AFTER him succéeded his nephue Eugenius, the sonne of his brother Congall, the which
Eugenius is inuested king of Scotland.
Eugenius (as aboue is said) was with Arthur in the last mentioned iournie against the Saxons.
There were that counselled him in the beginning of his reigne (which he began in Argile,
being placed there vpon the chaire of marble) that he should sée in anie wise the authors
Regicides or kingquellers ought chieflie aboue all other to be punished.
Eugenius is suspected of his predecessors death.
of his vncles death dulie punished, to the example of others, that they should not attempt
the like héereafter against their liege lord and crowned king: but he contrariwise did not
onelie forgiue the offense, but also receiued the forenamed Donald with other the murtherers
into his seruice, and made them of his priuie councell, which caused manie men to suspect,
least he himselfe had béene of councell with them in committing that murther. The talke
whereof was so common in all mens mouths, namelie amongst the common people, that the
queene Dowager late wife to king Conrane, doubting not onelie the suertie of hir owne
The queene Dowager fled with hir two sonnes into Ireland.
life, but also of hir two sons (which she had by the said Conrane, the one named Reginan,
and the other Aidan) fled with them ouer into Ireland, where within few yeeres after, she
died with the one of hir sonnes, that is to say, Reginan: the other Aidan was honorablie
brought vp by the king of that countrie, according to his birth and degrée.
Eugenius in the beginning of his reigne, to win thereby the peoples fauor, demeaned himselfe most gentlie in all his procéedings, dooing nothing that tasted in anie part of crueltie.
He would oftentimes sit amongst the iudges himselfe, and if he suspected least anie man
The humanitie and fauourable friendship of king Eugenius towards his people.
had wrong, he would licence them to plead their case anew. And such as he perceiued
were not of abilitie to follow their sute in anie cause of right, he would helpe them with
monie of the common treasurie. He ordeined also, that no orphane should be compelled
to answer anie action, or otherwise be vexed by sute of law. Moreouer, that no widow
should be constreined to come past a mile foorth of hir owne doores for anie matter in controuersie betwixt hir and anie other person, to be heard afore anie iudges or publike officers.
Robbers, théeues, and their receiuers he caused to be dulie punished, to refraine other from
attempting the like offenses. And also he had a speciall regard for the obseruing of the
league betwixt his subiects and the Picts, with the Britains, according to the tenor of the
About this season should it be also that Arthur did atchiue all those woorthie victories,
The victorious conquests ascribed to Arthur.
which are ascribed vnto him against the Scots, Irishmen, Danes, Norwegians, and other
northerne people. Moreouer it is written by some authors, that he should subdue the most
part of Germanie with the low countries, Britaine, Normandie, France, and the Romans,
with the people of the east: but the credit héereof resteth with the same authors. Onelie
it is certeine (as Hector Boetius affirmeth) that Arthur liued in the daies of Iustinianus the
This causeth no small doubt to arise of the great victories ascribed vnto Arthur.
emperor, about which time the Gotthes, Vandals, Burgonions, & Frenchmen did inuade
sundrie parts of the Romane empire, pitifullie wasting and spoiling the same, where yet such
writers as haue set foorth those warres, make no mention of Arthur at all. ¶ Therefore
letting all doubtfull things passe, I will procée with mine author, and declare what he hath
found written in such Scotish chronicles as he followeth touching the British Arthur, which
for that it partlie varieth from the other our common chronicles, namelie Geffrey of
Geffrey of Monmouth.
Monmouth, I thinke it woorthie to be noted héere, to the end that euerie man maie iudge thereof
as to him séemeth best.
To the purpose then. After that the Britains were deliuered from the terror of the
The Britains repent themselues of the league concluded with the Picts.
The request of the Britains to haue one of their owne nation appointed to succéed king Arthur.
Saxons, and that with quietnesse they began to wax wealthie, they repented them of the
league, which they had concluded afore with Loth king of the Picts, speciallie for that they
could not in anie wise be contented to haue anie stranger to reigne amongst them, and
héerevpon comming vnto Arthur, required of him, sith he himselfe had no issue to succéed
him, that it might please him yet, to name one of his owne nation to gouerne them after his
deceasse. Arthur not gainsaieng their request, willed them (sith their pleasure was such, in
no wise to haue a stranger to reigne ouer them) to name one themselues, being descended
of the bloud roiall, and such a one as in whome they had perceiued some towardlie proofe
of wisedome and valiancie: and he for his part promised to ratifie their election. The nobles
with great reioising of the people drawing together to consult for the choise of such a one,
as might be acceptable to all the British nation, at length agréed vpon Constantinus, the
sonne of Cadore duke of Cornwall, a goodlie yoong gentleman, both for his person and
other his woorthie qualities much to be commended. Who being brought by the péeres of
the realme into the councell chamber, and there presented vnto king Arthur, as one most
méetest to succeed him; Arthur accepted their election verie gladlie, and caused the same
Constantine foorthwith to be proclamed heire apparant to the crowne, by the name of prince
Constantine proclamed heire apparant & prince of Britaine.
of Britaine, which notified him to be successor to the king in gouernement of the realme.
Constantine being in such wise preferred, behaued himselfe so honorablie, and with such a
shew of gentle demeanor, that he wan him much praise, with an opinion of high woorthinesse amòngst all the British nation.
In this meane time was Loth the king of the Picts deceassed, leauing his name as a
Lothian taketh the name of Loth the Pictish king.
Mordred succeedeth Loth in the kingdome of Pictland.
Mordred complaineth vnto king Arthur, for that Censtantine was created his heire apparant.
perpetuall memorie vnto his countrie of Pictland, the which euer since as a remembrance of his
woorthinesse, hath béene called Lothian, or Louthian; but his sonne Mordred, succéeding
him in gouernement of the Pictish kingdome, and hearing that Constantine was proclamed
heire apparant of Britaine, was sore moued therewith, and immediatlie sending his ambassadours vnto king Arthur, complained, for that contrarie to the honor of his kinglie
estate, he had broken the league concluded betwixt him and his father late of famous memorie king Loth, wherein it was agréed amongest other things, that there should none succéed in the kingdome of Britaine, after Arthurs deceasse, but the children begot betwixt K.
I oth and his wife quéene Anne, or such as descended of them; where contrariwise it was
notified vnto the Pictish people, that Constantine the sonne of Cadore was elected prince,
and thereby inabled as heire apparant to the crowne.
They required him therefore to call himselfe to remembrance, and not so lightlie to agrée
vnto the flattering persuasions of the Britains, aduising him vnto that thing which was
méerelie repugnant to reason, and against both gods lawes and mans, admonishing him
withall to obserue the league, according to the oth, which he had solemnelie taken vpon
him, and to mooue his subiects to doo the like, least for the contrarie, they should
prouoke the wrath of almightie God against them, who is the iust reuenger of all such
as go about to breake leagues and couenanted pactions. Herevnto answere was made
The answere made to the Pictish ambassadours.
by consent of the nobles of Britaine, that the league which was concluded betwixt Arthur
and Loth, indured but for the life times of them two onelie, and to ceasse by either of their
deaths: therefore Arthur had doone nothing contrarie to anie pact or promise made, but
according to the duetie of a prince that tendered the weale of his subiects, had prouided
them one to succeed him of their owne nation, for doubt least the realme after his deceasse
should fall into the hands of strangers, which in no wise ought of right to be suffered.
Therefore if the Picts loued the suertie of their owne estate, it should be good for them to hold
themselues contented with their owne bounds, least if they sought for other mens liuings,
they might happilie within short time perceiue, what dooth insue oftentimes vpon such rash
and vnaduised attempts.
The Pictish ambassadors returning home with this answer, caused the whole nation to
The Picts purpose to be reuenged on the Britains by open war.
The Picts solicit both Scots and Saxons to make warre vpon the Britains.
Eugenius the Scotish king agréeable to the request of the Picts.
take such disdaine therewith, that immediatlie they resolued to reuenge their wrongs by
open warres; but first they thought good to trie if they might procure the Scotishmen to
take part with them, in reuenge of such iniuries as they had in like maner latelie receiued at
the Britains hands Moreouer, repenting themselues, that they had in times past aided the
Britains against the Saxons, they purpose to trie if they might now mooue the same Saxons
eftsoones to make warres vpon the Britains, thereby to be the better able to mainteine their
owne quarrell against them. First, such ambassadours as were sent from Mordred vnto
Eugenius king of the Scots, found him verie agreeable vnto their requests, and the sooner,
for that such Scotish rebels as fled vnto Arthur, were not onelie receiued by him, but also
mainteined to make rodes and incursions into the Scotish borders.
Arthur hauing knowledge of the deuises of his enimies (the warres being first proclamed)
he furnished all the sea-coasts with notable numbers of men, to withstand the landing of the
Saxons, if they should fortune to attempt anie inuasion. That doone, he passed foorth with
the residue of his people towards the Scots & Picts, who were alreadie assembled in campe,
Arthur setteth forward toward the Scots and Picts.
Humber a fatall place for the Britains to be vanquished in.
Bishops trauell betwixt the parties to bring them to communication for a peace.
and were come as farre as the riuer of Humber, néere to the bankes whereof they had
pitched their tents, as in a place fatall for the Britains to be vanquished in. Both the
armies being brought here into order of battell, the one in sight of the other, there were
certeine bishops of those thrée nations that tooke great pains to ride to and fro betwixt them,
to exhort the kings vnto peace and concord, considering what mischiefe and great bioudshed
should insue, if vpon wilfullnesse they would séeke to trie that by dint of sword, which
they might make an end of by means of amiable treatie and friendlie agréement. Againe,
they could not doo the thing that might more content the Saxons, common enimies to
christian religion, than if by their incountring togither in battell, they should so inféeble
their whole powers, whereby the Saxons might haue readie means and occasion offered to
execute their gréedie desires to conquere the whole Ile. Mordred and Eugenius were
Mordred and Eugenius were persuaded vnto peace.
persuaded by this earnest trauell of the bishops, to put their matter in compromise, and to lay
away their armour and weapon, if they might haue assurance that the league made with
king Loth should in euerie point be obserued. Arthur likewise at the sute of the same
bishops, would haue béene contented for his part to haue agréed herevnto; but other of
the Britains, namelie those that were of kin and aliance vnto Constantine their prince, could
The Britains would not consent to haue anie peace talked vpon.
in no wise be persuaded therevnto; but rather with manie reprochfull words rebuked the
bishops for their vntimelie sute, séeing the enimies readie ranged in battell at point to giue
the onset, so that (as they alledged) it might be doubted what they meant by their motion,
vnlesse they went about to betraie the armie, vnder pretense of a cloked treatie for an vnprofitable agréement. These or such like words were vnneth ended, when suddenlie the
The battell is begun.
noise being raised on both sides, the battels rushed togither right fiercelie. The Britains had
the disaduantage of the place, being so incumbred with mires, bogs, and mosses, that they
could not well aid themselues, nor handle their weapons to anie purpose. Yet did the battell
A cruell battell.
continue a long time, to the destruction of such numbers of men; that the riuer Humber
(néere vnto the which this field was fought) was so mingled with bloud, that the water
thereof being all coloured red, caried no small number of dead bodies downe into the sea.
In the middest of the fight, there was one with lowd voice in the British toong cried out to
A craftie policie.
This was one of the Picts.
the Britains (of purpose prompted therevnto) that Arthur with other of the nobles on his
side were slaine, and therefore it were but follie to trust anie longer vpon victorie, but rather
were it wisdome for euerie man by flight to prouide for his owne safetie.
This voice woonderfullie incouraged the Scotishmen and Picts, but the Britains were put
The Britains put to flight.
in such feare therewith, that the most part of them immediatlie herevpon fell to running
away. Others of them iudging this to be but some craftie and subtill practise of the enimies
deuised of purpose, as it was in déed, to discomfort them with, abode by it still: manfullie
continuing in fight, till they were beaten downe and slaine in maner euerie mothers sonne.
This victorie being thus hardlie got, cost more mens liues than anie other had doone of
manie yeares before; for of the Scots and Picts being vanquishers, there died in that mortall
battell aboue 20000 men, togither with Mordred, and a great number of the nobilitie of
Twentie thousand Scots and Picts slaine.
Mordred is slaine.
Arthur with 30000 Britains slaine.
Gawan is slaine.
Gaime and Gawolan are slaine.
both the nations. Of the Britains and such other as were with them in aid, there were
slaine, what in battell and what in chase, at the point of 30000, among whome was Arthur
himselfe, with Gawan or Galuan (as some bookes haue) brother vnto Mordred, who bare
such good will and intire loue vnto his lord and maister the said Arthur, that he fought
that day most earnestlie on his side against his owne naturall brother the said Mordred.
Also there were killed Caime and Gawolan, with the most part of all the residue of the
British nobilitie, and manie prisoners taken, by reason that Humber kept them in from flieng
anie way foorth on the one side, which prisoners also were afterwards slaine, the gentlemen
The day next after the battell, the campe of the Britains was rifled, and amongst other rich
Quéene Guainore taken.
The spoile of the Britains camp diuided.
spoiles there was found quéene Guainore Arthurs wife, with a great number of other ladies
and gentlewomen. The whole spoile of the campe and field being equallie diuided by lots
betwixt them, the Scots had for their parts certeine faire charets laden with rich stuffe and
iewels, also horsses and armours, beside sundrie noble men, whom they had to their prisoners.
Vnto the Picts fell for their portion quéene Guainore, with the ladies and gentlewomen, and
diuers other of the noble men, besides a great quantite of other rich preie and booties.
These prisoners, which the Picts had, were conueied into a castell in Angus, called Dunbarre,
Dunbarre in Angus, not that in Louthian.
a place of great strength in those daies, though at this present there remaineth nothing but
the name with the ruines therof. In which castell they were deteined vnder sure ward,
during the residue of their naturall liues. In witnesse wherof there be remaining vnto this
day, the graues and monuments where manie of these captiue Britains were buried, in the
fields of a towne in that countrie called Megill, not past 10 miles from Dundée: but amonget
the residue, that of Guainore is most famous.
There goeth a plaine tale ouer all that countrie, told for an assured trueth, that if anie
The fable of quéene Guainores graue buried in Angus.
woman chance to tread vpon that graue, they shall remaine barren without bringing foorth
anie issue more than the said Guainore did. But whether this be true or not, certeine it is
(as Boetius writeth) that there dare no woman come néere that graue, not onelie eschuing
it themselues, but also commanding their daughters to beware thereof. This bloudie battell
weakened so much the forces both of the Scots, Picts, and Britains, that manie a day after
they were not able to recouer againe their former states and dignities. The yeare also that
these thrée nations incountred thus cruellie togither, was after the birth of our Sauiour 542,
8. H. B.
the 26 of Arthurs reigne ouer the Britains, and the 11 of Eugenius his gouernement ouer
In the same yere before the battell, were séene manie strange sights in Albion. Grasse
Strange and vnketh woonders.
and hearbs in Yorkeshire appeared to bée all stained with bloud. Néere vnto Camelon, a
cow brought foorth a calfe with two heads. Also an ewe brought foorth a lambe that was
both male and female. The sunne appeared about noone daies all wholie of a bloudie colour. The element appeared full of bright starres to euerie mans sight continuallie for the
space of two daies togither. In Wales there was a battell betweene crowes and pies on the
one side, and rauens on the other, with such a slaughter of them, as before that time had
not beene heard of.
But to procéed. Eugenius king of the Scots at his returne from the battell, gaue to those
Eugenius rewardeth his souldiers.
that had escaped with life, and acid by him in the chiefe danger of the fight, manie bounteous
& large rewards. The sonnes and néerest kinsfolke of such as were slaine, he also aduanced to sundrie preferments of lands & liuings, that they inioieng the same, might be a
witnesse in time to come of the good seruice of their ancestors, shewed in defense of their
king and countrie, and also of his princelie liberalitie, in rewarding the same vpon their issue
and progenie. By which noble benevolence, he wan him such loue amongst his people,
Eugenius goueineth his people with clemencie.
Constantine crowned king of Britaine.
The crueltie of the Britains in murthering the innocent children of Mordred.
The linage of Mordred clearly extinct.
that afterwards it séemed how he gouerned the state of his kingdome more by clemencie,
than by anie rigour of lawes. The Britains immediatlie vpon knowledge had that Arthur
was slaine, crowned Constantine his successor in the British kingdome, and for that there
should remaine none amongst them aliue to make anie claime to the same kingdome, other
than he with his issue, or such as he should appoint to succeed him, they cruellie murthered
Mordreds children, in most pitifull wise running vnto their mothers lap, beséeching hir to
saue their liues, according to hir motherlie dutie. They were brought vp in Gawolane their
fathers grandfathers house, and being thus made awaie, the familie and linage of their father
the foresaid Mordred was vtterlie thereby extinguished.
The Saxons at the same time hauing aduertisement what losse the Britains had susteined,
not onlie by the death of their most valiant king and chiefteine Arthur, but also for the
slaughter of such a multitude of their nation as died in the battell, they prepare a mightie
nauie of ships, and passe ouer the same into England, where being landed, they easilie beat
The Saxons returne into England, and druie the Britains into Wales.
downe the Britains, and driue them with their K. Constantine into Wales, so recouering all
that part of the land which Hengist somtimes held, & after his name was afterwards called
England. ¶ Some haue written, how that after king Constantine had reigned certeine
yéeres in Wales, his wife and children died, whervpon waxing wearie of this world, he
Constantine forsaketh his earthlie kingdome in hope of the heauenlie kingdome.
Constantine entereth into religion.
Constantine sent foorth of Ireland into Scotland is there murthered.
Irmirike or Iurmirike king of the Englishmen.
Iurmirike concludeth a peace with the Scotishmen and Picts.
Eugenius the Scotish king dieth.
568. H. B.
forsooke his earthlie kingdome, in hope of that other aboue, and secretlie departed into Ireland,
where applieng himselfe for a time in ministring to the poore, at length being knowne, by
the persuasion of a moonke he became one of his cote and professions.
Afterwards being sent by the bishop of the diocesse ouer into Scotland, to instruct the
people of that countrie in the true faith and articles of the christian religion, he there suffered
martyrdome by the hands of most wicked and godlesse persons, and was at length (but
manie yéeres after his death) canonized a saint, and sundrie churches (as are to be séene
euen vnto this day) built and dedicated vnto him in Scotland by authoritie of the bishops
there. At the same time that the said Constantine was driuen into Wales, there reigned
among the Englishmen one lurmirike the fift (as Beda saith) from Hengist. The same
lurmirike though he were not christened himselfe, yet permitted the christian faith to be
preached amongst his people, and concluding a league with the Scotishmen and Picts, kept
the same inuiolate during his life time most sincerlie. The Scotish king Eugenius also
liued in peace the residue of his life, without anie trouble either by forren enimies, or
intestine sedition, & at length died in the 38 yeere of his reigne, after the birth of our Sauiour 569.