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MALCOLME.

MALCOLME CAMMORE thus recouering the relme (as ye haue heard) by support of king Edward, in the 16 yeere of the same Edwards reigne, he was crowned at Scone the 25 day of Aprill, in the yéere of our Lord 1057. Immediatlie after his coronation he called a
A parlemen at Forfair. parlement at Forfair, in the which he rewarded them with lands and liuings that had assisted him against Makbeth, aduancing them to fées and offices as he saw cause, & commanded that speciallie those that bare the surname of anie offices or lands, should haue and 'noy the same. He created manie earles, lords, barons, and knights. Manie of them that before were thanes, Thanes changed into earles. were at this time made earles, as Fife, Mentetl, Atholl, Leuenox, Murrey, Cathnes, Rosse, and Angus. These were the first earles that haue beene heard of amongst the Scotishmen (as their histories doo make mention.) Manie new surnames were taken vp at this time amongst Surnames. them, as Cauder, Lokart, Gordon, Seiton, Lauder, Wawane, Meldrun, Schaw, Leirmouth, Libertoun, Strachquhen, Cargill, Rattrey, Dundas, Cockbourne, Mirtoun, Menzeis, Abercrummie, Lislie, with manie other that had possessions giuen them, which gaue names to the owners for the time. Others got their surnames by offices, as Steward, Durward, and Banerman. Also the proper names of manie valiant capteins were turned into generall surnames, as Kennedie, Graham, Haie, with diuerse other too long héere to rehearse. So that it came to passe then, as it hath doone manie times since, that new surnames haue worne the old out of vse.

In the foresaid parlement thus holden at Forfair, in the beginning of his reigne, there were manie holesome ordinances established, both apperteining to ciuill administration, and also to the ecclesiasticall iurisdiction. In reward also of Makduffes seruice, who (as ye haue heard) Makduffe earle of Fife his aduancement. Priuileges granted vnto Makduffes linage. chieflie aided him to the atteining of the crowne, he honored him and his posteritie with thrée sorts of priuileges. First, that the earle of Fife for the time being, at the coronation of a king, should by his office set the crowne on the kings heád. The second was, that when the king should giue battell to his enimies, the same earle should lead the vauntgard of his host. The third, that the linage of Makduffe should inioy regall authoritie and power within all their lands and roomes, as to appoint officers and iudges for the hearing and determining of all matters and controuersies (treason onelie excepted) and that if anie of their men or tenants were called to answer in anie court out of their circuit, they might appeale to their owne hidges to be appointed, as before is expressed.

Iohannes Maior writeth in his chronicles, that the third priuilege, which Malcolme granted Iohannes Maior. vnto this Makduffe and his posteritie, was this, that for euerie gentleman that anie of them should hap to kill by chancemedlie, and not vpon pretensed malice, for the summe of 24 marks he should redeeme his punishment due for the same: & for the casuall slaughter of a meaner person he should be fined at twelue marks. So that murtherers were woont to say, that if they were able to paie that summe to the Kinboc, they ought to be released of further punishment, by Makduffes priuilege. But this third priuilege, togither with the other two former grants, the said Maior sore reprooueth, and not without cause, as may appéere, considering the naturall inclination of that people vnto murther, which by this meanes nourishing secret hatred and malice in their harts, might vnder the cloke of casuall falling out, slea whom they listed.

It was ordeined also at this parlement, that barons which had liberties within themselues, should make gibbets, whereon men that deserued death should suffer execution: and also Gibbets and draw-wels. draw-wels, wherein women that were condemned should be drowned, according to the order of the ciuill lawes vsed in Scotland. Moreouer, all the lawes that Makbeth had ordeined, were Makbeths lawes abrogated. Lugtake. abrogated at this parlement. Thus whilest Malcolme was busied in setting orders amongst his subiects, tidings came that one Lugtake surnamed the foole, being either the sonne, or (as some write) the coosen of the late mentioned Makbeth, was conueied with a great number of such as had taken part with the said Makbeth vnto Scone, and there by their support receiued Lugtake crowned at Scone. the crowne, as lawfull inheritor thereto. To appease this businesse, was Makduffe earle of Fife sent with full commission in the kings name, who incountring with Lugtake at a village called Essen in Bogdale, slue him, and discomfited his whole power, ordering the Lugtake is slaine. matter with them in such wise, that afterwards there was no more trouble attempted in that behalfe.

After this, the realme continued in peace certeine yeeres, till it chanced a great number of A band of théeues. théeues and robbers assembling themselues togither at Cocbourne pethes, did much hurt, by robbing and spoiling the people in the countries of Mers and Louthian: howbeit, at length one Patrike Dunbar of Dunbar, by commandement of the king, fought with them, slue their Patrike Dunbar vanquisheth the théeues and robbers of the countrie. capteine, with six hundred of his companie, and tooke fourescore prisoners, the which he caused to be hanged. And thus hauing deliuered the countrie of those péelers, with losse of fortie of his owne men, he returned to the king, with the head of the capteine of that rout: so that for his manhood héerein shewed, he was made by the king earle of March, and for Patrike Dunbar earle of March. the maintenance of his estate, had the lands of Cockbourne Pethes giuen to him and his heires for euer, vpon this condition, that in times comming, the earles of March should purge Mers and Louthian of all théeues and robbers. In memorie whereof, he was commanded to beare The head of a théefe or fellon giuen in arms. A conspiracie. in his armes a fellons head sprinkled with bloud.

Shortlie after he got knowledge, how there were certeine gentlemen that had conspired to slea him, & therefore taking occasion to go on hunting, where this act should haue béene executed, he calleth the chiefe author of the conspiracie apart into a certeine vallie, which was closed on euerie side with thicke woods, and there brake the matter vnto him, in reprouing him verie sharpelie, for that he had so traitorouslie conspired his death, whose preseruation he ought chieflie to haue wished, considering the manifold benefits he had receiued at his hands. And herewith leaping from his horsse, drew his swoord, commanding the other likewise to The manlie courage of K. Malcolme. draw his, that now hauing conuenient time and place thereto, they might trie the matter betwixt them, who should be thought most woorthie of life, by open force of knightlie prowesse. The conspirator hearing these woords, as a man altogither astonished, fell downe vpon his knees at the kings féet; beseeching his grace of mercie for his wicked purpose and heinous offense: who séeing him thus penitent, bad him arise, and said; "I am content héerevpon to forgiue thee, so that thou be not of counsell heereafter in anie such traitorous practise."

Whilest things passed thus in Scotland, great and maruellous chances came to passe within the realme of England. For after the death of king Edward, surnamed the Confessor, Harold the sonne of earle Goodwine tooke on him the kingdome. But William bastard duke Sée more herof in England. of Normandie, pretending title to the crowne of England, at length inuaded the land, and sleaing Harold in field, made a full conquest of the realme, and was crowned king at London by Eldred archbishop of Yorke. Héere ye haue to vnderstand, that king Edward in his life time had sent for his nephue Edward, the sonne of his brother Edmund Ironside, to come home foorth of Hungarie, whither (after his fathers deceasse) he and his brother Edwine had béene sent awaie, as in the historie of England it appéereth more at large. This Edward had Wil. Malm. married the daughter of the emperor Henrie, named Agatha, sister to the quéene of Hungarie, and not the king of Hungaries daughter, although the Scotish writers doo so affirme. By hir he had issue a sonne named Edgar, and two daughters, the one named Margaret and the other Christen.

King Edward ment that his nephue the said Edward should haue succeeded him, and (as Hector Boet. some write) he would in his life time haue resigned the crowne vnto him. But he (a thing woorthie of admiration) vtterlie refused it, and would not once meddle therewith during his vncles life time; & (as it chanced) he died, whilest his vncle king Edward was yet liuing. His sonne Edgar therefore, to whom it séemed that the crowne was due, when he saw the realme conquered by the Normans, despairing to recouer it out of their hands, got a ship, and determined with his mother and sisters to passe ouer into Germanie to his friends and kinsfolke there: but by contrarie winds he was driuen to shore in the Forth, at a place called vnto this day the queenes ferrie. Malcolme being at the same time at Dunfermeling, when he heard The quéenes ferrie. of the arriuall of this ship, and vnderstood what they were that were aboord in hir, he resorted thither with an honorable companie about him, to visit them for honors sake, vpon fauour he bare towards them, for that they were descended of that noble prince king Edward, in whome afore time he had found so much gentlenesse and friendship.

Finallie, when he vnderstood their estate, he brought them home with him to his palace, shewing them all the loue and friendship he could deuise; and in the end considering the excellent beutie, wisdome, and noble qualities of the ladie Margaret, sister to the same Edgar, he Malcolme Cammore marieth Margaret sister to Edgar Achelling. 1067. H.B. required of Agatha hir mother to haue hir in mariage, wherevnto Agatha gladlie condescended. Shortlie after, with an assemblie of all the nobles of Scotland, this mariage was made and solemnized after the octaues of Easter, in the yeare 1067, with all the ioy & triumph that might be deuised. K. William conqueror of England, being informed hereof, feared least this aliance betwixt Malcolme and Edgar might bréed some trouble and disquietnesse to his estate, sith the same Edgar had manie friends through all the parties of England. To preuent therefore the occasions of intestine troubles, he confined all the linage of the foresaid Edgar, by reason whereof, a great number of Englishmen came into Scotland vnto king Malcolme, and Englishmen fled into Scotland. manie of them obteining liuings at his hands, remained there continuallie during their liues, leauing to their posteritie their names & possessions. Amongst whome were these, Lindseie, Surnames of Englishmen in Scotland. Vaus, Ramseie, Louell, Towhris, Prestoune, Sandlands, Bissart, Sewlis, Wardlaw, Maxwell, with diuerse other.

There came diuerse also out of Hungarie with quéene Margaret, who likewise left their names to their families, which yet remaine euen vnto this day, as Creichtoune, Fotringham, Surnames of Hungarians. Giffart, Meluill, Borthwike, and others. Also there haue come at sundrie seasons out of France diuers surnames into Scotland, as Fraseir, Sinclare, Boswell, Mowtray, Surnames of Frenchmen. Mountgummerie, Campbell, Bois, Betoun, or Betuin, Taillefer, and Bothwell, besides sundrie other which were but superfluous to rehearse at this time. ¶ But to the order of the historie. It is recorded by writers, that these (which at this time came out of England vnto Edgar) brought great quantitie of gold and siluer with them; also manie relikes of saints, and (amongst other) that blacke crosse which king Dauid gaue vnto the abbeie of Holie rood house in Louthian, The blacke crosse. which he founded at his owne charges. Shortlie after the proscription of these Englishmen, William the conqueror sent an herald at armes vnto king Malcolme, demanding to haue William conqueror threatneth king Malcolme. Edgar deliuered into his hands, and threatning that if he refused to deliuer him, he would suerlie fetch him, and that smallie for Malcolms commoditie.

But Malcolme, though he vnderstood that he should be sure of wars at K. Williams hands for his deniall; yet he declared plainelie to the herald, that his maisters request was Malcolms answer. Open warre proclaimed by William conqueror. Northumberland taketh part with K. Malcolme. Roger a Norman capteine or rather earle Roger (as I take it.) Sée in England. The earle of Glocester. Gospatrike saith Simon Dunel. Odo bishop of Baieux and earle of Kent. Malcolms enterprise against his enimies. vnreasonable, & therefore he minded not in anie wise to gratifie him therein. King William receiuing this answere from king Malcolme, proclamed open warre against Scotland. In the meane time all Northumberland tooke part with K. Malcolme, for that he was their earles sisters sonne. Wherevpon K. William sent a valiant capteine, a Norman borne named Roger, to inuade Northumberland. Which Roger gathering a power of men, came hastilie into that countrie, howbeit he abode a short time there in honor, for by the Scots & Northumberland men his armie was discomfited, and he himselfe traitorouslie slaine by hisowne souldiers.

But king William nothing discouraged with this ouerthrow: sent one Richard earle of Glocester (whome amongest all the Englishmen he had most in trust) with a mightie armie into Cumberland, against whome were sent the earles of March and Menteith, who defended the countrie right manlie from the inuasion of the said earle, so that he was not able to take anie aduantage of them. King William aduertised hereof, waxed woonderfull wroth, that no more good was doone against his enimies,wherevpon he sent a new power thither withall spéed, vnder the leading of his brother Odo, who was both bishop of Baieux, and earle of Kent. By this last armie, the countrie of Northumberland was sore spoiled, and a great number both of Scots and Northumberlandmen discomfited and slaine. But as Odo was preparing to returne, there came Malcolme, with all the power he might make, and giuing an onset vpon his enimies, alue a great number of them, and recouered all the bootie which Odos men had got in the countrie, and so right ioifull of that victorie, returned into Scotland. King William yet Robert the sonne of William conquerour. nothing abashed for these mishaps, sent his sonne called Robert, with a far greater power than at anie time he had sent before, into Northumberland, who remaining a long season in campe néere to the riuer of Tine, attempted no notable enterprise, sauing that he repared and newlie fortified the towne of Newcastell, which standeth vpon the same riuer of Tine; and then at Newcastell vpon Tine fortified. A peace concluded betwixt William Conquerour, and Malcolme Cammore. The roicrosse. Waltheof. Siward earle of Northumberland. length a peace was concluded betwixt the two kings vnder these conditions, that king Malcolme should inioy that part of Northumberland which lieth betwixt Twéed, Cumberland, and Stainmoore, and to doo homage to the K. of England for the same. In the midst of Stainmoore there shall be a crosse set vp, with the king of Englands image on the one side, and the king of Scotlands on the other, to signifie that the one is march to England, and the other to Scotland. This crosse was called the roicrosse, that is, the crosse of the kings. Moreouer, it was concluded that Waltheof or Voldosius (as the Scotish writers name him) the sonne of Siward earle of Northumberland should marie king Williams néece, borne of his daughter, and to be frée from all paiments and exactions due to the king by anie maner of prerogatiue or means, for the space of twentie yeares next insuing.

In the necke of this peace thus concluded betwixt the kings, happened new trouble in Rebellion in Galloway. Scotland, by reason of intestine rebellion: for the people of Galloway, and the Iland men, rose in great numbers, and spoiled the borders of their neighbors, not sparing from slaughter in all parts, where they were anie thing resisted. Against these rebels was sent by king Walter the sonne of Fleance. Malcolme, Walter the sonne of Fleance (of whome there is mention made before) with a conuenient armie, who at his comming into Galloway, first gaue the people of that countrie an ouerthrow, and slue their chiefe capteine Makglaue. Then afterwards fighting with them Makglaue. of the Iles, he subdued them in such wise, that all things were pacified euen at commandement. For which high prowes and diligence in this péece of seruice shewed, he was created Walter created high steward of Scotland. by Malcolme high steward of the realme, so that afterwards both he and his posteritie euer since haue borne that surname, euen vnto these our daies.

After the quieting of this businesse, there sprang a new tumult more dangerous than the A new rebellion in Murrey land. former, for the Murreyland men, procuring them of Rosse and Cathnes, with diuers other to ioine with them in confederacie, did not onelie slea the kings seruants, and those that were appointed vnder him to see iustice ministred, but throúgh support of one Makduncane, whome they chose to be their capteine, they also wasted and destroied the kings possessions, with more crueltie than euer had béene heard of before. Wherefore to punish these traitorous attempts, Makduffe was sent with an armie into Mar. But the traitors doubting least they should not Makduffe. be able to withstand his puissance, thought nothing more auailable than to stop him with monie: but in the meane time came the king himselfe in good season into Monimuske, where he was aduerised, that in maner all the north parts of Scotland with the Iles, were confederat with the Murreyland men against him. The king astonished something at these newes, vowed to giue The kings vow. the baronnie of Monimuske (which he vnderstood to be lands perteining to the crowne) vnto the church of saint Andrew in Fife, if it might please God to send him victorie ouer his enimies.

At length comming vnto the water of Speie, he beheld his enimies on the further side, in greater number, and in better furniture for armor than he thought had béene possible to haue found in all Scotland: he perceiued also that his standard-bearer began to shrinke, and not to Standard bearer. shew the like cheerefull countenance as he ought to haue doone. Wherefore he pulled the banner from him, and gaue it to sir Alexander Carron, who with this his new office obteined Sir Alexander Carron. sundrie faire lands and possessions, to him and to his heires for euer: but his surname was afterwards changed, and called Skrimgeour; of the which is descended a noble house, continuing yet in great honor in the same surname and office. When the king was once passed the water, and the armies on both sides readie to haue ioined, through mediation of bishops and other vertuous men, the matter was taken vp, and peace made on these conditions; That the commons A peace concluded. The submission of gentlemen. that tooke part with the rebels, should returne home out of hand, and the gentlemen to submit themselues to the kings pleasure, their liues and lands saued. Howbeit manie of them were kept in perpetuall prison during their liues, and all their goods confiscated to the kings vse.

All ciuill trouble and commotion being thus quieted, king Malcolme (speciallie by the good admonishment and exhortation of his wife quéene Margaret, a woman of great zeale King Malcolme through exhortation of his wife, giueth himselfe to deuotion. vnto the religion of that time) gave himselfe in maner altogither vnto much deuotion, and workes of mercie; as in dooing of almes déeds, by prouiding for the poore, and such like godlie exercises: so that in true vertue he was thought to excell all other princes of his time. To be briefe, herein there séemed to be in maner a certeine strife A godlie strife. betwixt him, and that vertuous quéene his wife, which of them should be most feruent in the loue of God, so that manie people by the imitation of them were brought vnto a better life. Agatha and hir daughter Christine, also by the example of these two holie liuers, renounced Agatha and Christine renounce the world. the pompe of the court, and got them to a priuat and solitarie life, wherein they gaue themselues wholie to diuine contemplation. Furthermore, Malcolme by the setting on of the queene his wife, ceassed not to set his indeuor wholie to the aduancement of the christian religion, and to restore things that were decaied by the negligence of his predecessors. There. fore whereas before his time, there were but foure bishops sées in Scotland, as saint Andrews, Glascow, Galloway, and Murthlake, and two of them, that is to say, saint Andrews and Murthlake remaining onelie in good reparation (the other being decaied) he restored the other two Bishops sees restored and newlie erected by king Malcolme. Riot and superfluous chere brought into Scotland. to their former beauties, and furthermore erected two other of new, as Murrey and Cathnes, placing men of singular vertue and purenesse of life in the same.

But to procéed. It is said, that such outragious riot entered at this time, and began to grow in vse among the Scotishmen, togither with the language and maners of the English nation (by reason that such a multitude of the same, flieng out of their countrie, were dailie receiued as then into Scotland to inhabit there, as before is shewed) that diuerse of the nobles perceiuing what discommoditie and decaie to the whole realme would insue of this intemperance, came The lamentation of the Scotish nobilitie for the intemperate surfetting begun to grow in vse in their countrie. The ancient sparenesse of diet amongst the Scots. to the king, lamenting greeuouslie the case, for that this venemous infection spred so fast ouer the whole realme, to the peruerting and vtter remooting of the ancient sobrietie of diet vsed in the same. Wherefore they besought him to prouide some remedie in time, before hope of redresse were past, that the people might be againe reduced vnto their former frugalitie, who hitherto vsed not to eat but once in the day, and then desiring no superfluous meates and drinks to be sought by sea and land, nor curiouslie dressed or serued foorth with sawces, but onelie feeding to satisfie nature, and not their gréedie appetites.

Through this their sober fare, with the exercising of their bodies herewith in continull Sober fare cause of strength and hugenesse of bodie. trauell, they grew more strong and greater of bodie, than their of spring are found to be in these daies: for they were more in resemblance like vnto giants than vnto men of our time, with great and huge bodies, mightie armes and lims, pressing vpon their enimies like vnto fierce lions, bearing downe all before them, without dread of anie danger, for that they excéeded all humane strength and power. Herevpon king Malcolme tooke great paines to haue redressed this infectiue poison, and vtterlie to haue expelled it foorth of his reaime. Howbeit the nature of man is so prone and readie to imbrace all kinds of vice, that where Mans nature prone to vice. the Scotish people before had no knowledge nor vnderstanding of fine fare or riotous surfet; yet after they had once tasted the swéet poisoned bait thereof, there was now no meane to be found to restreine their licorous desires. ¶ And yet those corrupted abuses and riotous superfluities (which came into the realme of Scotland with the Englishmen) planted therein by the daies of king Malcolme, are not to be compared in excesse with things vsed in our time. For in those daies, as yet the nature of man was not so ouercome with the abuse of superfluities, as it is now adaies; for then though they were gone from the ancient sparenesse of diet, they yet did not eat past twise a day, and had but two dishes at a meale: but now the gréedie taste of mens insatiable lust is such, that no kind of flesh, fish, fruit, or The greédie taste of mens insatiable lust. whatsoeuer may be gotten, is vaneth able to quench their gluttonous appetit & rauenous gormandizing; so that neither land, sea, nor aire, is left vnsought to satisfie the same, as though they were worthie of most high commendation that may deuour most: wherein they may be iustlie compared to gréedie woolues and coruorants. But to bewaile that in words Men compared to wolues & coruorants. which cannot be amended in déeds, is but a follie: for the infection is so entered into the inner parts of the intrails, that neither with purging, cutting, nor searing, it may be holpen. Sooner shall you destroie the whole nation, than remooue this vice.

In the meane time whilest things passed thus in Scotland, king William the Conqueror 1086. H.B. The church of Durham built by king Malcolme. Turgot. died in the 21 yéere of his reigne, and after the incarnation 1087. About which time king Malcolme caused the old church of Durham to be pluaked downe and builded vp a new, beginning euen at the first floore. In which season, one Egelwin or William (as the Scotish writers say) was bishop of that sée, and prior of the abbeie was one Turgot, who afterward was made bishop of saint Andrews, and wrote the liues of queene Margaret and Malcolme hir husband in the Scotish toong. Afterward he deceassed in saint Andrews, but his bodie was brought vnto Durham, and there buried, bicause he was first prior therof. King Malcolme by persuasion of this Turgot, builded also a church in Dunfermling, dedicated The church of Dunfermling. The sepulture of the Scotish kings. to the Trinitie, ordeining from thencefoorth that the common sepulture of the kings should be there, in like maner as it had béene afore time in the Ile of lona at the abbeie of Colmekill.

Amongst other vertuous ordinances also, which were deuised and made by king Malcolme (through exhortation of his wife quéene Margaret) mentioned by Turgot in the booke which he wrote of their liues, this is not to be forgotten, that be abrogated that wicked King Ewins law abrogated or rather altered. law, established by king Ewin the third, appointing halfe a marke of siluer to be paid to the lord of the soile, in redemption of the womans chastitie, which is vsed to be paied yet vnto this day, and is called the marchets of woman: where otherwise by tenor of king Ewins law, the lord had the vse of their bodies all the first night after their mariage. King William surnamed the Red, the second sonne of king William the Conqueror, and successor to him William Rufus. in the kingdome of England, not well contented nor pleased in his mind, that the Scots should injoy a great portion of the north parts of England, ancientlie belonging to his crowne as parcell thereof, he raised a great armie, and before anie denouncing of warre by him made, inuaded Northumberland, and tooke the castell of Anwike, putting all such to The castell of Anwike woon by the Englishmen. the swoord as were found in the same.

King Malcolme, to withstand such exploits attempted by his enimie, lenied a great host of The castell of Anwike besieged by the Scots. his subjects, and comming with the same into Northumberland, besieged the said castell of Anwike. And now when the kéepers of the hold were at point to haue made surrender, a certeine English knight conceiuing in his mind an hardie and dangerous interprise, mounted on a swift horsse without armor or weapon, sauing a speare in his hand, vpon the point whereof he bare the keies of the castell, and so issued foorth at the gates, riding directlie towards the Scotish campe. They that warded, mistrusting no harme, brought him with great noise and clamour vnto the kings tent. Who hearing the noise, came foorth of his pauilion to vnderstand what the matter ment. The Englishman herewith couched his staffe, as though it had bene to the end that the king might receiue the keies which he had brought. And whilest all mens eies were earnest in beholding the keies, the Englishman ran the king through the left eie, and suddenlie dashing his spurres to his horsse, escaped An hardie enterprise. K. Malcolme is slaine. to the next wood out of all danger. The point of the speare entered so farre into the kings head, that immediatlie falling downe amongst his men, hée yeelded vp the ghost. This was the end of king Malcolme in the midst of his armie.

It is said, that king William changed the name of this aduenturous knight, & called him The name of the Percées had no such beginning, for they came foorth of Normandie at the conquest. Erles of Northumberland. K. Malcolme buried at Tinmouth. Edward prince of Scotland died. Quéene Margaret died. 1097. H.B. Perse eie, for that he stroke king Malcolme so right in the eie, and in recompense of his seruice gaue him certeine lands in Northumberland: of whome those Percées are descended, which in our daies haue inioied the honorable title of earles of Northumberland. The Scots after the slaughter of their king, brake vp their campe, and buried his bodie within the abbeie of Tinmouth in England. But his sonne Alexander caused it afterwards to be taken vp, and buried in Dunfernling before the altar of the Trinitie. At the same time was Scotland wounded with another mishap. For Edward the prince of Scotland, eldest sonne to king Malcolme, died of a hurt which he receiued in a skirmish not farre from Anwike, and was buried in Dunfermling, the first of the bloud roiall that had his bones laid in that place. Quéene Margaret being aduertised of the death both of hir husband and sonne, as then lieng in Edenburgh castell, hir disease increased through griefe therof so vehementlie, that within thrée daies after she departed out of this life, vnto an other more ioifull and blessed. King Malcolme was slaine in the yéere of our redemption 1092, on the 13 day of Nouember, The Ides of October H.B. and in the 36 yéere of his reigne.

In the same yéere, manie vncouth things came to passe, and were séene in Albion. By Strange woonders. An huge tide. the high spring-tides which chanced in the Almaine seas, manie townes, castels, and woods were drowned, as well in Scotland as in England. After the ceassing of which tempest, the lands that sometime were earle Goodwins (of whome ye haue heard before) lieng not farre from the towne of Sandwich, by violent force and drift of the sea, were made a sand-bed, and euer sithens haue bene called Goodwins sands. The people haue thought that this Goodwins sands. vengeance came to that péece of ground being possessed by his posteritie, for the wicked slaughter of Alured, which he tratorouslie contriued. Moreouer sundrie castels and townes in Murrey land, were ouerthrowne by the sea tides. Such dreadfull thunder happened also Thunder. at the same time, that men and beasts were slaine in the fields, and houses ouerturned euen from their foundations. In Louthian, Fife, and Angus, trées and come were burned vp by Trées and corne burnt. fire, kindled no man knew how, nor from whence.

In the dales of this Malcolme Cammore, liued that famous historiographer Marianus a Marianus. Scotishman borne, but professed a moónke in the monasterie of Fulda in Germanic. Also Veremond a Spanish priest, but dwelling in Scotland, florished about the same time, and Veremond. wrote the Scotish historie, whome Hector Boetius so much followeth. Malcolme had by The sons of K. Malcolme Cammore. his wife quéene Margaret (otherwise called for hir holinesse of life saint Margaret) six sonnes, Edward (as is said) was slaine: Etheldred, which died in his tender age, and was buried in Dunfermling: and Edmund which renounced the world, and liued an holie life in England: the other thrée were named Edgar, Alexander, and Dauid. There be that write how Edmund was taken, and put to death by his vncle Donald Bane, when he inuaded Donald Bane. the kingdome, and vsurped the crowne, after the deceasse of his brother king Malcolme, and so then was Edgar next inheritor to the crowne.

This Donald Bane, who (as before is mentioned) fled into the Iles to eschue the tyrannicall Donald Bane fled into the Iles. Donald Bane returneth into Scotland. malice of Makbeth, after he once heard that his brother king Malcolme was dead, returned into Scotland by support of the king of Norwaie, vnto whom he couenanted to giue the dominion of all the Iles, if by his means & furtherance he might obteine the crowne of His couenant for the gift of the Iles to the king of Norwaie. Scotland. Herevpon landing with an armie in the realme, he found small resistance, and so with little adoo receiued the crowne. For manie of the people abhorring the riotous maners and superfluous gormandizing brought in among them by the Englishmen, were willing inough to receiue this Donald for their king, trusting (bicause he had béene brought vp in The respect that the people had to receiue Donald Bane for their king. the lies with the old customes and maners of their ancient nation, without tast of the English likerous delicats) they should by his seuere order in gouernement recouer againe the former temperance of their old progenitors.

As soone as Edgar Etheling brother to Queene Margaret was aduertised that Donald Bane K. Malcolms sons sent for into England by Edgar their vncle. Orgar or one Organ accused Edgar Etheling of treason. had thus vsurped the crowne of Scotland, he sent secretlie for his three nephues, Edgar, Alexander, and Dauid, with two sisters which they had, to come vnto him into England, where he had not kept them anie long while, but that a knight whose name was Organ or Orgar, accused him of treason, alledging how he nourished his sisters sonnes and daughters within the realme, in hope to make them inheritors to the crowne: but the malice of this false surmize remained not vnpunished, for one of Edgars friends, taking in hand to darraine battell with Organ, in defense of Edgars innocencie, slue him within lists. After that Organ is slaine within lists. Donald had receiued the crowne at the abbele of Scone, he perceiued that some of the nobles grudged at his preferment, shewing by some tokens that they had more affection vnto king Malcolmes children, than vnto him: and therefore he cast out a woord amongst his familiars, Donald threatneth. that yer it were long the nobles should repent them of their dooing, if they applied not themselues the more to his opinion.

Which woords being marked, and deepelie imprinted in some of their hearts, turned afterwards to his great displeasure. For shortlie after came Duncane the bastard sonne of king Duncan Malcolms bastard sonne. Malcolme out of England into Scotland, supported with an armie of men appointed by king William the Red, to place him in the kingdome, and to expell Donald out of the same by force of armes, if he attempted anie resistance. Now when Donald approched with his puissance, in purpose to haue giuen battell, the most part of his people did forsake him, and drew vnto Duncans side, so that Donald thus abandoned of them that should haue aided him, was constreined for his refuge to flee againe into the westerne Iles: and so Duncane Duncane is crowned king of Scotland. Duncane lacketh skill in ciuill gouernement. then comming vnto Scone, receiued the crowne of Scotland. But for that he had béene trained the most part of his life in the warres both in England and France, he had small skill in ciuill gouernement, iudging that thing onelie to stand with justice, which was decided with speare and shield. By reason where of Scotland was shortlie filled with new troubles and seditious diuisions.

Donald Bane being aduertised of all those things, that thereby happened in Scotland, sollicited Makpender erle of Mernes to take his part, and by some meanes to slea K. Duncane, which enterprise Makpender taking in hand, at length (in Menteth) accomplished the Makpender erle of Merns sleieth king Duncane. same in the night season, when he had espied such aduantage and opportunitie of time, that not so much as one man was found to pursue him. But to say the truth, Duncane was so farre out of the peoples fauor, that more reioised than were sorie for his death. After he was thus dispatched, his vncle Donald was restored againe to the kingdome, Donald Bane is restored to the crowne. chieflie by support of the forenamed Makpender, after his nephue the foresaid Duncane had reigned one yéere and an halfe, where Donald himselfe had reigned (before he was expelled by his said nephue) the space of six moneths, and now after he had recouered the kingdome, he continued in the regiment thereof thrée yéeres, not without great trouble and intestine commotions: for the most part of the lords maligning his aduancement, sought occasions dailie to depose him.

In the meane time the Ilandmen made some stirre, neither did the warres with England ceasse, (though without anie great exploit or enterprise woorthie of remembrance) sauing a few light skirmishes betwixt the parties, as occasion serued. At length came Magnus king Magnus K. of Norwaie cōmeth into the westerne Iles. of Norwaie with a great fléer, and sailing about the westerne Iles, garnished all the strengths within them in most defensible wise, with men, munition, and vittels, vsurping the dominion as souereigne lord of the same Iles: and at the same time ordeined those lawes and constitutions which are vsed there amongst the inhabitants euen vnto these daies. The Scotishmen hauing great indignation, that the Iles being ancientlie parcell of the crowne, should be thus alienated from the same, sent orators vnto Edgar (who was, as ye haue heard, the fourth Edgar king Malcolmes son is sent for. sonne of king Malcolme) desiring him most instantlie to come into Scotland, to recouer his fathers heritage and crowne of Scotland out of the vsurpers hands.

Edgar taking deliberate aduise touching this request, first sent ambassadours vnto Donald, Edgar sendeth messengers to Donald. promising that if he would be contented to restore vnto him the crowne, being due to him by lawfull succession, he would gladlie reward him with great lordships and reuenues in Louthian: but Donald was so farre from minding to doo him reason in this behalfe, that causing Donald sleaeth Edgars messengers. Edgar is aided by K. William Rufus. Saint Cutberts banner. them which brought this message to be put in prison, he finallie slue them. Then Edgar by counsell of his vncle Edgar Etheling, purchasing an aid of men at the hands of king William Rufus, set forwards toward Scotland. At his comming to Durham, he was admonished by a vision in his sléepe, that if he tooke with him the banner of saint Cutbert, he should haue victorie. On the morrow after, he came into the abbeie church, where first hearing diuine seruice, when the same was ended, he displaied the foresaid banner, and caused it to be borne before him in that iournie. Neuertheles king Donald met him with a mightie armie, and after long K. Donald discomfited and chased into the Iles. K. Donald is taken. fight, was chased into the Iles, where he was taken and brought vnto Edgar. ¶ Some say that when the battels were readie to haue joined, his men beholding the banner of saint Cutbert spred against them, immediatlie forsooke him, so that he being destitute of succour, fled, in purpose to haue saued himselfe in some one of the westerne Iles: but being apprehended by the inhabitants, was brought (as is said) vnto Edgar, by whome he was (howsoeuer the hap King Donald dieth in prison. of his taking chanced) cast immediatlie into prison, wherein he shortlie after died. The victorie thus atchiued, Edgar went vnto Edenburgh, and from thence vnto Dunfermeling to visit the sepultures of his mother and brethren.

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