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AND whilest these things were thus a dooing in Britaine, the Scotish lords had created
Engenius created king of Scots. Eugenius the sonne of Ferguse, king of their realme, as due to him by rightfull succession from his father, who had gouerned the same by the space of 16 yéeres yer he was slaine (as before is specified) in the last mentioned battell. This Eugenius began his reigne (as 430. H. B. 760. H. B. The bodie of Ferguse is buried in the abbeie of Iona, otherwise Colmekill. we find) in the yéere of our Lord 440, after the first beginning of the Scotish kingdome 767. His fathers corps, which at the first was secretlie buried, as occasion suffered, whilest the Romans were yet in the countrie, he caused to be taken vp, and conueied ouer into the Ile of Iona, otherwise called Colmekill, where, with all solemne pompe and ceremonies it was intumulated, according to the ordinance which he himselfe had deuised in his life time, within the abbeie there.

In like manner Maximianus, to the intent to establish himselfe the more quietlie in the estate of Britaine, and to deliuer his subiects the Britains, which bordered vpon the Scotish Maximianus granteth peace to the Scotishmen. dominions, from all trouble of warres, was contented to make peace with the Scots vpon light sute made vnto him for the same. After this also, he being once fullie established in the estate of Britaine, coueted also to atteine to the type in gouernment of the whole empire, and therefore assembling all the forces of the British youth, sailed into Gallia, causing himselfe to be proclamed emperor, and so vsurped that title; as in the English and Italian historie you male find more largelie expressed. He left behind him in Britaine his father in law Dionethus as chiefe gouernor there, with one legion of Romane soldiors. After this did Etius the emperors lieutenant in France, send for such Romans as Maximianus had left in Britaine, who reuolting from their othes of allegiance giuen vnto the same Maximianus, obeied Etius, as one that supplied the roome of their rightfull lord and maister the emperor Valentinian. So that in this wise was Britaine dispurueied of all maner of able men The Scots and Picts inuade the Britains. for defense, whereof the Scots and Picts tooke good occasion to inuade the British borders, not sparing to pursue with fire and swoord all such of the Britains as did yet continue in obeisance to Maximianus.

They first droue those Britains out of all the countries, which had béene taken from them by the same Maximianus, and by other of the Romans and Britains, as Pictland, Kile, Carrike, and Coningham, Galloway, the Marches, and Northumberland. This doone, they entered into Cumberland, Westmerland, and Kendall, not ceassing till they had spoiled and The prosperous successe of the Scotishmen. defaced all those countries, with the most part of all Yorkeshire, in such cruell wise, that they made all those quarters barren both of corne and cattell, which waie soeuer they passed. The Britains perceiuing into what danger they were brought, if some good redresse were not found in time, sent ouer with all spéed vnto Rome for succor to be had at the emperor The Britains require aid of Valentinian the emperor. Valentinians hands, for Maximianus was otherwise occupied. Valentinian desirous to deliuer the Britains from such cruell enimies as the Scots & Picts shewed themselues to be, least through their meanes all the whole Ile should reuolt from the obedience of the Romans, appointed one Gallio borne in Rauenna, and as then soiorning about Paris in France, Gallio Rauennas is sent ouer into Britaine. with a legion of soldiors to passe ouer into Britaine, to driue backe the Scots and Picts from further molesting the subiects of the empire.

The Scots and Picts, vpon knowledge had of this Gallios arriuall, drew backe into their The Scots and Picts refuse to giue battell to the Romans. countries, not minding to fight with the Romans, whose force they doubted, and not without cause, hauing had in times past so manie ouerthrowes and slaughters at their hands. But Gallio pursued them euen vnto the water of Forth, where in sundrie skirmishes he slue Gallio pursueth the Scots and Picts. no small number of them: and for that he knew he should be sent for shortlie to returne againe into France, to helpe to resist such barbarous nations as warred in the same, for the better defense of the Britains against their enimies the Scots and Picts (whome he knew would not be anie while in quiet after he was once gone) he caused the wall to be newlie Gallio causeth the wall of Abircorne to be repared. The maner of the building of that wall. made vp betwixt Abircorne & the mouth of Clude water, thereby to defend the Romane prouince from all sudden inuasions of the enimies. This wall was earst made of turffe, but now repared with stone, and strengthened with great posts or piles of wood, driuen in betwixt in places most néedfull. It was also 8 foot broad, and 12 foot high. And in certeine turrets cast foorth vpon this wall, Gallio appointed watch & ward to be kept, that vpon the The ordination of Gallio for watch to be kept of the wall. enimies approch towards the same, warning might be giuen by fire in the night, and by smoke in the day, vnto such of the Britains as dwelled néere vpon those borders (commandement being giuen vpon paine of death for being found in the contrarie) that euerie man vpon such knowledge had, should resort immediatlie to the place appointed, with such armour and weapon as for him was requisit.

When Gallio had thus giuen order for the suertie of the Britains, and deliuered them at Gallio returneth into France. that present from the cruell hands of their enimies, he returned into France with the armie that he brought with him, according to the commandement which he had from Etius the emperours lieutenant there. His departure out of Britaine was no sooner knowne of the Scots and Picts, but that with all their maine force they determined to set vpon the Britains againe. So that assembling their powers togither, the kings of both those nations The Scots and Picts determined to inuade the Britains againe. The Britains resort to the wall of Abircorne to defend it. exhort their men to doo valiantlie. Eugenius the king of the Scotishmen incourageth them through hope of high rewards and spoile. The Pictish king likewise for his part promiseth the lieutenantship of Camelon (an office of most honor amongest them) vnto him that first should passe the wall of Abircorne. Wherevpon the Britains being aduertised of their enimies intentions according to the ordinance before appointed, drew in defensible wise vnto that part of the wall, where they vnderstood the Scots and Picts were minded to assault.

At length when the Scotish and Pictish kings were come to the wall, and had their people The Scots and Picts approched the wall to assault it. readie to giue the approch, they themselues stood apart somewhat out of danger of shot: and such bands as were appointed to assaile, aduanced forth of the maine battels vnder the leading of that Graime, the which (as ye haue heard) was chiefe in expelling the Britains Graim assaulteth the wall. when they had first made the same wall by commandement of Victorine the Romane lieutenant. Neither shewed he lesse proofe of his valiancie at this time than he had don before. For though the Britains made earnest resistance, so far as their power would extend, yet at the length by great force the wall was vndermined and throwen downe in sundrie The wall is ouerthrowen. places, so that the whole number of the Scots and Picts entered by the same into Pictland, beating downe the Britains on ech side that went about to make resistance, for none escaped their hands, but such as saued themselues by flight.

There came also an other power of Scots and Picts by water out of Fife, and landing in Pictland, pursued the Britains with more crueltie than the kings did themselues. Both houses and people passed by fire and sword, insomuch that all such of the Britains as could get away, withdrew foorth of the countrie, not staieng till they came beyond the The Britains Ieaue Pictland and get themselues ouer the riuer of Tine. riuer of Tine; by reason whereof, all the countrie which lieth betwixt Twéed and Tine was deliuered by appointment of the kings vnto the souldiers, to spoile and vse at their pleasure, wherevpon followed manie notorious examples of crueltie, enuie, couetousnesse, wrath & malice. In the meane time, whilest the Scotish and Pictish men of warre applied their market, the Britains with all diligence repared and newlie fortified the other wall begun The wall of Adrian is repared by the Britains. (as is said) by the emperour Adrian, shooting ouerthwart the countrie from the riuer of Tine, vnto the riuer of Eske.

Howbeit the Scots and Picts, because winter approched, made no further attempt against the Britains at that time, but diuiding those countries which lie by north from the foresaid The countries lieng north from the wall of Adrian diuided amongest the Scots and Picts. wall of Adrian, among themselues, according to the order in that behalfe appointed by their kings, they fortified certeine castels and holds for defense of the same countries, as it were to countergarison such Britains as continuallie kept watch and ward vpon the foresaid wall. The Britains therefore mistrusting least so soone as the spring were come, the Scots would inuade their countries which lay on the south part of the same wall, breaking in by force through it, as they had doone the yere before through the other wall of Abircorne, they sent ambassadors vnto Etius the Romane lieutenant, gouerning Gallia now called France, The Britains require aid at the hands of Etius. vnder the emperor Valentinian, requiring to haue some aid and succour at his hands, whereby to resist such fierce and cruell enimies, as sought to destroy and expell out of their lands and houses, all such of the Britains as acknowledged themselues in anie maner of wise subiects vnto the empire.

But Etius, whether he would not, or rather because he conuenientlie could not (for that Etius refuseth to aid the Britains. he was otherwise occupied in defense of Gallia against the French men) made a direct answere that he had no men of warre in store to send ouer into Britaine, and therefore willed them to doo what they could for their owne defense, for aid of him they might none haue. The messengers returned home with this answere, and made report thereof in a publike assemblie of all the British nobilitie, being as then gathered togither at London to consult there for the estate and order of their countrie. Where after long deliberation The Britains forsaken of the Romans, determine yet to make resistance. (notwithstanding that they perceiued they should haue no more aid from the Romans) it was yet determined, that to resist the enimies, the whole puissance of the British nation should be mustered, as well men as women, being able to doo anie feat of seruice auailable in defense of their countrie, & rather to trie the vttermost point of fortunes chance, than to suffer themselues to be ouerrun without resistance. But Conanus Camber, a prince of Conanus Camber counselleth the Britains to séeke peace at the Scotish mens hands. great authoritie amongest them, as one that was descended of the bloud of Octauius sometime king of Britaine, went about with earnest pérsuasions to remoue the residue of the nobilitie from this determination, aduising them to séeke for peace at the Scotishmens hands, rather than to trie the doubtfull chance of Mars his iudgement, considering the féeblenesse Britaine dispeopled of warlike men by Maximianus. Conanus counsell is receiued. of their whole force now, euer since that the tyrant Maximianus had in manner emptied and dispeopled the land of all such able men as were apt for seruice in the warres. But this aduise of Conanus was verie euill taken, & moued the multitude that heard him, to be greatlie offended with his words, not sparing to say that he spake like no true man nor louer of his countrie; so that the former ordinance (that is to say, to séeke an end of the wars by dint of swoord) was allowed for the best.

Herevpon there were musters taken, armour and weapon prouided, and both day and place The Britains make their apprests to go against the Scots. appointed, where they should assemble togither to march foorth towards the enimie. Conanus sore lamenting their dooings, called almightie God to record, that that which he had said, was spoken onelie for the loue & zeale which he bare to his countrie, & sithence his aduise might not be followed, he doubted greatlie least the ruine of the British state by some fatall appointment drew fast vpon them. The people hearing him speake thus, some wilfull wicked Conanus is slaine amongest the Britains. persons fell vpon him, and slue him there presentlie amongst them: wherewith other being sore moued to indignation, set vpon the murtherers, there to haue reuenged his death immediatlie. Wherevpon began taking of parts, and togither they went by the eares in such a furious wise, that sundrie amongest them being slaine, the magistrats had much adoo to appease the fraie.

In this meane time, whilest the Britains were thus busied in sending of their ambassadours to the Romans, & consulting togither for defense of their countrie, the Scots first raced downe The Scots rase the wall of Abircorne. the wall of Abircorne, not leauing one piece thereof whole, so that a few tokens excepted, nothing remaineth to be séene at this day of all that huge and woonderfull worke, it is called now in these daies Graimsdike, because that Graime was not onelie (as ye haue hard) chiefe in Graimsdike. expelling the Britains from the same, but also at this time in the racing of it to the ground he was the greatest dooer. Which being accomplished, the Scotish and Pictish kings assembled The Scotish and Pictish kings inuade the British borderers. their powers, and ouerthrew all such fortresses as had not béene destroied the yeare before, standing on the northside of Adrians wall, the which wall the Britains had newlie fortified, but yet were not able to defend the same from the power of the enimie, who now set vpon the Britains with maine force, in so much that vndermining the foundations of that wall in diuers Adrians wall vndermined and ouerthrowen. places; at length sundrie parts thereof were reuersed into the ditch, so that the souldiers breaking in by the same, cruellie beate downe the Britains which stood at defense.

The entrie being thus woone, both the kings with their powers marched forth into the south countries, commandement being giuen that no man vpon paine of death should kill anie woman or child, aged person, or otherwise impotent and not able to beare armour. But this commandement in some places was but slenderlie obeied; such desire of reuenge was planted in the Scotishmens hearts, by reason of the remembrance of old iniuries, that vnneath Crueltie of Scots. made they anie difference either of age or sex. To be short, all those countries which lie betwixt the riuers of Tine and Humber, were wasted & spoiled, the whole number of the inhabitants (such as could make shift to escape the enimies hands) got them ouer the foresaid riuer of Humber, there to remaine as further out of danger. The report of which mischiefe being brought to London, the lords there (who as ye haue heard were not all of one accord togither) they tooke new aduise, to redresse the present mischiefe in this maner. First they The lords of Britaine take new aduise. Sée more hereof in England. The tenour of the letters sent vnto Etius from the Britains, as is written by Héot. Boetius. thought it best to send forth two ambassadors, one to the Scots & Picts to require a peace; & an other with letters to Etius the Romane lieutenant in France, for fresh aid and succour. The tenour of which letters as then sent vnto Etius here insueth.

The lamentable complaints of the Britains vnto Etius thrise consull. At what time our elders became subiects vnto the Romans, they vnderstood by woorthie proofes and notable examples, that the senate was a most safe refuge and hauen, to be wished of all such as fled to the same for support. But we their posteritie by the pernicious working of the legat Maximianus, tending wholie to our destruction, being spoiled both of force and substance, and therefore remaining in great danger of loosing both kingdome and liues, through the sore and terrible inuasion of our most cruell enimies the Scots and Picts, making humble sute for succours vnto the Romane empire, according to the loiall trust and most assured confidence, the which euer like true and faithfull subiects we haue reposed in the same, are yet neglected, & nothing regarded, but deliuered as a prey vnto the barbarous nations to be spoiled, destroied, and slaine in most pitious wise, which can not but be an euident signe, that either the Romans haue changed their most commendable maners into the worst that may be deuised, either els their most large empire, thorough the wrath and high displeasure of almightie God, is now giuen for a prey vnto other forren nations. But if it be so, that the fatall force of the time present dooth require, that without all remedie the land of the Britains being taken awaie from the Romans, must needs be brought vnder the subiection of some barbarous nation, we neither abhorre nor refuse the gouernement of anie people or nation, the Scots and Picts (the most cruell of all other) onelie excepted, whose crueltie we hauing long since too too much tasted, are at this present brought vnto that point by their late increased puissance, that we know not now after the losse of our goods and cattell, which way to safe gard our liues, for the turffe walls being pulled downe, and the ditches filled vp with earth, which aforetime did somewhat staie them, now breaking in vpon vs without letting passe anie one kind of crueltie, they haue destroied our fields, burned vp our houses, townes & villages, beaten downe & raced euen to the ground our castels and towers, with such other places of defense, not sparing to put to the sword as well the poore innocent children, women, and impotent aged as such other innumerable numbers of men, which they haue slaine standing at defense with weapon in hand. And as for vs, which are the residue of our decaied nation, they haue driuen euen to the sea side, and from thence (because we cannot passse ouer) we are put backe vpon our enimies againe. And hereof procéed two kinds of our destruction, for either we are drowned in the raging flouds, either else slaine most vnmercifullie by our cruell enimies. Therefore if the honor of the Romane people, if our assured loialtie and loue, which we beare to the empire of Rome, now continued for the space of these 500 yeares or thereabout, may moue you to rue on our miseries, we humblie pray and beseech you, not to suffer vs longer to be trodden vnder foot of these our most beastlie and cruell enimies, but send vnto vs some conuenable succors and that with all spéed, least we séeme to be more cruellie betraied of the Romans, than brought to destruction by these barbarous people, and that we be not set foorth as a notable example for all other to beware, how they put confidence hereafter either in the rule or friendship of the Romans.

Paulus Diaconus, Beda, Geffray of Monmouth, Veremound, and others make mention of But not so largelie as here is expressed. The answere of Etius. these foresaid letters. Wherevpon Etius answering, declared that those calamities, misfortunes and losses susteined by the Britains were right displeasant vnto him, and so much the more, for that through the sundrie inuasions made, aswell into France as also into Italie it selfe, and into other parties of the Romane empire by people of sundrie nations, he could not as then spare anie men of warre to send ouer vnto them, & therefore he willed the Britains to make the best shift they could to defend themselues for a time, till things were better quieted in other parties, and then should they sée such redresse of their iniuries prouided, as they should thinke themselues to be verie well reuenged. About the same time that the ambassadours returned with this answere vnto London from Etius, the other also came backe foorth of the north without hope to spéed of that about the which they had bin sent, for the Scots & Picts would The Scots and Picts would agrée vpon no reasonable conditions of peace. incline to no reasonable conditions of peace, vnlesse the Britains would wholie submit themselues as subiects vnto them. The Britains hereat tooke such indignation, that by generall consent they agreed to trie it out with the enimies by maine force; & hereupon made their prouision with all diligence. The Scots and Picts hearing of the Britains intents, gathered their people The Scots and Picts prepare against the Britains. togither with more spéed than was thought possible for them to haue doone, & foorthwith rushed into the borders of their enimies countries in right puissant wise and most warlike order.

In the fore ward went such as came foorth of Galloway and Annandale, with those Picts which The order of the Scots and Picts entring into the lands of the Britains. inhabited about the coasts of Barwike. Then followed there a mightie battell of those which came foorth of Argile, Athole, and other Picts inhabiting néere vnto the parties of Kalendar and Camelone with them of Fife, and Angus. In the midst of this battell both the kings kept their place with their choisest souldiers, and standards borne afore them. Then went the carriage and trusse of the armie, next wherevnto a great number of noble men of both the nations followed in faire order of battell, with their seruants and men of warre the best they could choose foorth. And last of all (as the maner of those nations hath beene euen from the beginning) there came a great multitude of the cōmons vp the back of the whole aforesaid armie.

The Britains also comming foorth into the field with their whole puissance to incounter their enimies, when they vnderstood by espials the order and maine force of the Scots and Picts, they were halfe discouraged in their minds, and thought good therefore once againe to assaie The Britains doubt to ioine with the maine armie of the Scots and Picts. if anie peace might be purchased. But sending foorth their ambassadours vnto the confederat kings, to that end their answere was, that except the Britains would yéeld themselues, their wiues and children, with all their goods and substance into the hands of their enimies, simplie without all conditions, there would be no peace granted. When this was knowen abroad in The Britains vpon the Scotishmens refusall to haue peace, require to haue battell. the host of the Britains, what thorough kindeled ire on the one part, and foule despaire on the other, prouoking their minds to displeasure, they generallie vpon change of purpose required battell, euen all the whole number of them.

Heereof insued a most cruell and mortall fight: for the Britains (as it were) resoluted to die in defense of their countrie, and to reuenge their owne deaths vpon their enimies, with more fiercenesse than is credible to be thought, gaue the onset, and ouerthrew a great number of The fierce onset giuen by the Britains. their enimies, insomuch that those of Galloway and the Picts fighting in the fore ward with them of Argile, Athole, and such other as were in the battell with the kings, were in great danger to be put to the woorse: which Graime perceiuing (by whome the most part of the armie Graimes authoritie in ordering of the battels. was ruled, and that by commandement of both the kings) called foorth a number of the Ilandmen, who were appointed to attend the cariage, and sent them with all diligence to the fore ward to the succors of them of Galloway, being then at the point to haue sought refuge by flight. But by the comming of these Iland-men to their succors, they tooke courage afresh, Those of the westerne Iles comming to the succors of the fore ward, restored the battell. The Britains run awaie. so that the battell was againe most fiercelie renewed, and so continued a space with great slaughter on both parts, till finallie the Britains being oppressed with the multitude of their enimies, and not able longer to indure, fell to running awaie, thinking to saue themselues in certeine bogs, mosses, and marish grounds neere vnto the place of the battell: but such coisterels, and other as remained with the Scotish cariage, séeing the discomfiture of their aduersaries, ran foorth and pursued them into those marishes, killing and taking no small number of them. There were slaine in this battell of the Britains, aboue 15 thousand, and of the Scots and Picts The number of them that were slaine on both sides. néere hand foure thousand.

The Britains hauing receiued this ouerthrow, saw no helpe which waie to recouer their losses, but onelie to sue for peace at the victorers hands. They sent therefore an orator vnto the Scotish & Pictish kings, beseeching them humblie to grant them a peace, euen with what conditions it should please them to prescribe. The kings not mooued onelie with the present The Britains make humble sute for peace. fortune of the Britains, but also partlie with their owne, hauing lost no small number of right worthie personages in the battell, were contented to grant a peace vpon these conditions: That Peace granted by the Scots with the conditions of the same. the Britains should in no wise receiue anie lieutenant or armie hereafter from Rome, nor suffer anie enimie of the Scotish and Pictish estats, of what nation soeuer he were, to passe through their countrie. They should enter into no league with anie citie or nation, nor be about to make anie warres without consent of the Scotish and Pictish kings, and further should be readie to serue them against all maner of enimies whensoeuer they should be sent for. Moreouer, they should remooue with their wiues, children, and whole families out of all those countries, lieng betwixt Tine and Humber, resigning the possession of the same vnto the Scotishmen and Picts.

Also they should giue thréescore thousand peeces of gold then currant to the Scotish & 60000 pound saith Balantine, after the rate of Scotish monie. 20000 pound saith the same Balantine, so that he esteemeth those péeces of gold to be of the value of French crownes. The Britains tributarie to the Scots and Picts. 436. H. B. Pictish kings, towards the dispatch of their souldiors wages, and further should yéeld as a tribute twentie thousand peeces of gold, to be paid yeerelie vnto the seuerall vses of the victorers. They should likewise deliuer one hundred hostages of such as the two kings shuld appoint, betwixt the age of eightéene and thirtie yeers. These conditions of peace though they séemed verie streict & greeuous to the British nobilitie, yet for that they vnderstood not how to make a better bargaine, they persuaded the multitude to accept them, and so a league therevpon was concluded amongst those people, and the publike state of the land brought to a more quiet rule than it had béene before. Thus were the Britains made tributarie to the Scotishmen and Picts, about 500 yéeres after Iulius Cesar had brought them in subiection to the Romans, being in the yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 446, and of Eugenius his reigne ouer the Scotishmen the seuenth. In this season was the Ile of Albion sore infected with the heresie of the Pelagians, and The heresie of the Pelagians. Paladius sent into Scotland. therefore pope Celestine sent one Paladius a learned man vnto the Scots, to preserue them from that infection, and ordeined him bishop, the first in Scotland that had his inuesture from Rome: for all the other before him were ordeined by the voices or suffrages of the people, choosing them foorth among the moonks and priests called Culdeis, as the Scotish chronicles doo report. Paladius with right good and wholesome exhortations purged the Scots and Of this Paladius looke more in Ireland. Paladius accompted the apostle of Scotland. Seruan bishop of Orkenie, and Teruan archbishop of Pictland. Vnketh sights and strange wonders appered. Picts of sundrie superstitious rites of their old gentilish idolatrie, till those daies vsed amongst them, wherevpon he is named and reputed for the Scotishmens apostle. Hée lieth at Fordune, a towne in Mernes, where his relikes remained, and were long after had in great estimation.

Moreouer he instituted one Seruan bishop of the Orkenies, that he might instruct the inhabitants there in the faith of Christ, which as yet they had not receiued: and one Teruan, whome he himselfe had baptised, he made archbishop of Pictland. In these daies also manie strange sights were séene in sundrie parts of Britaine before the last mentioned ouerthrow: the moone being in plaine opposition to the sunne, when it should be most round, appeared in a quadrant figure. At Yorke it rained bloud: and trées in sundrie places being blasted, withered and died. The market place, or rather (if ye will so tearme it) Cheapeside in London opened, so that a great hole appeared, and manie houses were swallowed vp. About the same season also (as is supposed) liued that huge personage Finmacoell, a Scotishman borne of seuen Finmacoell the great hunter. cubites in height. He was a great hunter, and sore feared of all men by reason of his mightie stature, and large lims: manie fables go abroad of him, not so agréeable to the likelihood of truth, as ought to be registred in an historie, and therefore here passed ouer with silence.

The Romane empire being brought into irrecouerable ruine by the Vandals, Gothes, Hunnes, Frenchmen, and other barbarous nations, occupieng sundrie parts and portions thereof, put the Britains out of all hope to haue anie assistance from the emperors, which caused them to remaine in quiet certein yéers without attempting any exploit against the Scots or Picts, and so duelie paid their couenanted tribute, though sore against their wils, if they might otherwise haue remedied it. At the last about ten yéers after the cōclusion of this last Conanus a Britaine goeth about to persuade his countriemen to breake the peacé concluded with the Scots and Picts. peace, it chanced that one Conanus the sonne of the aboue mentioned Conanus, descended of the bloud of the Octauij, sometimes kings of the Britains, sore maligned to sée his countrie thus brought into thraldome of the Scotish nation, and deuising how to find some redres, called togither the most part of the British nobilitie, by secret message home to a manour place which he had within a thicke wood in the countrie of Kent, and there opening vnto them a great péece of his mind, persuaded them with the weightiest reasons he could imagine, to leuie warre against the Scots and Picts, hauing at that present, meanes now since the last warres to mainteine it, as well by reason of their increase both of able men, as also of substance to furnish them withall.

Héere the nobles were of sundrie opinions: for some awearied with the note of bondage, would The Britains hauing respect to their sonnes & kinsmen lieng in hostage would not agrée to breake the peace. The kings of the Scots & Picts offended with the conspiracie of the Britains, prescribe vnto them new articles to be performed. Impudent seruilicie intruded vpon the Britains by the proud and cruell Scots, if it be true. The commons of Britaine offended with their gouernors. gladlie haue had warres: other hauing regard to their sons lieng in hostage with the enimies, would in no wise consent thereto: by reason whereof this councell brake vp without conclusion of anie effect. When ech man was returned to his home, there had beene some amongst them, that gaue knowledge to the confederate kings what motion had béene made, and what was intended against them. Wherevpon they immediatlie determined, not onelie to cause the hostages to be executed, but also to pursue the rebels with fierce and cruell warres. Yet before they practised anie violence, they sent their ambassadors vnto the Britains, to vnderstand their full meaning, and to declare vnto them further certeine articles which the said kings required to haue performed without all delaies, or else to looke for open warre out of hand.

The chiefest points of which articles were these. First that the Britains should not assemble togither in councell without licence of the Scotish and Pictish kings, notwithstanding that their ancient laws they might vse at their pleasure, but they should receiue no stranger into their countrie being a Romane or a Frenchman, neither merchant nor other, Their old hostages they should receiue home againe, and deliuer in exchange of them twise so manie in number of the like age and degrée, as was couenanted by the former league. The commons of the land vnderstanding what was demanded by these ambassadors, were in a woonderfull rage, and would haue made a great sturre if they had not beene quieted by the lords, who for their paines taken herein, got them an euill report amongst the inferior sort of people, as though through their want of stomach onlie, the common-wealth was brought into such a miserable estate, that looke what it pleased the enimie to charge the British nation with, no man durst once speake against it.

This grudge of the commons increased so farre foorth against their superiors, that after the Scotish and Pctish ambassadors were returned home, with answer agréeable to their demandes, The commons of Britaine conspire against the nobles. there arose incontinentlie a great commotion of the people, conspiring togither the vtter destruction of the whole nobilitie. But their furie was repressed, so that they were ouerthrowne in battell at two seuerall times with great slaughter and bloudshed, wherevpon they withdrew into the mounteins, and there kept themselues, making raises vpon the nobilitie, and fetching booties awaie from the heards and flocks of cattell belonging to the lords and gentlemen: but finallie through famine which began to oppresse both parties, they perceiued what néed the One estate of men cannot liue without helpe of anoher. one-had of the others helpe, and so they agréed. This ciuill warre sore decaied the force of the Britains, for beside the great slaughter that was made betwixt them, by the auoiding of the commons out of their houses, the ground laie vntilled, whereof insued a maruellous great scarsitie and dearth of all things, by reason whereof an innumerable sort of people died. Yet Superfluous welth occasion of vice. shortlie after followed such plentie, that those that were left aliue forgetting the passed miseries, gaue themselues vp to all kind of vice, which tooke such root in the hearts of the more part of them, that for anie man to vse anie maner of vertue amongst them, was a readie meane to procure great enuie and hatred.

In the meane time liued the Scotish and Pictish kings in good quiet and rest, applieng their The Scots applie themselues to peace. studies onelie how to instruct their people now after the warres were once ended, in laudable exercises and necessarie occupations, conuenient for the time of peace, wherby their realmes might flourish in welth and prosperitie without dread of anie forren power. For they saw such tokens of ruine in the British estate, as small likelihood appeared, that the same should at anie time be able to recouer againe the former force and dignitie. Finallie the Scotish king Eugenius hauing aduanced the estate of his countrie vnto more felicitie and wealth than anie of his predecessors had euer doone before him, after he had reigned thirtie yéeres, he ended his The death of Eugenius the Scotish king. life about the fourth yéere of Leo, that vsurped the empire of Constantinople.

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