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AFTER Malcolme succéeded his brother William, surnamed for his singular iustice, the
William surnamed the Lion. Ambassadors sent to the king of England. King William is required to doo homage. K. Williams request for the restitution of Northumberland. The answer of king Henrie. Lion. Shortlie after his coronation, he sent ambassadors vnto Henrie king of England, requiring him, that according to iustice, he would restore vnto him the earledome of Northumberland, sith it apperteined by good and lawfull interest vnto his inheritance. King Henrie answered the messengers, that if king William would come vnto London, and there doo his homage for Cumberland and Huntington, he should be assured to haue all things so ordered, as he reasonablie could wish or demand. Héerevpon king William went into England, and so came to London, and after he had doone his homage for Cumberland and Huntington, he required the restitution of Northumberland. But king Henrie made answer as then, that forsomuch as the same was annexed to the crowne, he might not without the assent of all the estates of his realme make restitution thereof. Notwithstanding, in the next parlement, he promised to cause the matter to be proponed: and if it came to passe that his demand were found to stand with reason, he would doo therein according to conscience, when time expedient should serue thereto.

About the same season, king Henrie passed ouer into Normandie with an armie, and King Henrie saileth into Normandie. King William with manie nobles of Scotland went with king Henrie ouer into France. caused king William, with manie other nobles of Scotland, to go with him in that iournie. For K. William would not disobeie his commandement at that present, in hope to atteine in quiet and peaceable manner his sute touching the restitution of Northumberland (as the Scotish writers doo affirme) but in the end, after he had continued a long time with king Henrie, and perceiued no comfort to recouer his lands, he got licence with much adoo to returne home: and so comming backe into England, passed through the realme with his nobles into Scotland, where he applied his whole indeuour to vnderstand the state of the common-wealth of his subiects, and speciallie he tooke order in most diligent wise, to punish cruelties doone by theeues and robbers, which vndoubtedlie was one of the most profitable K. Williams zeale of iustice. acts that he could deuise to accomplish at that present, considering the state of his realme, as it then stood. For if the damages & skathes committed by théeues and robbers were Scotland more indamaged by domesticall théeues than by foraine enimies. equallie pondered with the hurts and hinderances which dailie grow by open warre against anie forren nation, it may well appéere, that more harme ariseth, & more heinous cruelties are exercised against the poore and miserable commons and innocent people, by such as liue by rapine & spoiling at home, than by anie outward enimies, be they neuer so fierce and strong in the field. And therefore the prudent consideration of this prince was no lesse to be commended, in that he sought to represse the licentious outrage of such arrand théeues and priuie murtherers, than if he had slaine manie thousands of forren enimies.

When he had once clensed the realme of those misgouerned persons, he sent eftsoones Ambassadors sent to king Henrie. his ambassadors to king Henrie, requiring (as before) to haue Northumberland restored vnto him, with notice giuen, that if he might not haue it with fauour, he would assaie to recouer it by force. King Henrie perceiuing that he must either satisfie king Williams request, Sée more thereof in England. either else haue open warres with the Scots, by aduise of his nobles, restored to king William so much of Northumberland as his grandfather K. Malcolme had in possession. King William accepted the offer, but so, as he protested that he receiued not that part in A portion of Northumberland restored to the Scots. King William receiued a péece of Northumberland, with his right saued to the residue. King Henrie repenting himselfe of that which he had deliuered to the Scots séeketh new occasions of warre. Warres with England. full recompense of the whole which was due vnto him (so sale the Scotish writers) but so as his entier right might alwaies be saued as well to the residue as to that which was then restored. Within few yéeres after, king Henrie féeling what hinderance it was for him to forbeare the commodities of those lands, which were thus deliuered vp to the Scotish kings vse, repented him of that bargaine: and therefore to find some occasion to recouer the same again, he procured his subiects that dwelled vpon the borders, to make forreies into the lands perteining to the Scots, so to prouoke them to battell.

Complaint of these iniuries being brought vnto the warden of the Scotish borders, by such Scots as had lost such goods as were taken awaie by the Englishmen, he sent to demand restitution; but forsomuch as he could haue no towardlie answer, he got togither a great number of men, the which entering into the English ground, did much hurt on ech side where they came. At the same time was king Henrie in France, and therefore the Englishmen thought it sufficient to defend themselues as well as they might without attempting anie notable enterprise in reuenge of the displeasures doone by the Scots. Haruest was also at hand, and therevpon they ceassed on either part from further inuasions, till the winter season, which passed also without anie exploit atchiued, woorthie to be remembred; sauing certeine small rodes made by the Scots into the English borders, as they saw occasion to serue thereto.

But in the summer next following, king William raised a mightie armie, and came with King William inuadeth Cumberland. the same into Cumberland, the right wing of the which armie was led by Gilcrist, whose approoued valiancie often shewed in the time of king Malcolme, had aduanced him to marie with the kings sister. The left wing was assigned vnto the conduct of one Rowland the kings coosen, who was also lieutenant of the horssemen. The middle ward or battell the king himselfe led. The Englishmen, to the intent they might haue time and leasure to assemble their power, sent vnto king William, offering vnto him, not onelie large summes The offers of the Englishmen. of monie, if he would returne backe with his armie without further inuasion, but also redresse of all maner of iniuries and wrongs, if anie such on their behalfe were to be prooued. But king William for answer héerevnto declared, that he had not begun the warre for anie The answer of king William. desire he had to monie; neither had he first giuen the occasion, as one that was euer willing to liue vpon his owne: so that if they could be contented to restore Northumberland being his rightfull heritage, he was not so desirous of bloud, but that he would gladlie ceasse from all further attempts.

The Englishmen hauing receiued this answer, to the end they might protract the time in sending still to and fro, till they might espie some occasion to woorke such feates as they had imagined, addressed foorth other ambassadors vnto king William, with diuerse faire offers and golden promises. In the meane time, to take the Scotishmen at some aduantage, they conueie their whole power in the night season neere vnto the place where the same The Englishmen séeke by policie to vanquish the Scots. Scotishmen laie in campe, & diuiding themselues into two parts, the one was appointed to abide in the fields, till the sunne were vp, and then to shew themselues to the enimies, to traine them foorth to battell: the other companie was laid closelie in a vallie not farre off, to take the aduantage as they saw their time. In the morning about the rising of the sunne, those that were appointed to procure the skirmish, approched so néere to the enimies campe, till they came euen within sight of them. The Scots amazed with the strangnesse of the thing, for that they had not heard before of anie assemblie of the Englishmen, at the first were somewhat afraid: but anon incouraging one another, they boldlie issued forth vpon their enimies, who of purpose (at the first) made but weake resistance, and at length fled The Englishmen retire of purpose. The king left but weakelie garded. amaine, to the intent to cause the Scotishmen to breake their arraie of battell in pursuing them, which they did so egerlie, that they left their king but slenderlie garded with a small companie about him. Then the ambushment lieng in the vallie, brake foorth vpon him, according to the order before appointed, and in the meane time, the other that fled cast themselues about, and manlie abode their enimies, so earnestlie laieng it to their charge, that in fine they droue them backe, and constreined them to flee in good earnest, which they themselues had but onelie counterfeited to doo before.

King William perceining his people thus discomfited, and himselfe inclosed on ech side The Scots constreined to flée. amongst his enimies, after he had assaied to breake foorth on some side from amongst them, when he saw his indeuour could by no meanes preuaile, and that the enimies made onelie at him, he yéelded himselfe. There was not much bloud spilled on either side at this blckering, King William yéeldeth himselfe prisoner. for the one part in the beginning of the fraie (as ye haue heard) fleeing of set purpose to the place where their ambush laie, escaped without much hurt; and the other, scared by the breaking foorth of the ambush, abode the brunt but a small while, returning immediatlie towards the king; and then perceiuing they could doo no good, they made the best shift they could ech man for himselfe, to escape the enimies hands. The king being thus taken of his enimies, King William conueied into Normandie. 1174. was conueied to king Henrie ouer into Normandie, where he was as then remaining. The yéere that king William was thus taken, was after the birth of our Sauiour Christ 1174, and the ninth ofking Williams reigne.

¶ Other writers report the maner of his taking, not altogither agréeable with that which Discord of writers. we haue héere aboue remembred, who declare how K. William, after he had wasted all Cumberland, came into Northumberland, not ceassing till he came to Anwike, where he staied for a time to haue had battell: but in the meane while the Englishmen laie close togither without noise or appearance, in such wise that no Scotishman could haue vnderstanding where they were. At length king William wearied with long tarieng thus at Anwike, and seeing no enimies to appéere, determined to woorke some exploit yet before his returne, and therevpon sent foorth the most part of all his armie abroad into the countrie, to forreie the same, kéeping no great companie about him, till the returne of the other thus sent foorth. Wherevpon incontinentlie a great ambushment of Englishmen came vpon him with counterfeited Scotish ensignes, and were not once suspected for Englishmen, till the king was compassed in by them on ech side, and so finallie taken and led awaie yer anie Scotishman wist thereof, saue a few Wilhelmus Paruus. which were left (as is said) with him for the time. In déed Wilhelmus Paruus, a canon sometime in the abbeie of Bridlington in Yorkeshire, in that his booke which he writes of the Norman kings of England, affirmes how there were not manie more than about three score horesemen with king William, while he was thus taken; and that the Englishmen were not past foure hundred horssemen, which tooke vpon them that enterprise; whose capteins (as hereteth) Capteins of the Englishmen. W. Paruus. were these: Robert de Stuteuill, Ranulfe de Glanuill, Bernard de Ballioll, and diuerse other.

The same author writeth, that after the taking of the king, there rose a mutinie amongst the Scots: for whereas the Irish Scots bare a naturall grudge against the English Scots, yet whilest the king was present amongst them, they durst not vtter their malicious intentions: but now that he was thus taken from them, so manie of the English Scots as fell into the hands of the Irish, paid déerelie for the bargaine, being cruellie murthered and slaine: so that the residue were constreined to get them out of the waie into castels and towers. where they might be receiued. But now it is to be considered, that bicause there was no great slaughter made at the taking of king William, the warres notwithstanding continued betwixt England and Scotland: for the two before specified chiefteins Gilcrist and Rowland stoutlie withstood the Gilcrist and Rowland resist the Englishmen. Englishmen, and beat them backe as they enterprised to enter into Cumberland. At length a peace was taken, during the time that king William remained in captiuitie; vnder these conditions, that Northumberland should continue vnder the dominion of the Englishmen, and Northumberland vnder the Englishmen. Cumberland (with the earledome of Huntington) to remaine (as before) vnder the gouernance of the Scotishmen.

Immediatlie vpon the taking of king William thus at Anwike, his brother Dauid earle of Dauid earle of Huntington. Huntington, thorough licence of king Henrie came into Scotland, to haue the gouernement of the realme, till the king his brother might be redeemed. So soone therefore as he had once established the realme in good quiet and iustice, he sent Richard the bishop of saint Andrewes, with diuerse other noble men, ouer into Normandie, to take order there with K. Henrie for the rausome of the king his brother, which was agréed in this manner. First, it was The king of Scots dooth fealtie to the king of England for Scotland. Rog. Houed. Matth. West. accorded, that king William should become and acknowledge himselfe to be the king of Englands liege man, against all men for the realme of Scotland and his other lands; and for the same should doo feaitie to the said king of England, as to his liege souereigne lord, in like sort as other his liege people were accustomed to doo. And further, he should also doo fealtie vnto the lord Henrie, the king of Englands sonne, (sauing alwaies the faith which he owght the king his father.) And in like manner it was couenanted andagréed, that all the prelats of Scotland, and The prelats of Scotland doo fealtie to the king of England. The earles and lords doo homage vnto him. King William ransomed. their successors, should recognise their woonted subiection to the church of England, and doo fealtie to the king of England, so manie ofthem as he should appoint. And likewise the earle and barons of Scotland, and their heires for their part, should doo their homage and fealties vnto the said king of England, and to the lord Henrie his sonne, so manie as there vnto should be required.

Moreouer, the king of Scots should paie for his redemption one hundred thousand pounds sterling, the one halfe to be paid in hand: and for sure paiment of the other halfe, the earledomes of Cumberland, Huntington, and Northumberland should be deliuered vnto king Henrie in pledge or mortgage, till the time that the same summe was paid. And for the more suertie of these couenants, and that the Scots should mooue no warre against the Englishmen, foure of the strongest castels within Scotland, that is to saie, Berwike, Edenburgh, Foure castels deliuered to the Englishmen in pledge. 1175. Gilbert of Galloway rebelleth. Roxburgh & Striueling, were deliuered into the Englishmens hands. These things being thus ordereo the eight day of December 1175, & the king restored home, there followed a new stirre in Scotland, for Gilbert of Galloway, a right cruell and most mischiefous person, purposing to conquer the crowne by force, made great slaughter of all them that withstood his desire. And because his brother reprooued his dooings, he put out his eies, and cut off his hands. Against this Gilbert was Gilcrist sent with an armie by the king. There was fought a sore battell betwixt them, for the most part of those that followed Gilberts commandement, were desperat fellowes, such commonlie as for murder and other heinous crimes by them committed were in danger of the lawes, and therefore vpon hope of pardon desired a change; but yet in the end, Gilcrist with multitude wan the field of them, and slue more in the chase than Gilbert of Galloway vanquished by Gilcrist. Wilhelmus Paruus. in the battell. Gilbert himselfe escaped and got ouer into the Ile of Man, and fled from thence into Ireland. Wilhelmus Paruus reporteth this matter somewhat otherwise, as thus: In the armie of king William (saith he) when he was taken neere vnto Anwike, were two brethren, Gilbert and Vared, that were lords of Galloway, hauing there with them a great retinue of their countriemen. These were the sonnes of Fergusius, sometime lord of that prouince; after whose deceasse the king of Scots that is superiour lord thereof, diuided the countrie betwixt these two brethren. But Gilbert the eldest brother found himselfe much grieued to haue anie part of those lands (which were his fathers) giuen from him; yet doubting punishment at the kings hands, he durst not attempt anie thing against his brother, till it fortuned the king to be taken. And then deliuered of the feare which had staied his mischiefous purpose, he taketh his brother at vnwares, and cruellie murdered him, after no common maner; but rather martyred him in beastlie wise, so to satisfie the instinct of his diuelish nature. And immediatlie after inuading the vpper countries, he exerciseth great slaughter of men on each hand. But his brother had a sonne called Rowland, which proouing a valiant yoong gentleman, boldlie resisted his vncles rage, with the assistance and aid of his fathers friends. And thus was Scotland brought into trouble (as Wilhelmus Paruus recordeth) till by the foresaid Gilcrist the murderer was expelled, as before is expressed. In the yeare following came Hugo Hugh cardinall of saint Angelo the popes legat. cardinall of saint Angelo as legat from the pope into England, with authoritie to reforme the English churches, in such cases as were thought requisit; and after he had made an end there, to doo the like in Scotland. When he had therefore finished with England, he cited all the The bishops of Scotland summoned to a conuocation at Northampton. bishops of Scotland to appeare before him at a day prefixed at Northampton. They came according to his appointment, and being assembled there in consistorie, he went about in most earnest wise to persuade them to receiue the archbishop of Yorke for their metropolitane. But one Gilbert a yoong man, howbeit singularlie well learned, and for his holinesse of life much Gilbert a learned man defended the liberties of Scotland. commended (as Hector Boetius writeth) being sent of purpose by king William vnto this conuocation, to foresee that nothing were concludéd in the same, preiudiciall to the ancient liberties and franchises of the realme of Scotland, did argue so stifflie to the contrarie, that the cardinall left off the pursute of such maner of matter, and brake vp that councell without determination of anie thing to the purpose in that behalfe.

This Gilbert that thus defended the cause and liberties of the Scotish clergie, was afterwards Gilbert bishop of Cathnes. made bishop of Cathnes, and finallie after his departure out of this transitorie life, registred for his supposed perfect holinesse of life among the number of saints. The chiefest cause that mooued the Scotish cleargie to withdraw their obedience from the primasie of Yorke, was the dissention and continuall enimitie betwixt the two nations for superioritie in temporall causes. The same yeare that this councell was holden at Northampton, sundrie vnketh woonder Woonders. were séene in Albion. On Midsummer day being the feast day of the natiuitie of saint Iohn the Baptist, there fell such a storme of haile, that it killed manie shéepe and small cattell: Haile. people that were out of houses, and from vnder couert anie where abroad, were beaten to the eartl with violence of that storme. The sunne in September about noonetide was darkened for the The sun darkene. space of two houres togither, without anie eclipse or cause naturall by interposition of clouds. In Yorkeshire was such terrible thunder with strange lightening, that manie abbeies and Thunder. churches were consumed with the fire.

About this season, the abbeie of Arbroth was built in most magnificent wise, and indowed The foundation of the abbeie of Arbroth, or Abirbrothoke. 1178. The abbeie or nunrie of Hadington founded. Ambassadors to the pope. with lands and reuenues in such ample sort, that few houses within the bounds of Albion might compare therewith. The church was dedicated in the yeare of Grace 1178, by king William, in honor of Thomas Becket archbishop of Canturburie, with whome (as is said) he had great familiaritie in time of his yoong yeares. At the same time the abbeie of Hadington was founded by Adhama the mother of king William, and shortlie after she had built it, she died. Not long after, king William sent as ambassadors Iohn bishop of saint Andrews, and Reignald abbat of Arbroth vnto pope Alexander the third, to present vnto him his obeisance, according as he thought stood with his duetie. The pope séeming to reioise thereat, sent shortlie after vnto the king a rose of gold, filled with balme, and certeine new priuileges concerning A rose of gold. the libertie of the church of Scotland. At the same time Gilcrist, hauing his wife in Gilcrist murthereth his wife vpon suspicion of adulterie. The kings indignation against Gilcrist. Gilcrist proclamed traitor. Bredus the brother of Gilcrist. The house of the Ogiluies. suspicion of adulterie, droue hir out of doores, and afterwards strangled hir in a village called Manis, not past a mile from Dundée. The king (for that she was his sister) tooke such indignation therewith, that he seized vpon all his lands and goods, purposing to haue put him to death if he might haue got him into his hands: but when he saw he could not be found, he proclamed him traitor, and raced his castell (wherein he had dwelled) quite to the ground, in such wise that vnneth remaineth anie token at this day where it stood. This Gilcrist had a brother that hight Bredus, who before this mischance had got the lands of Ogiluie: of whome the house of the Ogiluies tooke their beginning, that after came to great authoritie in the court, though at this time (through Gilcrists offense) his whole familie was néere hand destroied. About this time also, the queene, king William his wife, deceassed. A daughter which he had by hir, named Adhama, he gaue in mariage vnto the earle of Laon: but he himselfe The earle of Laon. Emengard. 1186. The peace confirmed with England. The miserable state of Gilcrist. after the deceasse of this his first wife maried Emengard, daughter to Richard vicount of Beaumount that was sonne to a daughter of king William the Conquerour. By this mariage and aliance, the peace was newlie confirmed betwixt England and Scotland, in such wise, that neither part might receiue anie rebels to the other, by means whereof Gilcrist, that before was fled into England, was constreined to returne into Scotland, disguised in poore wéed, with two of his sonnes, and there passed foorth his life a long time in great miserie amongest the woods and in out places, vnknowen to anie man what he was, by reason of his poore and simple habit. Somewhat before the aboue remembred mariage, Henrie king of England at the The castell of Edenburgh restored. Salad ne the Souldane. motion of Hugh bishop of Durham rendered vp the castell of Edenburgh into K. William his hands.

About this time the Souldane named Saladine prospered hugelie against the christians in the holie land, making such cruell slaughter of them, that to heare thereof, all christian hearts were mooued to pitifull commiseration and dolorous teares: in so much that Henrie king of King Henries purpose to go into the holie land against the Saracens hindered by rebellion of his sonne. Makulzen and Makhein capteins of pirats. England vowed to go thither with an armie to relieue the common necessitie of the christian publike weale, and had gone in deed, if he had not béene hindered by the conspiracie of his sonne, whome latelie before he had caused to be crowned king, that went about to vsurpe the sole administration to himselfe now in his fathers life time. About the same time William went with an armie into Rosse, against Makulzen and Makbein, two capteins of the westerne Iles, which vsed vpon occasion to passe ouer into Rosse, Cathnes and Murrey land, spoiling and wasting those countries; & when they heard of anie power comming against them, they would streight returne to their ships, and repasse againe into the Iles. But at this time, the king had sent foorth a nauie to burne all those vessels, wherein the robbers had passed ouer and had left at anchor, by reason whereof when they were inclosed in on euerie side by the king, and taken prisoners, they after had suffered death on the whéele, according to the maner Death on the whéele. of the ciuill law.

The king in his returne from this iournie, came by the abbeie of Abirbrothoke, to view Abirbrothoke is builded. the woorke of that house, how it went forwards, commanding them that were ouerséers and maisters of the works to spare for no costs, but to bring it vp to perfection, and that with most magnificence. After his departure from thence, he tooke the way toward Bertha, and by aduenture espied where Gilcrist was deluing vp turfes, togither with his two sonnes. And though Gilcrist deluing clods. he knew not what they were, yet he mused to sée two such goodlie yoong men, as by resemblance they appeared to be, to be thus occupied in such toiling and base labour. Incontinentlie herewith Gilcrist with his bald head came afore him, and falling downe on his knees Gilcrist asketh pardon of the king in vnknowne habit. at the kings féet said: "If there be anie mercie in thée (most ruthfull prince) for them that are brought through their offenses into extreme miserie, hauing suffered condigne punishment for the same; I beséech thée for the loue that Christ had to all sinfull people, not sparing to shed his most pretious bloud for their redemption, to haue some pitie & compassion on me, & these my poore & miserable sons, which with me haue suffered much griefe and penurie, not hauing deserued the same by anie crime by them committed."

At the last, when king William had inquired of him what he was, and how it chanced he Gilcrist declareth what he is. fell into such kind of miserie, the teares came so fast trickeling from his eies, that of a long time he was not able to declare his owne name. At length being come to himselfe, he said: "I am Gilcrist (noble prince) the most sorrowfull creature on earth, which (alas) put my hands in thy bloud, and was therefore disherited of all my lands, and banished with these my two sonnes out of thy realme, wherevpon we remained in England for a time, till through proclamation made against outlawes, I was constreined to come hither againe with my said sonnes, where we haue liued by roots all the summer season, and now in the winter are glad to get our liuing with trauell of hand thus in digging and deluing of clods. Therfore if anie ruth or pitie haue place in thy heart, or that thine indignation be qualified, haue mercie on our sorrowfull estate, and remit the offense, wherby thou maiest not onelie purchase great honor and fame by example of pitie, being highlie renowmed for that vertue amongest all nations, but also win great merit afore God, for shewing thy selfe the follower of Christ, the giuer of all mercie, grace, and peace."

The king mooued by these woords, and remembring the good seruice which Gilcrist had The king taketh Gilcrist to his fauour, and restoreth vnto him his lands. imploid so oftentimes afore in defense of the realme; and againe pitieng his case, to consider from what degrée of honor he was fallen into the déepest bottome of extreme miserie, he tooke him wholie to his fauour, and not onelie forgaue him his former offenses, but also restored vnto him, and to his sonnes, all such lands as sometimes apperteined vnto them, except so much as the king had alreadie giuen vnto the abbeie of Abirbrothoke. Gilcrist euer after perseuered in due obedience to his prince. And forsomuch as his eldest sonne deceassed before him without heires, & that his yoonger sonne, by reason of some impediment which he had, was vnméet for mariage, he gaue the most part of his lands after his owne deceasse vnto the Gilcrists gift vnto the house of Abirbrothoke. said house of Abirbrothoke. His yoonger sonne also, no lesse well affectionated towards the same house, gaue the residue of his lands therevnto. The father and both his sonnes are buried before the altar of S. Katharine within the church of this abbeie, as the superscription of their toomes sheweth.

Though king William was earnestlie occupied in the aduancing forward of the building of Abirbrothoke, yet did he not forget his dutie in the administration of his lawes; but diligentlie caused iustice to be executed, to the punishing of the wicked, and the rewarding of them that well deserued. He made also sundrie new laws for the restreining of théeues and Laws deuised by king William against théeues. oppressors of the people, so rigorous, that they might be in feare to heare him named. Furthermore, where as the church of Scotland was subiect to the church of Yorke, he obteined of pope Clement the third of that name, letters of exemption for his clergie, whereby the church of Scotland (within the which were conteined the bishops sées of saint Andrews, Glasco, Dunkeld, Dublaine, Brighne, Aberden, Murrey, Rosse, and Cathnesse) was de clared exempt from all other forrein iurisdictions, except onelie from that of the see of Rome, so as it might not be lawfull from thenceforth for any that was not of the realme of Scotland, to pronounce sentence of interdiction or excommunication, or otherwise to deale in iudgement of ecclesiasticall causes, except such one as the apostolike sée of Rome should speciallie appoint, and send thither with legantine power. The date of the said bull or letters of exemption thus obteined was at the popes paace of Laterane, the third Ides of March, and first yéere of the said pope Clements gouernment. Shortlie after, to wit in the yéere 1198, died Henrie The death of Henrie king of England. king of England, after whom succéeded his second sonne Richard: for Henrie his eldest sonne deceassed before his father.

King Richard, after his coronation, prepared him selfe to passe with an armie into the holie K. Richard. land, and therefore made peace with all his neighbors, that no trouble should follow to his realme by reason of his absence: and herevpon to keepe the Scots in friendship, rather by beneuolence than by feare, he rendred into their hands the castels of Roxburgh, Berwike, and The castels of Roxburgh, Berwike, and Sterling rendred to king William. Sterling: and moreouer that part of Northumberland which his father had taken from king William when he tooke him prisoner. He also deliuered the earledomes of Huntington & Cumberland; but vnder condition, that all the castels and holds within them, should be in the kéeping of his capteins and souldiors, such as he should appoint. He released to king William also the residue of such summes of monie as were due for the foure castels laid to gage, ten thousand pounds onelie excepted, which he receiued in hand at that present towards the charges of his iournie. When king William had thus receiued his lands and castels by surrender, he made his brother Dauid earle of Huntington, who therevpon dooing his homage Earle of Huntington. Scots with king Richard in the holie land. vnto king Richard, according to the old ordinance deuised by king Malcolme the first, went with him also in that voiage with fiue hundred Scotishmen, or rather fiue thousand (as the translator of Hector Boetius saith) if no fault be in the printer.

As the christian armie laie at siege before the citie of Acres, otherwise called Acon, it The siege of Acres. Oliuer a Scotishman. chanced that one Oliuer a Scotishman borne, was within the towne reteined in seruice among the Saracens; for being conuict of felonie in his natiue countrie he was banished out of the same, and fled to the Saracens, remaning so long amongst them, that he had learned their toong verie perfectlie, so that as then few knew what countriman he was. It fortuned that this Oliuer had one of the gates in kéeping, on that side the towne where was but a single wall, without trenches, or anie other fortification. He happened by some good aduenture to espie amongst the watch of those that were of the retinue of Dauid earle of Huntington, one of his owne kinsmen named Iohn Durward, with whom of long time before he had béene most Iohn Dur ward familiarlie acquainted; and incontinentlie he called to the same Durward, desiring vnder assurance to talke with him. After certeine communication, for that this Oliuer had not as yet vtterlie in his heart renounced the christian faith, he appointed with Durward to giue entrie at a certeine houre vnto earle Dauid, and to all the christian armie, vpon condition that earle Dauid would sée him restored againe vnto his land and heritage in Scotland. The houre set, Earle Dauid entered the citie Acon. earle Dauid came with a great power of men to the gate before rehersed, where he was suffered to enter according to appointment, and incontinentlie with great noise and clamour brake into the midst of the citie.

In the morning betimes, king Richard perceiuing the citie thus woone, entred the same, and shortlie after wan a tower, which the Saracens for a while manfullie defended. Thus was the citie of Acres woone from the Saracens, chieflie by means of the Scotishmen. But now touching their returne from this voiage (for sith in other places more large mention is made of such exploits as were atchiued therein, I passe ouer to make anie longer discourse thereof in this place) ye shall vnderstand, that in that streinable tempest, in the which king Richards nauie was dispersed in his comming homewards (as in the historie of England is more at large expressed) the ship also that earle Dauid was in, chanced to be throwne on land on the coasts of Aegypt, where being taken prisoner, and led into Alexandria, at length he was redéemed by certeine Earle Dauid taken prisoner. He is redéemed. merchants of Venice, and first conueied vnto Constantinople, and after vnto Venice, where he was bought out & redéemed by the English merchants, and in the end suffered to depart home. At his comming into Flanders, hée hired a vessell at Sluis, therwith to returne into He went to Scotland. Scotland; but being loosed a little off from the shore, such a vehement tempest suddenlie arose, that droue him, not without great danger of life, néere to the coasts of Norwaie and Shetland.

Here in the midst of this extreame ieopardie (as hath béene reported) after he had made a Arriued at Dundée. vow to build a church in the honor of the virgin Marie, if he might escape that danger of seas, he arriued at length in Taie water beside Dundée, not far from saint Nicholas chappell, without either rudder or tackle. The place where he arriued before that time hight Alectum, but he as then changed the name, and called it Dundée, which signifieth as though ye should The name of Dundée. say, The gift of God. When his brother the king heard that he was returned, supposing long time before, that he had béene dead, he came spéedilie vnto Dundée to welcome him home, shewing himselfe most glad of his returne, insomuch that he caused publike processions Procession was holden. to be celebrate through the realme, to giue God thanks that had thus restored his brother home into his countrie. Earle Dauid, according as he had vowed, builded a church in the A church built. field commonlie called the wheat field, and dedicating it in honor of the virgin Marie, made it a parish church. At a parlement also holden after this at Dundée, licence was granted vnto him to build an abbie in what place it shuld please him within Scotland, and to indow it with Priuileges granted to the towne of Dundée. lands and rents as hée should thinke good. There were also manie priuileges granted the same time vnto Dundée, which indure to this day.

Earle Dauid not refusing the grant and beneuolence of the king his brother, builded an abbeie called Lundoris, for moonks of the order of saint Benet. One thing there is much to The abbeie of Lundoris. be woondered at, as a strange singularitie. For whereas that house standeth in a vallie, inclosed on each side with wood and water, by reason whereof there is great abundance of Adders without hurt. adders; yet dooth no man catch hurt by anie of them, insomuch that ye shall see yong children play and run vp and downe amongst a great number of them, without anie skath or hurt following vnto them thereof. In this meane while, Richard king of England (who also in his returne out of the holie land was taken prisoner by the emperour of Almaine) was deliuered for a great summe of monie, and so returned into his countrie. King William hearing of K. Richards returne into England. king Richards returne into England, to congratulate the same, tooke his brother earle Dauid with him, and came vnto London, where, in token of ioy, that he had vnfeinedlie conceiued for his safe comming home, after all troubles and dangers which he had passed, he gaue vnto him two thousand markes sterling, for that he knew at what great charges he had The gift of king William to king Richard. béene, aswell for furnishing of his voiage, as also for redéeming of his libertie.

By these friendlie points of humanitie shewed, there followed great amitie and loue betwixt these two kings. But king William fell sicke in England, and as it often happeneth, such as were vnquiet persons, desirous to be deliuered of all feare of lawes, were streightway put in an vntrue beliefe, that he was dead; and causing it to be bruted abrode, began to exercise all A brute raised that the king was dead. Herald thane of Cathnes succourer of rebels. kind of misdemeanors by inuading the poore and simple people, with spoilings and slaughters in all parts. But after it was certeinlie knowne, that the king was not onelie aliue, but also recouered of his infirmitie, and comming homewards, those raskals and wicked rebels withdrew vnder the conduct of one Herald the thane of Cathnes, and erle of Orkenie, vnto the vttermost bounds of Scotland. Howbeit the king pursued them in such diligent and earnest maner, that he apprehended the most part of them in Cathnes, and commanded iustice to be doone on them, in such wise, that mercie was not yet wanting: Iustice not destitute of mercie. for such as were thought to be after a sort giltlesse, were pardoned, and the other punished, euerie one according to the measure of his offenses.

But the principall leader of them, that is to say, the forenamed Herald, for that time escaped into the westerne Iles, but shortly after, returning to Cathnes, he was taken and brought The thane of Cathnes taken Seuere punishment. to the king, who caused his eies first to be put out, then gelded, and lastlie to be hanged on a paire of gallowes. Also all those of his linage that were men, were likewise gelded, that no, succession should follow of so wicked a wéed. In the yeere next insuing was more death Great dearth. felt in Scotland, than euer was heard of before: for a measure of barlie, in Scotish called aboll, was sold for fiue crownes; and yet in the yéere next following, accounting from the natiuitie of our Sauior 1199, was more plentifull abundance than euer had béene séene afore; 1199. Alexander the prince of Scotland. The same yéere king Williams wife Ermengard was deliuered of a yoong sonne named Alexander. The same yeere also died Richard king of England, & his brother Iohn succeeded in his place. About thrée yéeres after this, was the foresaid Alexander the kings sonne created prince of Scotland. And the same yéere came a legat from the pope sent to K. William, A legat sent from the pope. presenting vnto him a sword, with a sheath & hilts of gold set full of rich pretious stones. He presented vnto him also a hat or bonet, made in maner of a diademe of purple hue, in token A hat. (as it should meane) that he was defender of the church. Manie indulgences and priuileges Defender of the church. were granted at the same time by the pope, for the libertie of the church of Scotland. It was ordeined also the same time, that saturdaie should be kept as holidaie from noone forward, and Saturday after noone to be kept holie. great punishment appointed for them that transgressed this ordinance, in dooing anie bodilie worke from saturdaie at noone, vntill mondaie in the morning.

After this, king William returned againe into England to doo his homage vnto king Iohn, King William did homage to king Iohn of England. for the lands of Cumberland, Huntington, and Northumberland. Immediatlie wherevpon king Iohn willed him to passe with him into France, to make warres against the Frenchmen. And bicause he refused so to doo, king Iohn made claime to all the foresaid lands as forfeited to the crowne of England, and caused a great bootie of goods to be fetched out of the same: so that open warres had immediatlie followed, if the English lords had not compelled K. Iohn to make restitution of all the goods so taken; bicause they thought it not expedient in anie wise to haue wars with the Scots at the same time, being alreadie in trouble with the Frenchmen. In the winter following, the frost was so vehement, & continued so long, that till mid March, no plough might be put into the ground. Ale was frozen in such wise within houses, Ale sold by weight. and cellers, that it was sold by weight. Such a great snow fell also therewith, that beasts died in manie places in great numbers. Moreouer, from the Twelfthtide till Februarie, there was euerie day verie terrible earthquakes.

Earthquakes. After the end of winter, king Iohn hauing made an end of his warres with France, began to build a castell in Northumberland ouer against Berwike, vpon purpose to haue some quarell to fall out with the Scots. King William being aduertised thereof, sent his ambassadors vnto king Iohn, requiring him to desist from such attempts, and not to séeke anie occasion of new trouble: but forsomuch as he receiued no towardlie answer againe from K. Iohn, he assembled a power, & comming to the castell which king Iohn had caused to be builded, he ouerthrew the same, A castell ouerthrowne. and raced it to the earth. King Iohn sore offended herewith, raised a mightie armie, and came towards Scotland, but at his comming to the borders, he found his aduersarie king William readie to receiue him by battell, if he had come forward; howbeit through mediation of A peace established at York betwixt the kings Iohn and William. The couenāts of the peace. prudent men, the matter was taken vp betwixt them, so that on either side the armies were dissolued, & both the kings repairing to Yorke, established a peace there, with these conditions, that Margaret and Isabell daughters to king William, after the tearme of 9 yéeres then next insuing were once expired, should be coupled in mariage with Henrie and Richard the sons of king Iohn, vpon this paction and couenant, that if the one died, the other should succéed to the crowne. For the which it was couenanted, that king William should giue a right large dower. Also the castell which king Iohn had builded, and king William raced, it was agréed that it should remaine so defaced, and neuer after againe to be repared. For the sure performance of these articles thus betwixt the two kings concluded, nine noble men of Scotland were Scotish hostages deliuered to king Iohn. appointed to be deliuered as hostages vnto king Iohn. In that assemblie there at Yorke, king William also surrendered into the hands of king Iohn, the lands of Cumberland, Huntington, and Northumberland; to the intent he should assigne those lands againe vnto his sonne prince A surrender made to a vse. Alexander, and he to doo homage for the same, according to the maner and custome in that case prouided, for a knowledge and recognition that those lands were holden of the kings of England, as superior lords of the same. During the abode of these two kings at Yorke, there was brought vnto them a child of singular beautie, sonne and heire to a gentleman of great possessions in those parties, being sore vexed with diuerse and sundrie diseases; for one of his eies was consumed & lost through an issue which it had of corrupt and filthie humors, the one of his hands was dried vp; the one of his féet was so taken, that he had no vse thereof; and his toong likewise that he could not speake. The physicians that saw him thus troubled with such contrarie infirmities, iudged him incurable. Neuerthelesse, king William making a crosse on him, restored him immediatlie to health. By reason whereof, manie A child healed by K. William. beleeued that this was doone by miracle, through the power of almightie God, that the vertue of so godlie a prince might bée notified to the world.

After his returne from Yorke into Scotland, he indowed the churches of Newbottell, Churches indowned by king William. The erection of the sée of Argile. The towne of Bertha drowned by inundation. Melros, Holie rood house, Dunfirmling, and Aberden, with manie faire possessions, as the letters patents made therof by him beare manifest testimonie. He also erected one new bishops see called Argile, giuing therto sufficient lands towards the maintenance and sustentation thereof. After this, comming vnto the towne of Bertha, he had not remained there manie daies, but there chanced such a floud, by reason of the rising and inundation of the two riuers, Taie & Almond, that through violence of the streme the towne wals were borne downe, and much people in the towne drowned, yer they could make anie shift to saue themselues, insomuch that though the king with his wife, and the most part of his familie The king in danger of drowning. Iohn ye kings son drowned. escaped out of that great danger and ieopardie, his yoongest sonne yet named Iohn, with his nursse and twelue other women perished, and twentie other of his seruants beside. Héere was heard such clamor, noise, & lamentable cries, with bitter rorings and dreadfull shrikings, as is vsed in time when anie towne is suddenlie taken and surprised by the enimies: for as the cōmon prouerbe witnesseth; Fier & water haue no mercie: and yet of these two, water is more terrible and dangerous: for there is no force or wit of man able to resist the violence of inundations, where they suddenlie breake in.

King William, after that the towne of Bertha was thus destroied and ouerflowed with The towne of Perth builded. water, began the foundation of an other towne, which was after called Perth, by a man of that name that owght the ground where the same towne was builded. Furthermore, to aduance the dignitie and augmentation of this towne, the king granted sundrie beneficiall priuileges and freedoms thereto, that it might the sooner rise in riches and wealth. The first Fréedoms granted to the towne of Perth. Saint Iohns towne. Gothred mooued a rebellion in Cathnes. His companie increaseth. foundation thereof was laid after the incarnation of our Sauiour 1210 yéeres, but the name was changed afterwards, and called saint Iohns towne, which name it beareth euen vnto this day. About the same time there rose eftsoones new trouble in Cathnes, for one Gothred the sonne of Makuilzen (of whose rebellion ye haue heard before) spoiled with often incursions and rodes the countrie of Rosse, and other bounds there abouts. His companie increased dailie more and more, by repaire of such number of rebels as came vnto him out of Lochquhaber, & the westerne Iles. King William, to represse these attempts, sent foorth the earles of Fife and Atholl, with the thane of Buchquhane, hauing six thousand in their The earles of Fife and Atholl sent against him. The rebels ouerthrowne. Gethred taken and beheaded. companie, the which incountering with the enimies in set battell, gaue them the ouerthrow, and taking Gothred their chiefe capteine prisoner, brought him vnto the king, who caused both him and diuerse other which were likewise taken prisoners, to lose their heads. Gothred himselfe was sore wounded, before he was taken; so that if his takers had not made the more spéed in the conueieng of him to the king, he had died of his hurts before execution had thus béene doone on him accordinglie as was appointed.

About this time arose the dissention and variance betwixt Iohn king of England, and The dissention betwixt the pope and king Iohn. The cause. The death of king William. 1214. Two blazing starres. pope Innocent the third, for that the English cleargie refused to aid the said Iohn with such summes of monie as he demanded of them. Shortlie after, William king of Scotland, worne with long age, departed out of this world at Striueling, in the 74 yéere of his age, and in the 49 yéere of his reigne, and after the incarnation of Christ 1214 yéeres. He was buried in Aberbrothoke, before the high altar within the quier. The yéeres afore his death, two comets or blasing starres appéered in the moneth of March, verie terrible to behold; the one did shine before the rising of the sunne, and the before the going downe thereof. The yéere next following, there was a cow in Northumberland that calued A monstruous calfe. a verie monstruous calfe; for the head and necke resembled a verie calfe in déed, but the residue of the bodie was like vnto a colt. In the winter after, there were séene also two moones in the firmament, the one being seuered from the other, and in shape naturallie horned, Two moones. as ye see the moone in hir increasing or waning. King William in his life time founded the abbeie of Balmernoch, but his wife quéene Ermengard indowed it with lands and The abbeie of Balmernocht founded. possessions after his deceasse. In the 46 yéere of this king Williams reigne, two moonks of the Trinirie order were sent into Scotland by pope Innocent, to whome king William gaue his palace roiall in Aberden, to conuert the same into an abbeie for them to inhabit: and was in mind to haue giuen them manie other bountifull gifts, if he had liued anie longer time.

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