) aboue an eightéene hundred. [But Buchan. saith, there were 1840 slaine, 1000 wounded, and 1004 taken.) But yet the Scotish writers themselues report a lesse number. Neither did this victorie chance to the Scots without great losse and slaughter. For amongst other, the earle of Dowglasse himselfe was thrise stricken through the bodie, and also wounded so mortallie on the head, that being borne to his tent a little before the end of the battell, he died of those hurts immediatlie after, to the great discomfort of all his armie, conceiuing more dolorous griefe for the losse of so woorthie a chiefeteine, than ioy for the gaine of a great victorie. His bodie was conueied vnto Melros, & buried beside his father earle William in the abbeie church there. And because this earle lames had no heircs of his bodie begotten, his coosine Archembald Dowglas lord of Galloway succéeded him in the earldome. The house of the Hepborns (of the which this Patrike Hepborne that fought so valiantlie in this battell at Otterborne did descend) arose in Scotland after this wise.

It chanced in the daies of king Dauid the third, there was an Englishman of that name taken prisoner in Scotland, who by chance being in place where the earle of March was got vpon a yoong gelding vnbroken, the which plaieng the vnrulie iade, in fetching and flinging aloft, put the earle in great danger of his life; and when all other that were present there gaue backe, and durst not step in to make anie shift to helpe the earle: this Englishman lept to him, and boldlie catching hold on the bridle reine, held the horsse fast, till the earle was safelie got beside him. In reward of which benefit, the said earle gaue vnto this The first aduancement of the Hepborns. The earles of Bothwell. 1310. 12. kal. Aug. Buchanan. 1388. Fr. Thin. Buchan. Hepborne certeine lands in Lowthian, whose posteritie increased afterwards in such power of lands and surname, that the same inioied not onelie the earldome of Bothwell, but was also diuided into sundrie branches, and manie knights thereof haue risen of right woorthie fame and estimation. This battell of Otterborne was fought on saint Oswalds day, which is the fift of August, in the yeare 1388.

* Amongst those that fled to the battell, was Matthew Redman gouernor of Berwike, whom lames Lindseie (supposing by the beautie of his armor to be of the nobler sort) did vehementlie follow by the space of thrée miles. At the last, Redman perceiuing that he was not by flight able to escape (and déeming it better to hazzard his life, than otherwise to be slaine without aduenture) allighted from his horsse to fight with his enimie on foot, which Lindseie did accordinglie; in the end after a long conffict betwéene them, the Englishman (being as saith Buchanan inferior to the Scot in armor & weapon) did yéeld Lindseie had a halberd, and Redman a sword with a buckler which he caried at his backe. Io. Maior. lib. 6. cap. 14. The disgrace of prisoners breaking promise. Io. Ma. saith if they breaks promise, the picture of him is tied to a horsse taile and drawen about the borders of the countrie. The bishop of Durham goeth towards the Scots, accompanied with Thomas Lindseie and Thomas Clifford. himselfe to his aduersarie. By whome (after that he had giuen an oth to returne at a certeine day) he was permitted to go at libertie. Such in those daies was the humanitie amongest the borderers, and both nations towards their prisoners, which to this day dooth continue betweene the inhabitants of those places. But if anie doo not returne at the day appointed, this punishment is set vpon him for a perpetuall disgrace. That in the assemblies of true daies (to demand restitutions of things and iniuries doone by the one nation vnto the other) they vse that he which complaineth himselfe to be deceiued by his prisoner (on his promise) dooth carrie about a hand or gloue painted in a cloth vpon a long staffe or speare to be séene of all men; the which is accounted a singular infamie to the deseruers thereof. For they which haue so broken their faith, be euer after hated of their friends and acquaintance; for which dishonestie, they will not affoord them good report or interteinment. Lindseie hauing with this condition dismissed his prisoner (and perceiuing a great number of armed men) made directlie towards them, not knowing that they were his enimies, vntill he had ridden so néere vnto them, that he could not withdraw himselfe out of their danger. These men were the bands of the bishop of Durham, who when he came too late to Newcastell (to ioine with Persie at the battell of Otterborne, because he supposed that the enimies woul not ioine vntill the next day) commanded his armie to rest there, and to fall to their supper. Shortlie after which, he tooke his iournie towards the Scots.

But (before he was anie great way marched out of the towne) vnderstanding (by those that fled from Otterborne battell towards Newcastell) that Persie was ouerthrowne, and had lost the field, he returned with his friends to Newcastell, to consult what he should doo against the enimie. At which time it was declared, that the next day at the sunne rising, they should all be redie in armor to séeke the Scots. According wherevnto in the morning of the next day, the inhabitants bordering thereabouts were assembled, who (with these that the bishop had broght thither) were of all sorts gathered togither, to the number of 10000 horssemen and footmen. These stirred the bishops mind, that (with all spéed) hée should The bishop of Durham goeth against the Scots. lead them toward the Scots, and trie the successe of battell, for the Scots (said they) wearied with the former daies fight, and most of them wounded, will not be able to abide the second batell. With which spéeches they persuaded themselues of an easie conquest. Wherevpon the bishop set forward with his armie, whose comming being vnderstood by the scouts of the Scots, the erle of Murrey (whom now all men did follow after the death of Dowglas) called the present nobilitie togither to consult what should be doone with the Iohn Maior writeth, that some say they tied these prisoners fast with ropes, li. 6. c. 4. prisoners, whom they could not in iustice now kill (hauing receiued them vpon ransome) but it would seeme a most cruell part: and to rescue them (being their enimies, and almost an equall number to themselues) it was a thing most dangerous. Wherefore it was concluded, that the prisoners should sweare, that they would not stirre whilest the Scots and English were in fight; and further, that if the Scots were ouercome, and they (being now their prisoners) recouered from them, that yet they should still remaine prisoners vnto them as before, and so returne to them at a certeine day. These things thus doone, they left the prisoners in the campe, with a small gard which should execute a present reuenge vpon them, if they did at anie time séeme to attempt anie thing.

After this the Scots (full of the victories latelie obteined) afresh descended into the battell, defended behind with the marches, and on the left and right side with the dead bodies of the former conflict: at what time it was also commanded that euerie one (as he did approch the enimie) should blow the horne he caried about his necke (hanging at his backe) as The maner of the Scots was, that going to battell they carie a horne about their necks like hunters, and in the battel incourage themselues to fight with that, Io. Ma. li. 6. ca. 4. which I suppose was also the maner of the English (as may be by manie substantial reasons approoued.) lowd as he could, which sound being of it selfe terrible, was in the eccho (by reflexion of the hilles) so multiplied, that it forced the enimie to suppose the Scots to be of greater number than in truth they were. But before they entred into the battell (as saith Iohn Maior) George of Dunbar earle of March incouraged his soldiers with these words. "We haue this night (most noble Scots) susteined the chiefe heat and force of the battell, we haue ouerthrowne the youth and strength of Northumberland with their two princes: for which there is no cause why we (after such honor obteined against those valiant princes) should now feare this sillie priest. Trulie there remaineth nothing now for vs, but that euerie one of vs giue but two strokes, bicause the leader will flie at the third, and all the flocke will follow, since the shéepeheard stroken, the shéepe will be dispersed. But if they shall so long contend with vs, that (as God most rightlie forbid) we chance to be ouercome, then shall we most shamefully loose the glorie which we before haue honorablie gained by this nights trauell. But contrarie, if we be men, and put on vs such valiant hearts (as the preseruation of honor requireth) we shall easilie teach this mitred priest, that it had béene farre more honor to him, safetie to his, and most commoditie to them all, that he had remained at home, with rods to correct vnbrideled and negligent scholers, than with sword to enter battell against growne and bearded souldiers."

This being spoken, and the English now come to the point to ioine with the aduersarie, the Scots began the alarms with their hornes, wherevpon the English hearing that terrible noise (vnaccustomed to them in such multitude) remembring that they must fight in the middle of dead carcasses of their friends and kinred latelie slaine (a spectacle to discourage most valiant hearts) and somewhat abashed at the chéerefulnesse of the Scots standing against them (which they looked not for after the last battell) the English (I say) considering these things, retired towards the place from whence they came, and suffered the Scots to returne without anie other pursute against them. In the meane time, when Alexander Lindseie (taken as before, and as yet prisoner in Newcastell) chanced to be seene and knowne by Redman (his yéelded prisoner) he was most courteouslie (after congratulation of amitie betwéene them) suffred to depart frō Newcastell to Scotland.)

In the yéere following, a parlement was holden at Perth, in the which demonstration was A parlement at Perth. made by king Robert, that forsomuch as he was broken by great age, and might not through féeblenesse occasioned thereof attend to his office in gouernement of the realme, it was necessarie that some gouernor shuld be chosen; wherfore he required that his second sonne Robert earle of Fife might inioy that office, considering his eldest sonne Iohn earle of Robert earle of Fife is chosen gouernor of the realme. Carrike (by reason of a stripe which he had receiued on the leg by an horsse of sir Iames Dowglasse of Dalketh) was not able to trauell, but kept his bed, and might sturre no way foorth abroad. The lords consented to the kings request, and so the earle of Fife was constituted gouernour of Scotland, by common consent of all the lords of the realme [before Fr. Thin. which time (as saith Buchanan) they were called wardens and not gouernors.] Also the earle marshall of England was sent by king Richard to the borders, to remaine there as The earle marshall of England, warden of the marches. warden in the place of Henrie Persie prisoner in Scotland. It is reported by the Scotish writers, that this earle should make stout brags, that he would fight with the Scots the next time he met with anie power of them, whether he were like in number to them or not. But when it came to passe that Robert Steward the Scotish gouernor was entered into The gouernor of Scotland inuadeth Northumberland. Northumberland with an armie, hée withdrew into places of safegard, and suffered the most part of the countrie to be harried and burned. In deed our English writers affirme, that the said earle, hauing with him but fiue hundred men of armes, was not able to accomplish anie notable exploit auailable against the great multitude of his enimies.

In the same yeere was a truce taken betwixt England and France, the Scots (if they would A truce taken. English ambassadors sent into Scotlād. The king of Scots agréeth to the truce. The cathedrall church of Murrey burnt. The earle of Buchquhane imprisoned. The deceasse of king Robert the second. so agrée) being comprised therein. Herevpon there came ambassadors foorth of England, to vnderstand what the king of Scots would determine in that behalfe. By whom it was answered, that he would with good will stand to the same truce according as it was concluded. Whilest things passed thus in Scotland, Alexander Steward earle of Buchquhane burnt the cathedrall church of Murrey, the lanterne and ornament of all the north part of Scotland, vpon displeasure conceiued against the bishop of the same place. Whereat his father the king tooke such indignation, that when his sonne the said Alexander was brought to his presence, he commanded him to bee committed vnto streict prison, wherein he remained till after his fathers deceasse. The realme being in this maner brought to good tranquillitie, king Robert falling into great infirmitie and feeblenesse, by reason of extreame age, without any maner of other accidentall sicknes, deceassed at his castell of Dundonald, the 19 day of Aprill, in the yéere after our redemption 1390, being as then aboue 75 2390. yéeres of age, and hauing reigned the space of 19 yéeres, his bodie was buried at Scone before the high altar.

This Robert the second, though by reason of his great age, he went not foorth into the His happie successe in warres. wars himselfe, yet was there neuer prince afore him that had more happie successe by the conduct of his capteins which he sent foorth as lieutenants vnder him, for they neuer lightlie returned home but with victorie. He was a prince of such constancie in promise, that hée The constancie of K. Robert in word and promise. His vpright iustice. His diligence to redresse poore mens wrongs. seldome spake the word which he performed not. Such an obseruer he was also of iustice, that whensoeuer he remooued from anie place, he would cause proclamation to be made, that if anie of his men or officers had taken vp anie thing vnpaid for, the partie to whom the debt was due should come in, and immediatlie he should be satisfied. He willinglie heard the complaints of the poore, and was no lesse diligent to sée their wrongs redressed.

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