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AFTER his deceasse succéeded in gouernment of the realme his brother Donald, farre
Donald the fourth of that name succéedeth his brother Kenneth. The king is of dissolute behauior. differing in qualities from his noble brother the foresaid Kenneth ; but yet before he came to the rule of the realme, he disclosed not his vicious nature, for doubt of offending the king his brother. Neuerthelesse he had continued scarse two yéeres in the estate, but that he had subuerted all good orders in his realme, by his naughtie examples of dissolute liuing : for his mind was set on nothing but on wanton pleasure; as in the vnlawfull vse of concubines, riotous banketting, kéeping of hawkes, hounds, & horsses for pleasure, and not for the vse of warres, whereof he had no regard at all: for such charges as he should haue béene at for maintenance of men of warre to kéepe the frontiers of his realme, were imploied on a sort of rascals, that serued him in the furtherance of his wanton delights and voluptuous desires, as huntsmen, falconers, cookes, bawdes, ruffians, and such like lozzels.

Wherevpon diuers of the nobles remembring what apperteined to their duties, spared not The king is admonished of his nobles. but fréelie admonished the king what danger would insue of his misordered behauiour, if he reformed not his maners, nor restreined the licentious dooings of his seruants and familie. But when they perceiued that their woords were not regarded, but for the same they themselues ran into displeasure; they sorrowed not a little, to sée so small hope of amendment of such enormities, as euerie where reigned through the region: for all youthfull persons giuen to sensuall just followed the same without anie feare or care of correction, so that there was no measure of offending and haunting of euill rule in all parties, insomuch that shortlie, through want of all good gouernance, wrong was placed in stéed of right, and contempt of Gods honor imbraced euerie where in place of vertue and godlinesse.

In this meane while, the residue of the Picts remaining amongst the Englishmen, ceassed The exiled Picts require aid of the Englishmen. not to solicit the gouernors of the countrie to aid them towards the recouerie of their dominion out of the Scotishmens hands, promising to be subiects vnto the English nation, if by their helpe they might be restored to their ancient seates. At length Osbert and Ella kings Osbert and Ella kings of Northumberland. of Northumberland were persuaded through instant sute to take that enterprise in hand, the rather vpon trust of good successe, for that they vnderstood what lacke of politike gouernement then remained amongest the Scots, by reason of the kings naughtie demeanor and most inordinat trade of life. But first there was a league concluded with new articles of The Englishmen and Britains ioined their powers with the Picts. An herald is sent vnto Donald. agréement betwixt the Englishmen and Britains, as yet inhabiting alongst the coasts of Cumberland, by meanes of which league both Britains and Englishmen ioined their powers togither, and in most spéedie and forcible wise passed the water of Tweed, first pitching their campe in the countrie of Mers. From whence immediatlie king Osbert (being appointed as generall in that iournie) sent an herald vnto Donald the Scotish king, commanding him either to surrender vp vnto the Picts all such regions as the Scots had taken from them, either else to looke to haue the Englishmen and Britains no lesse their enimies than the Picts, whose cause they had taken vpon them to mainteine and defend.

Donald being at the first sore troubled with these newes, yet at length (by the aduise of his nobles) he tooke a good hart vnto him, and in defense of his realme caused musters to be taken throughout all his dominions, and foorthwith came into the field to incounter his enimies, whome he found at Jedworth readie to giue battell: where after sore fight, in the Osbert is put to flight at Jedworth, or Jedburgh. end Osbert with his people was chased to the next mounteins. Donald hauing thus obteined the victorie in this conflict, supposed all had béene his owne, and therevpon remooued ouer Tweed with all possible hast, marching foorth till he came to the mouth of that riuer, where there laie at anchor certeine English vessels, laden with prouision of vittels and all other things necessarie for the furniture of an armie. Donald setting vpon these ships, with small Osbert his prouision by water is taken by the Scotishmen. resistance tooke them, spoiled them of all such things as were found aboord, and after set fire on them. The spoile was diuided amongest the souldiers anu men of warre, which serued them to small vse or commoditie : for all the youth of the armie, through example of their prince, was so corrupted in vicious customes, that the campe was replenished with hoores, bawds, stews, and dicing tables, in such wise, that all such prouision as should haue serued for store and staple of vittels, was spent in riotous banketing without anie order or measure: & oftentimes (as it chanceth where politike gouernement lacketh) there happened A great disorder in the Scotish campe. amongest them in the armie, discord and variance with sundrie murders and slaughters.

When the enimies were aduertised how far out of order all things stood in the Scotish campe for want of good and discreet chiefteins, Osbright with all spéed got a mightie host togither againe, and before his approch was looked for of the Scots, he commeth vpon them one morning in the breake of the day, and assaileth them in their lodgings, wherein he found them so vnprouided of all helps to make resistance, that it was a woonder to sée the disorder that appeared amongest them: some of them running vpon their enimies naked The Scots campe suddenlie inuaded. without all discretion, other breaking foorth of the campe to saue themselues by flight, not sparing hill nor dale where they saw anie way to escape the enimies hands, though it were with present danger of breaking their necks downe the sideling banks and craggie rocks, being forced thereto by the fierce pursute of the Englishmen and Britains, who most eagerlie preased vpon them in all places, to reuenge the late receiued ouerthrow and slaughter of their friends and kinsfolks. There died of the Scots in this mortall bickering aboue twentie 20000 Scotishmen slaine. King Donald is ken with the nobilitie. thousand persons. King Donald being fast asléepe at the first assault of the enimies, as he that had drunke ouer night more than inough, was taken before he could make anie shift for himselfe, with the residue of the nobilitie, that scaped with life.

The Scotish campe, the next day after this ouerthrow, was rifled, the spoile being diuided The campe is rifled. amongest the Englishmen and Britains. But when the fame of this infortunat battell was noised once through the realme of Scotland, how the king was taken prisoner, his campe The whole realme of Scotland discomfited. woone, the armie discomfited, and almost all the souldiers and men of warre slaine, those few of the nobles which were left aliue remaining prisoners in the enimies hands, there was such dole and lamentation made ouer all, as though the realme had alreadie béene lost without recouerie. Some there were that blamed fortune, some curssed the wicked trade of life in the king, other bewailing the great calamitie of this mischance put the fault in diuers other things, as in such cases commonlie it falleth out: for in sundrie heads are euer sundrie opinions. Manie ran vp and downe the stréets and high waies, to inquiŕe the certeintie of all things, and whether there were anie hope at all left to resist the enimies, also which way the enimies held, whereabout they went, and what they purposed to doo.

Anon after, when it was certeinlie knowen that the Englishmen were entred by Louthian, The Englishmen inuade Louthian, the Britains Galloway. The Scots left comfortlesse. and the Britains by Galloway, there was such feare mixed with sorrow (for losse of their friends and kinsfolks) stricken into the peoples hearts, and namelie into the womens, that a greater hath not béene heard of in anie region. So that all prouision to defend their countrie was quite neglected, so amazed were the Scots with the sudden change of fortunes fauor. The Englishmen herevpon tooke all the countrie euen to the water of Forth, and likewise the Britains seized into their hands all that which lieth from the bounds of The Britains as yet kept possession of Cumberland, and those other countries lieng by the coast of those west seas. The victorié vsed cruellie. Cumberland vnto Sterling bridge, finding no resistance in their way at all. Herevnto aswell the Englishmen as Britains vsed the victorie verie cruellie, sparing neither one nor other of the Scotish bloud, that by anie means fell into their hands, but priests and all passed one way, that is, by the edge of the sword.

King Osbert purposed to haue passed the water of Forth, that waie to haue entered into Fife, & so ouer Taie into Angus: but hearing that the Scots had gathered a power to impeach his passage, he staied certeine daies. At length vnderstanding that the enimies were nothing of that puissance or number, as at the first they were reported to be; he determined to set ouer in certeine boats ten thousand of his men; but through a sudden tempes A great manie Englishmen drowned. of wind and weather, that rose in that instant, there were fiue thousand of them drowned, the residue being constreined to land againe on the same side from the which they loosed, hauing lost through violence of the weather all their tackle and whole furniture of their vessels. Osbert being also admonished with this misfortune, thought good to attempt no more the furious rage of the water, but determined by land to go vnto Sterling, where he vnderstood he should find the Britains, with whome he might ioine his power, and passe ouer the bridge there, and so inuade other of the Scotish regions which lay thereabout.

But at his comming thither, certeine Scotish ambassadours came vnto him to sue for peace, Ambassadors sue for peace. which they humblie required at his hands in name of the whole realme, beseeching him to consider well the state of the case as it stood, and not to trust too much on brittle fortune, Fortune is brittle. the which sheweth hir selfe neuer stable; but commonlie vseth to call backe againe hir grant of prosperous successe, where the receiuer hath not skill to vse it moderatlie, and the vanquished séemeth to haue béene sufficientlie corrected. As for the Scots, though it might appeare that their force was greatlie abated, & that resistance should little auaile them: yet were they minded to die in defense of their liberties, rather than to submit themselues vnto anie conditions of vile seruitude. The words of these ambassadors being throughlie weied (though some tooke them in great disdaine) yet in the end it was supposed that after victorie thus had against the enimies, honorable conditions of peace ought to be preferred before doubtfull warre.

Wherevpon answere was made to the ambassadors, that both the English and British people with their kings were contented to haue peace with the Scots (though it laie in their Peace granted with conditions. hands now to destroy the whole nation) if so be the Scots would agrée to resigne aswell to the Englishmen as Britains all such lands and countries as they had now gotten into their Articles of peace proponed. possessions, without anie claime or title to be made to the same from thenceforth, either by them or anie of their posteritie, so that the water of Forth on the east halfe, should The Forth called the Scotish sea. diuide the Scotish dominions from the confines of the Englishmen & Britains, and be called from that time euer after, the Scotish sea. On the west the water of Clide should diuide the Scotish lands from the Britains; the castell of Alcluith, standing at the mouth of the same riuer, to remaine in the hands of the Britains, from thencefoorth to beare the name of Dunbreton, that is to say, the castell of the Britains. And furthermore, that if anie of the Donbreton. It was called before Caer Arcluith, that is, the citie vpon Cluide, as H. Llhoid holdeth. Scots should attempt to passe the said bounds into anie of the British or English borders, he should die for that offense. And if by force of tempest it chanced anie of them to be driuen to land on the south shore, within anie of those parties, they s ould take nothing away with them but water or vittels, and depart within thrée daies, except some reasonable cause of staie constreined them to the contrarie. Moreouer, they should not fortifie anie townes or castels on the frontiers néere to the English or British confines. And further, they should couenant to pay vnto the Englishmen and Britains, within the space of twentie years, the summe of one thousand pounds of siluer. For performance of which articles of agréement, the Scots should deliuer thréescore hostages, being the sonnes and heirs Hostages are required. apparant of the chefest noble men of all their realme and countrie. And if it so were that they misliked and refused anie of these articles, he commanded that there should no other ambassadour come to him for anie other treatie of accord.

The ambassadors returning home, and declaring how they had sped, manie of the Scots The Scots mislike the articles of peace. thought the articles nothing reasonable for frée people to accept; other indged that either they must come to some agreement with the Englishmen and Britains, or els put the land in extreme perill. Thus had the people béene diuided into two contrarie opinions and factions, had not one Calene a noble man, borne of high parentage, and gouernour of Angus, with sober reasons and strong arguments appeased this contention, persuading them to haue respect to the time. And sith the force of the realme was so inféebled, abated, Calene his graue counsell taketh place. and brought vnder foot through aduerse fortune: better it was to yeeld vnto necessitie in sauing part at that present, in hope after, when occasion serued to recouer the residue, than through obstinat wilfulnesse to lose the whole. For considering the present danger, it could be reputed no dishonor to receiue conditions of peace at the enimies hands, sith there wanted not the like example of the Romans, who gladlie accepted such articles of peace, as that noble prince king Gald appointed them: and yet it is not to be iudged, that there wanted men of great knowledge and wisdome amongest them, and such as regarded their honor, so far foorth as reason in anie wise did reach.

The multitude moued with these words of Calene, whose graue authoritie (by reason of The multitude consented vnto Calene his saiengs. The Scots receiue the peace. his age and roome) was of no small reputation amongst them, hauing lost nine of his owne sonnes in the last battell, they finallie determined to follow his opinion in receiuing the same conditions of agreement which Osbert had prescribed: and therevpon sent againe their ambassadours with the hostages appointed for the establishing of the peace, in maner as is before rehearsed. Which being throughlie accomplished in such solemne wise, as in those daies and in the like cases was accustomed, Osbert set Donald with his nobles at libertie, sending King Donald with the noble men are sent home againe. them home togither with the ambassadours, being earnestlie required so to doo, both by the English lords, and also by the Britains.

The agréement being thus made, the lands were diuided betwixt the Englishmen and the Lands dluided betwixt the Britains and Englishmen. Britains, in such sort as the Britains had for their part all that which lieth from Sterling vnto the west sea, betwixt the riuers of Forth and Clide, vnto Cumberland: and the Englishmen possessed the other parcels, lieng from Sterling vnto the east sea, betwixt the Scotish sea and Northumberland: so that by this means, Clide water, Forth, and the Scotish sea (where Forth runneth into the maine sea) diuided the Scots from the Englishmen and Britains. And thus was the towne of Sterling a common march vnto those thrée people; the same towne with the castell remaining vnto Osbert, as it was couenanted amongest other articles of this peace. Here (as the Scotish writers haue) he ordeined his mint, and his coiners of monie to inhabit, wherevpon came vp the name of Sterling monie: but therein they are deceiued, for (as in the historie of England shall appéere) that name came not in vse till manie yéeres after. Osbert also in this place caused a stone bridge to be made ouer the A bridge of stone made at Sterling. water of Forth, in stead of the woodden bridge which the Picts had made there, and was now pulied downe and in the midst of this new stone bridge he set vp a crosse, whereon were ingrauen these verses, to be read of the passers by:

Anglos à Scotis separat cruxista remotis,
Arma hîc stant Bruti, stant Scoti hac sub cruce tuti.
Belenden the Scot. I am free march as passengers maie ken,
To Scots, to Britains, and to Englishmen.

The Picts which had béene with the Englishmen in this iournie, euer hoping to be The Picts hope is deceiued. restored to their lands and former possessions by Osbert, when they saw how he reteined the same in his owne hands, appointing his subiects to inhabit therein, they doubted that which afterwards came to passe in déed, least the Englishmen of friends would now become enimies, séeking the destruction of the whole Pictish generation, thereby to assure themselues in the possession of those lands and liuings, wherevnto the Picts (as they thought) would euer make some claime and title, whilest anie of them remained aliue.

Vpon this mistrust therefore did those Picts, which were amongest the Englishmen, make The Picts went into Norwaie and Denmarke. the best shift they could for themselues, so that manie of them got ships, and sailed into Norwaie and Denmarke, vnto their countriemen there: the other that could not make shift to get away, were slaine anon after by the Englishmen, so that one of them was not to be found aliue within anie of the English dominions. And such was the end of the Picts that fled vnto the Englishmen for succour. In this meane time the Scotish king Donald being restored againe to his countrie, was receiued with more ioy and honor than he had deserued; in hope yet by this scourge of aduerse fortune, that he would haue reformed his former abuses. Neuerthelesse, he had not béene at home anie long time, but that he fell to his King Donald falleth to his old vices againe. old vicious trade of life againe, remoouing from his companie such honorable personages as wished the suertie of his estate, with the aduancement of the common welth, to the reliefe and ease of his poore miserable subiects. At length the nobles of the realme, perceiuing the danger that their countrie stood in, by reason of Donalds insolent misorder, vndiscréet rule and gouernement, they found means to apprehend and commit him vnto safe keeping. King Donald is laid in prison. But the monstrous creature, within a few daies after he was thus put in ward in great desperation slue himselfe, in the sixt yeare after he had begun his infortunat reigne, and in He slaieth him selfe in prison. 860. the yeare of our Sauiour 860.

The same yeare that the realme of Scotland was brought vnto such miserable state by the puissant force of the Englishmen and Britains, as aboue is rehearsed, there were sundrie woonders heard of in the countrie; as in Louthian a child of one moneth old and a halfe, A yoong babe giueth warning vnto his mother. Beasts roring died. Fishes like in shape to men. Adders and snakes fell downe out of the skie. admonished the mother to flie out of that countrie: for it would come to passe, that the enimies should come and take that region out of the Scotishmens hands. Beasts also, as they were pasturing abroad in the fields there, roaring after a strange sort, suddenlie died. Fishes likewise, in shape resembling the figure of man, were found dead in the sands of the Scotish sea. In Galloway there fell such abundance of adders and snakes out of the skie, that the aire being corrupted with the sauour of them lieng on the ground, both men and beasts died of certeine diseases, which they tooke through infection thereof.

Such as were accounted to be skilfull in diuination, affirmed that these things did signifie The interpretation of the prodigious things. King Constanstine crowned. He fain would recouer his predecessors losses. an intortunat reigne, with an euill end vnto king Donald, as afterwards it happened, who hauing made away himselfe in prison (as before is expressed) Constantine the sonne of king Kenneth was crowned king at Scone, in the chaire of marble there, according to the maner as then vsed. After his first entring into the estate, he would gladlie haue gone in hand with the wars against the Englishmen, to haue recouered out of their possessions, those countries which they had latelie taken from the Scots in his predecessors time: but his councell aduised him otherwise, declaring that the state of the common-wealth was so He was aduised otherwise by his councell. decaied by the misgouernance of his said predecessor, that till the same were reformed, and such intestine discord, as through licentious libertie reigned amongest his subiects might be appeased and quieted, there was no hope to atchiue anie woorthie enterprise abrode against forreigne enimies.

Herevpon by their aduertisements and good aduise, he deuised a reformation of all such Misorders are redressed. misorders as were growen vp in all parts of his realme: and first for the spiritualtie, he ordeined that priests should attend their cures, and not to intermeddle with anie secular Priests shuld onelie attend their vocation. businesse, but to be frée from going forth to the warres: neither should they keepe horsses, hawks, or hounds. And if anie of them were found negligent in dooing his dutie A penalrie for not dooing their dueties. Youth should eate but one meale a day. Drunkennes punished with death. apperteining to his vocation, he should for the first fault forfeit a péece of monie, but for the second he should lose his benefice. For the youth of his realme he tooke order (to bridle them the better from wanton delights and sensuall lusts) that none of them should haue past one meale a day, and that of no fine or deintie delicats, and to absteine from all such drinke as might distemper their braine, so that if anie yoong person, either man or woman, were knowen to be drunken, they should die for it.

He commanded further, that all the youth of his realme, should exercise running, wrestling, shooting, throwing of the dart and bowle: so to auoid slouthfulnesse, that their bodies might with such exercises be made the more able to indure paines and trauell: and for the same purpose he tooke order, that they should lie vpon the bare boords, with one mantell Youth to be trained vp in hardnesse. Kéepers of banketting houses he banished. Scots were made sober and able to abide hardnes. onelie throwen vnder them, so that they should tast nothing neither by day nor night, that might noozell them in anie wanton delights or effeminat pleasures. It was also ordeined, that all such as kept vittelling houses for banketting cheere, should be banished the realme, with those that kept brothell houses. Thus were the Scots by obseruing of these ordinances, made within short time of gluttons and excessiue féeders, sober and temperat men: of delicat and easefull persons, hard, tough, and able to abide anie trauell or labor, were the same neuer so painfull: and hereof the state of the common-wealth began to grow to good perfection, so that Constantines administration was liked of the most part of all his subiects.

The first that went about to disquiet the prosperous reigne of that woorthie prince, was one Euan, a man of an ancient house, & borne in the westerne Iles. ¶ Such haue béene Euan disquieted the king and realme. The vnqiet nature of Scotishmen. the vnquiet nature of the Scotishmen, euen from the beginning, neuer to liue contented anie long time either with peace or warre: for being once wearied with the charges of the warres, they streightwaies wish for peace; and hauing in time of peace heaped togither some wealth, then can they not suffer the gouernement of their superiors, but either are readie to fall out with some forreigne enimie, or else to raise some commotion amongest themselues. This Euan therfore being the kings lieutenant of his castell of Dunstafage in Louchquhaber, Euan lieutenant of Dunstafage conspireth against the king. practised a conspiracie against the king, with a number of other light persons being gentlemen borne, misliking the administration of things, onelie for that they saw how their inordinar libertie to oppresse inferiour persons, and to vse such wild and insolent misdemeanour, as they had doone afore time, was now restreined by lawfull iustice and execution of due punishment for the same.

But as these conspirators went about to haue mooued the people of Louchquhaber, Murrey land, Rosse, and Cathnesse, to haue ioined with them in their traitorous interprise; some of them in whom Euan put most trust, secretlie aduertised the king of all the whole matter, The king is aduertised of Euan his treason. The king cōmeth to Dunstafage with an armie. Euan is executed. who gathering a competent number of men togither, made such spéedie hast towards Dunstafage, where the chiefe capteine of the rebels as then lay, that he came before the same yer anie inkling were knowen to them within of his approch. By meane whereof comming vpon them so at vnwares, he had the castell soone at his pleasure; and immediatlie herevpon caused Euan to be trussed vp on a high paire of gallowes, for a spectacle to all his complices. And furthermore, least the other conspirators might prouide them of some other chiefteine, he apprehended diuerse of the nobilitie that were accused to be of Euans confederacie, the which he put in streict prison, there to be safelie kept, till the peeres of the realme had Manie kept in prison. determined with good deliberation, what should become of them. This busines being in this wise appeased, when all men looked for quietnesse, there suddenlie followed a greater and more pernicious trouble: for such is the course of the world, that when men least thinke One trouble followeth another. of mischiefe, they fall oftentimes into most danger.

Cardane king of Denmarke, pretending a title to all such lands as somtimes belonged to Cardane king of Denmarke. the Picts, for that the residue of that nation which had escaped the hands of the Scots and Englishmen, had resigned vnto him all their right & interest of the same lands, he determined in that quarrell (and in reuenge of the iniuries which the Picts alledged they had The cause that made the Danes to make warre against England and Scotland. susteined) to make warres both vpon Scots and Englishmen. He caused therefore an huge number of ships to be prepared, and a mightie armie of men to be put in a readinesse, to passe in the same ouer into Albion, vnder the leading of his two brethren, the one named Hungar, and the other Hubba. These two chiefteins hauing their ships and men with all prouision apperteining once readie, tooke the sea, and sailed foorth till they came to the A great nauie sent into Scotland. coasts of Scotland, where they tooke land within the countrie of Fife, before anie tidings were heard of their comming thither.

The Danes being set on land, spared no kind of crueltie that might be shewed against the The Danes vse great crueltie. inhabitants, and namelie for that they had not as yet receiued the faith of Christ, they raged without all measure against priests, and religious persons, ouerthrowing and burning vp churches and chappels, wheresoeuer they found anie in their way. Wherevpon the Englishmen that inhabited in Louthian, and the Scots that dwelled in Fife, left their houses & The inhabitants fled the countrie. possessions, fléeing into other parties, where they thought they might best escape the hands of their new come aduersaries. A great companie also of such vertuous and godlie persons, as about the same time laboured busilie in setting foorth the woord of life vnto the people in those parties, fled with one Adrian as then bishop of the Scotishmen, into the Iland called Maie, which lieth in maner in the midway of the passage ouer the Forth betwixt Fife and Louthian, where as then there was a famous monasterie of moonks. But neither the reuerence of the place, neither the innocencie of those harmles creatures could restraine the Danes from polluting their wicked hands in murthering that deuout companie, as they were They that fled into May Iland were slaine. then estéemed.

This is that reuerend band of martyrs, which the Scotish people haue had in such reuerence in the foresaid Iland of Maie; a few names of some of that multitude as yet remaining in memorie amongst writers, as the foresaid bishop Adrian, Glodian, Gaius, or (as others write) Monanus archdeacon of saint Andrews, and bishop Stolbrand: the names of the residue are forgotten. ¶ Some there be that affirme how this companie were Hungarians, The vncertentie of writers in this matter of these martyrs. the which flieng out of their countrie, from the persecution which was there exercised by men of misbeliefe against the christians, they arriued here in Scotland, and applied themselues to the instructing of the Scotishmen in the way of saluation Other write that they were Scots and Englishmen thus assembled there togither. But of whence soeuer they were, certeine it is that by custome they were become Scots, and instructed the Scots (as before is said) in the way of saluation. After this cruell slaughter thus by the Danes committed, they continued in their wood rage, as they passed through Fife and the other countries néere bordering vpon the same, till all the inhabitants were auoided out of their houses, either by flight or slaughter.

Constantine the Scotish king being kindled in the meane time with passing great displeasure, for these so notable iniuries receiued at the hands of the Danes, thought good with all spéed to go against them, and to attempt the chance of battell before they had wasted anie further within his dominions, so greatlie to the diminishing of his roiall power and estimation amongst his subiects. Herevpon leuieng his people, and assembling a mightie host Constantine assembled a mightie army. togither, he passed foorth with the same towards his enimies, the which were lodged in two seuerall camps, the one being distant from the other about a quarter of a mile, seuered in sunder with the course of a little riuer called Leuin, the which (vpon the approch of the Scots vnto that part of the campe that laie on the further side next vnto them) chanced to be raised on such hight, thorough abundance of raine, that in two daies after vnneth it might bée passed ouer at the foords.

After this sore and tempestuous weather, the aire cleared vp and waxed verie faire and calme, giuing occasion to the Scots to worke their feat against one part of their enimies, whilest the other could not come ouer vnto their aid and succors. In this campe which lay on that side the riuer next vnto the Scots, Hubba was lodged, who did what he could to haue staied his men from issuing foorth of the campe, to giue battell when the Scots drew néere to the same, and assaied all waies by prouoking the Danes with skirmishes to come The Scots & Danes ioine their battels. foorth and fight with them in plaine field. But notwithstanding all that he could doo, foorth they rushed in such wise by plumps, and with so great noise and clamour, that the capteins were constreined of necessitie to set them in order of battell, sith they would néeds giue the onset vpon their present enimies.

The Danes did weare aloft vpon their armor certeine linen garments, wrought with red The Danes apparell. Their weapons. silke, shewing faire and white both at hand and a far off. Their weapons were of such sort as serued for the push rather than for downe-right blowes, the points being of such a handsome strong fashion, that no armor might lightlie hold foorth against them. These kind of weapons, togither with the muster of their huge bodies, was dreadfull at the first for the Tall men of bodie and lims. A battell. Scotishmen to behold, as they marched towards them in araie of battell. But anon comming néere togither readie to ioine, the Scots manfullie taking to them new courages, set vpon the Danes with great violence, who likewise began the battell verie stoutlie, so that the same continued right fierce and cruell a good space. At length the Danes being assailed on each side, both afront before, and on their backs behind, oppressed as it were with The Danes take the flight. multitudes, did throw downe their weapons and fled amaine. Manie of them making towards their campe were ouertaken and slaine, diuerse of them falling into the ditches were oppressed with throng, aswell of their owne companie, as of their enimies, as they passed ouer them in following the chase, and striuing to enter the campe vpon such as stood to defend them from entering. Other there were that leaping into the water in hope to get ouer, were drownd in the whorling waues of the streame; though some, through helpe of their fellowes (which stood on the other side readie to haue passed the water, if they might so haue doone without manifest danger of drowning) escaped and got ouer, amongst whome Hubba Hubba was saued from drowning was one, the great reioising of his brother Hungar, to sée him thus deliuered twise from perill of death, as first from amongest his enimies, and secondlie out of the roring streame of that déepe and swift raging riuer.

The Scots hauing thus put one part of their enimies to the woorse, with that happie The Scots took of this victorie immoderate ioy. successe tooke such comfort and immoderate ioy, as though they had béene now sure of victorie ouer all the residue; so that for two daies togither, there was such dansing, singing, and piping amongst them, as the like hath not béene heard of. Yea so farre procéeded their insolent outrage, that they began to contend amongst themselues for the prisoners and spoiles, The Scots for ioy readie to fall out. which they counted now their owne, as though alreadie they had the same wholie in their possession: and further reasoned, not without altercation, whether the Danish captens after they had them once in their hands, should be put to death, or els be kept aliue to be shewed to the people in triumph or no. Great adoo and manie vaine woords were spent héereabout, in such earnest sort, that they were at point to haue fallen out amongst themselues: but there was no mention at all made touching the ordering of their battels, and other the necessarie procéedings against their enimies. At length, when the riuer was fallen and come to his old course againe, so that it might easilie be passed, Constantine in order of battell Constantine procéeded against his enimies. The order & placing of the Danes armie. got ouer with his people, to the other side where the Danes were lodged, who hauing more mind to set themselues in such order, whereby they might gaine the victorie, than to deuise for the diuiding of the spoile, perceiuing occasion now onered to giue the onset, foorthwith araied their people in this sort.

Hubba with six thousand Danes, was placed in the right wing. The left was led by one Hubba had the right wing. Buerne had the left wing. Buerne an Englishman borne, who was fled out of his countrie, for that he could not beare such iniuries as Osbert offered him in forcing his wife, to the great reproch and dishonor of his house and name. He had with him in this left wing certeine bands of Englishmen, with those Picts that had escaped ouer into Denmarke (as before is mentioned.) Hungar with all the Hungar kept the battell. residue of the armie, kept the battell or middle ward, exhorting his men to shew their force & manhood that day, sith the same should either put them in possession of the whole land of Albion, with all the substance and riches conteined therein, either else bring them perpetuall seruitude with ignominie amongst their most cruell and fierce aduersaries. He therefore himselfe openlie in presence of them all, vowed with solemne oth, either to returne with victorie Hungar made a vow. to his campe, either else to die in the place, willing them all to make the like couenant. Wherevpon the vniuersall multitude allowed him so much for this his motion, that there was The souldiers did make the like vow. King Constantine placed his men in like manner. An incouragement giuen to his souldiers. not one amongst the whole number, which agréed not to sweare the like oth. Constantine kéeping in manner the like order, placed in the right wing his brother Ethus, in the left Duncane the lieutenant or thane of Athole, appointing to either of them ten thousand men a péece.

All the residue were set in the battell where he himselfe stood. And first he gaue them all hartie thanks in that they had so valiantlie atchiued the victorie in the last battell, requiring them now not to blemish their former glorie with anie faintnesse of courage, recreant cowardise, or dishonorable flight: and further he willed them in no wise to be afeard of their enimies, in respect more for their hugenesse of bodie, than for anie of their valiant stoutnesse of heart: for if they assailed them with one whole and entire consent, according to their woonted forwardnesse & manlike prowes, they should quicklie put them to flight, and obteine a ioifull victorie. Heerewith he also warned them not to run rashlie vpon the enimies, but to suffer them first to giue the charge: for by that meanes he thought the Danes would with their earnest violence disorder themselues, and so should it be more easie for the Scots to breake in amongst them.

But this deuise did not a little abate the Scotish mens courages. For the Scots vse is, when they shall enter into battell, to make a great shout and noise, and therewith to run vpon their enimies, by which meanes (as they suppose) they both put the enimie in feare, and incourage themselues to the battell. The Danes at the sound of the trumpet marched foorth The Danes approch towards the Scots. towards the Scots, where they stood thus in order of battell: but when they perceiued that the Scots came not forward, they also staied in the midway to refresh themselues, least at the ioining they should be out of breath. Anon after, passing forward an easie pace, they shot The Danes shot quarels and threw darts. The Scots shot arrowes and darts as thicke as haile. The Scots are put to flight. quarrels, and threw darts at their enimies verie feshlie, and the Scots let flie at them againe with arrowes and darts as thicke as it had béene a storme of haile.

After this they rushed togither with great violence on both sides: but within a while, the Danes had put both the wings of their enimies to flight, and after compassing the maine battell round about, they constreine the same in the end with great bloudshed and slaughter to giue backe and flée out of the field. Ten thousand Scots died that day in this infortunate battell with Constantine himselfe, who being first taken was had into a caue by the sea side Constantine is taken and murthered. The blacke den or caue. Ethus brother vnto Constantine was saued by flight. amongst the rocks, and there cruellie murthered by the enimies. The place was called certeine yeeres after, the blacke den: but now they name it the diuels den, in memorie of that heinous murther there committed. The Scotish nation also had beene vtterlie as then destroied, had not Ethus the brother of Constantine, perceiuing how the field was lost, escaped awaie with two companies of his best men of warre, so reseruing himselfe to the time of more luckie fortune.

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