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ALEXANDER.

AFTER the deceasse of king William, his sonne Alexander the second of that name
Alexander the second is crowned at Scone. A time of mourning. succeeded, and was crowned at Scone with all due solemnitie; which being finished, he went vnto Abirbrothoke, where he remained 14 daies, in attending the funerall obsequies of his father, and commanded that no publike plaies nor great feasts should be vsed or kept in all that yéere, to the intent the death of his father might be lamented through the whole realme. The king himselfe, and all his seruants also, were clothed in mourning weed, during the space of one whole yéere. The first parlement which he called, was holden at A parlement at Edenburgh. Confirmation of officers. Edenburgh, in the which he confirmed all the acts and ordinances deuised by his father: and furthe. appointed that all such as had borne offices vnder him, should still inioy the same. Namelie he commanded that William Wood bishop of Dunblaine should still continue lord chancellor, and Alane of Galloway high constable, which is an office of most The office of the constable. honor & reputation next to the king, as he that hath power of life and death, if anie man draw bloud of an other by violence within two miles of the court.

When this parlement was ended, bicause the old queene his mother determined to remaine, during the residue of hir life, in the place where that holie woman queene Margaret sometime led hir life, he gaue vnto hir towards the maintenance of hir estate, the castels & townes of Forfair, with the lands and possessions to the same belonging. He also The lands of Forfair giuen to the old quéene. A princelie appointment. Dissention betwixt king Iohn and his nobles. appointed certeine sage and most graue personages, to be chosen foorth as iudges, which should be resident in euerie citie and good towne of his realme, for the hearing and due determining of all quarrels and matters in controuersie betwixt partie and partie. In this meane time great dissention rose betwixt Iohn king of England, and his barons, by reason whereof great warres insued, as in the English historie dooth appéere. The barons made sute both to the French king, & to the king of Scots for aid, so that at length Lewes the French kings sonne came ouer to support them, whereof when king Alexander was aduertised, he King Alexander passeth to London. likewise came with an armie through England vnto London, causing his souldiers by the waie to absteine from dooing anie kind of damage to the people. By his comming things were partlie quieted for a time, and shortlie after that he had communed with Lewes touching sundrie affaires perteining to both the realmes, they passed the seas with ten vessels ouer into France, leauing their powers behind them to assist the English lords.

The French king aduertised thereof, came downe to Bullongne, where finding his son and king Alexander, he renewed the ancient bond of amitie betwixt France and Scotland, The league betwixt France and Scotland renewed. The best approoued writers affirme that Lewes went not ouer into France, till after the death of king Iohn. with the same Alexander, according to the couenants of the old league, with this addition; that neither prince should receiue the enimies of the others realme, nor to marrie with anie stranger, the one not making the other priuie thereto. These things being ratified, king Alexander and Lewes returned into England: shortlie wherevpon, king Iohn died, more through anguish of mind and melancholie, than by force of anie other naturall disease. His son Henrie, the third of that name, succéeded him. And in the meane time had the pope accurssed both Lewes, and king Alexander, with all those that fauoured their cause Lewes and king Alexander accurssed. A councell at Rome. King Alexander returneth into his countrie. against king Iohn, which cursse was pronounced in a generall councell, which was holden at Rome by pope Innocent, there being present foure hundred and twelue bishops, and eight hundred abbats. King Alexander after the deceasse of king Iohn, returning homewards with his armie, thought he might haue passed quietlie without anie annoiance by the waie, through meanes whereof he lost a certeine number of his men, being suddenlie inuaded by such Englishmen, as watched their time to take the Scots at some aduantage, in straieng abroad out of order: with which iniurie king Alexander was so mooued, that he spoiled and harried all the countries by the which he passed, till he was entered within the confines of his owne dominion.

Shortlie after, Cardinall Gualo came into England furnished with the popes authoritie, to Cardinall Gualo. denounce the excommunication aboue remembred, against Lewes and Alexander, with all their fautors, wherevpon he accurssed not onelie the foresaid persons, but also interdicted all the places where they came, insomuch that in the end Lewes was constreined to buy an absolution with no small summes of monie, of that auaricious cardinall Gualo: and after vpon agréement also made with king Henrie, he returned into France. Not long after Lewes returneth into France. King Henrie inuadeth Scotland. Ex codice antiquo S. Albani, written by Mat. Paris (as I take it.) came K. Henrie with an armie into Scotland, sore indamaging the countrie: but so soone as he was aduertised that king Alexander had assembled all the power of his realme to giue him battell, he retired with all spéed into England. The king of England had in his armie at the same time 1200 men of armes, verie perfectlie appointed and furnished with armor and weapon as was requisit, and the king of Scots but onelie fiue hundred. But of footmen there were in the Scotish armie 60000 able personages well appointed, with axes, speares, and bowes, readie to die and liue with their prince, constantlie beléeuing, that to lose this present life héere in his defense, was an assured waie to be saued in an other world.

After that king Henrie was gone backe into England, king Alexander followed after him King Alexander in Northumberland. Carleill woon by the Scots. into Northumberland, where he ouerthrew & beat downe manie castels and strengths, which the Englishmen held. Then marching through the countrie vnto Carleill, he wan that citie, and garnished it with his people. After this, laieng siege vnto Norham castell, when he had continued at the same a certeine time, and perceiued how he lost but his trauell, he left it, and returned home with great honor and triumph for his other atchiued enterprises in that iournie. King Henrie being once aduertised that king Alexander had broken vp his campe, incontinentlie got eftsoons his people togither, and comming to Berwike, wan both the towne and castell. Berwike woon by king Henrie. After entring into Scotland, he burned and spoiled the countrie alongst by the sea coasts, till he came as farre as Hadington, putting all such to the swoord as were found in the waie; Hadington. women, préests and children onelie excepted. He assaied to haue woone the castell of Dunbar, but missing his purpose there, he returned into England.

In the meane time, the auaritious prelat Gualo, vpon trust to purchase some large portion of monie in Scotland, put the same vnder processe of interdicting, & namelie he accurssed king Scotland interdicted. Alexander most terriblie, for that he had muaded England, and (as he alleged) spoiled churches as well as prophane places. These cursses so inflamed the hearts of the Scotishmen with hatred against the Englishmen, that the same was not like to haue ended without the vtter destruction and ruine of both their realms. Neuerthelesse at length, by the diligent trauell of the Bishops of Yorke and Salisburie. A peace concluded. The conditions. bishops of Yorke and Salisburie, which came vnto king Alexander to treate an agreement, a finall peace was concluded, vnder these conditions. First it was agréed, that king Alexander should render the citie of Carleill into the Englishmens hands, and king Henrie the towne of Berwike vnto the Scots. The whole dominion of Cumberland to remaine vnto king Alexander, with the one halfe of Northumberland, to the Recrosse. And further, that king Alexander should be absolued of the censures of the church, which Gualo the cardinall had denounced against him.

Thus the two kings being accorded, the two foresaid bishops comming vnto Berwike, absolued king Alexander, and deliuered his realme of interdiction, by such authoritie as they had procured of the cardinall Gualo. But yet the same cardinall, not minding to depart with emptie The cleargie of Scotland summoned by cardinall Gualo to come to Anwike. hands, summoned all the prelats of Scotland to appeare before him at Anwike, there to receiue their full absolution, to the intent by such means to trouble them, till they had disburssed to his vse some large portion of monie. Sundrie of them which loued quietnesse more than contention, satisfied his mind; but others refused vtterlie so to doo, taking great indignation that spirituall causes were thus dispatched for monie, and ecclesiasticall preferments bought Sale of spirituall promotions. The Scotish cleargie cited to Rome. The complaint of the Scotish Geargie to the pope. The auarice of Cardinall Gualo. sold, no otherwise than secular possessions and prophane dignities. Incontinentlie therevpon Gualo cited them to Rome, supposing that rather than to take vpon them so long a iournie, they would haue compounded with him at his pleasure. Notwithstanding they being nothing in doubt thereof, went vnto Rome, and at their comming thither, made vnto the pope their complaint in most gréeuous maner, of the insufferable iniuries attempted in England and Scotland, by his most couetous legat the foresaid Gualo: by reason of which complaint, and of sundrie such letters & informations as dailie came out of England and Scotland, from other bishops & abbats, conteining right gréeuous accusations, concerning the insatiable auarice of Gualo, the pope reuoked him home to Rome, to make answere in his presence vnto such matters as were laid to his charge.

At his returne thither, for so much as he was not able to discharge himselfe of such Cardinall Gualo condemned in a summe of monie. The Scotish bishops absolued. Dauid earle of Huntington deceassed. 1219. An interview betwixt the kings of England and Scotland. Mariages concluded. manifest crimes wherewith he was burdened, the pope condemned him in a great summe of monie, to be paid as a fine for his trespasse and transgressions. And those Scotish bishops, which were come for their absolution, were absolued by the pope, and suffered to depart in peace. In this meane time, Dauid earle of Huntington, brother to William late king of Scots, (of whome ye haue heard before how he went in the iournie made by the christian princes into the holie land) deceassed, and was buried within an abbeie in England. Henrie king of England, after he came to yeares of perfect discretion, shewed himselfe to be more desirous of peace than of warres. Wherevpon at Yorke there was a meeting appointed betwixt him and king Alexander, where mutuall aliance was accorded betwixt them on this wise. Iane the sister of king Henrie was promised to be giuen in mariage to king Alexander, and two sisters of king Alexanders were despoused vnto two great princes of the English nobilitie. These mariages were thus concluded in the yeare of our Lord, 1220.

In the yeare next following, came a legat into Scotland from pope Honorius, with buls to A legat sent from pope Honorius for a collection. gather a summe of monie towards the furnishing foorth of an armie against the Turks or rather Saracens. This legat was a cardinall, and named Egidius, who hauing purchased no small quantitie of coine both of the cleargie and laitie of Scotland, spent the same in riot and outragious insolencie, making his excuse at his returne to Rome, how it was taken from him A legats excuse. An other legat. by certeine Brigants and robbers. Within short while after, was an other legat with semblable commission sent into Scotland from the foresaid pope. But king Alexander, being aduertised of his comming, called a councell, in the which one of the bishops (as should séeme) tooke great indignation, to sée how couetousnesse reigned in most shamefull wise amongest the Romish legats, and spake in maner as followeth.

"Albeit sundrie considerations there are which might stay me from vttering such things as An oration of a bishop. be most preiudiciall to the common-wealth, yet (most noble prince) when I consider thine humanitie, faith, and constancie, giuen to nothing more than to the defense and weale of thy true liege people, I cannot but (for the zeale I beare to common libertie) declare the truth. For sith all maner of tyrannie is intollerable, yea euen that which is exercised by kings or princes Tyrannie intollerable. descended by lineall succession to their rightfull heritage : much more is that tyrannie to be detested, which is exercised by men of vile and base linage. Therefore, if the sundrie and Men of base linage. manifest wrongs doone to vs these manie yeares now passed, had come by the popes themselues, the same might some what more sufferablie haue béene borne: but sith naughtie & vile persons, of base birth and obscure linage, promoted to benefices and ecclesiasticall dignities onelie for their wicked and horrible vices, haue not onelie interdicted our realme, without lawfull commission; but hane also consumed in maintenance of their wanton and insolent vices, that monie which they gathered in our countrie by the popes authoritie, vnder colour of raising an armie to go against the Turks and Infidels; I am of this opinion, that their curssed auarice ought to haue no further place amongest faithfull people, speciallie amongest vs, whose simplicitie and humblenesse they haue in contempt. In the yeares passed, ye complained of the iniuries The Scots sore offended against Gualo. doone by Gualo, when he had pùt your realme vnder the censure of interdicting, and the most part of your prelats vnder the cursse ; because they would not answer him with monie, according to his couetous demands, wherewith he might mainteine his outragious lusts. Which Gualo The practise of Gualo. also (as should appeare) by most certeine coniectures, was of such a diuelish nature, that though he were sent to treate a concord betwixt the Englishmen and Scots; yet to satisfie his auaritious desire, he ministred such occasion of warre betwixt them, that both the realmes (had not the matter béene the sooner taken vp) were at a point to haue entered so far into malitious hatred the one against the other, that it was not like that anie peace would haue taken place, till the one or both had béene vtterlie destroied. But since these heinous and terrible déeds are manifest inough ; to what end should I here remember them, sith the same cannot be doone without your great griefe and displeasure? Moreouer, after we were deliuered of this Gualo, shortlie after commeth another, one shewing himselfe to come foorth of the same shop; for in conuersation of life he was to be iudged no whit better, but rather woorse: for after that he had got vp amongest vs of this realme large summes of monie, vnder pretense of redéeming the christian prisoners out of the Saracens hands, and waging of new armies against them; he wasted the same monie in riotous lust and insolencie, feining, when it was gone, that it was béereft him by Brigants. Therefore sith we haue had experience, and are alreadie sufficientlie taught by the dooings of the two fore-remembred legats, to our heauie griefs and no small damages; we may be woorthilie reputed vnwise and verie fooles in déed, if we now admit the third. For it is not to be thought, that this new legat shall vse the matter in anie better sort, than his fellowes haue doone before him. And verelie, if anie man shuld demand of me, what I thinke ought to be doone in this matter, I doo for my part protest, that neither The bishops oration. this legat, nor anie other in times to come, ought to be receiued within this realme, çonsidering how the same hath béene wasted & robbed by their continuall exactions. If there be anie amongst you that hath more monie than he knoweth which way well to spend, he may (in the name of God) bestow it vpon the poore, rather than to the vse of such vicious legats, as order it in such sort, that all men haue cause to thinke whatsoeuer commeth into their hands, is but cast away and clearelie lost."

These words of this bishop (whatsoeuer he was) were liked so well of all the councell, that Legats cannot be receiued. the legat could not be receiued into the realme. After the breaking vp of this councell, the mariage was consummat betwixt king Alexander and Ione, sister to Henrie king of England; also betwixt Hubert de Burgh high iustice of England, and Margaret sister to king Alexander, by reason of which mariages, the peace was confirmed with Englishmen, and as it had beene Peace confirmed with the Englishmen. Gilespie Rosse a rebell. sealed vp for a more full and certeine assurance Shortlie after followed ciuill warres in Scotland, by the motion of one Gilespie Rosse, who hauing liued most licentiouslie in riotous outrage, at length arreared open warre against the king, and first sleaing diuerse such of his companions as had kept him companie aforetime in his lewd misdemeanors, for that they refused now to sticke to him in this rebellious enterprise, he went with the residue that offered to take his part vnto the towne of Enuernes, which he tooke and burned, with diuerse other Enuernes burned by Gilespie Rosse. Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhane. Gilespie Rosse beheaded New trouble. places being of the kings possessions, till at length Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhane comming against him with an armie deliuered to him by the king, pursued the said Gilespie in such earnest wise, that finallie he tooke him with two of his sons, and striking off all their thrée heads, sent the same to the king as a witnesse how he had sped.

This businesse being thus quieted, an other insued after this maner: The men of Cathnes sore offended with their bishop named Adam, for that vpon refusall to pay their tithes he had accurssed them, fell vpon him within his owne house, and first scourging him with rods, at Adam bishop of Cathnes slaine by the people of that countrie. length set fire vpon him and burnt him within his owne kitchen. Which act being reported to the king, as then soiourning at Edenburgh, he hasted foorth with all speed to punish the offendors, not ceassing till he had taken foure hundred of them, all the which number he caused to be hanged ; and for that he would haue no succession to come of such a wicked Streight execution. séed, he appointed all their sons to lose their stones. The place where they were so gelded, is called euen to this day the stonie hill. The earle of Cathnes, for that he neither succoured The stonie hill. The earle of Cathnes loseth his lands. the bishop in time of néed, nor yet sought to punish the offendors that did this cruell déed, was depriued of his earledome, and the lands belonging to the same. The pope highlie commended king Alexander for this punishment taken of them, that had so cruellie murthered King Alexander commended of the pope. The priuileges of Aberden. their bishop.

After this, king Alexander comming vnto Aberden, gaue manie large gifts and priuileges therevnto, although the same before this time inioied sundrie notable commodities and endowments giuen and confirmed by other kings his predecessors. The buls which were granted by sundrie popes concerning the liberties of the churches in Scotland, were committed by the king to the custodie of one Gilbert archdeacon of Murrey, who succéeded next after the foresaid Adam The archdecon of Murrey. in the sée of Cathnesse. In the third yeare after, as king Alexander with his mother Ermingard were sitting at their banket on the twelfe day in Christmas, otherwise called Yule, the earle of Cathnes, hauing good opportunitie thereto, presented himselfe before the king, and besought him of grace and pardon for his passed offense. King Alexander taking ruth & pitie of him, restored him (vpon his fine to be paied in maner as was agréed betwixt them) The earle of Cathnes is pardoned and restored to his lands. The earle of Cathnes is murthered by his seruants. vnto all his former honors, lands and possessions. Neuerthelesse the offense that was pardoned by man, was afterward punished by the iust iudgement (as some thought) of almightie God: for he was slaine as he lay in bed one night by his own meniall seruants, whome he had roughlie intreated, as the fame went. The house also wherein he was thus slaine, was likewise set on fire and burnt ouer him, that no man should haue suspicion of his slaughter, but that it might séeme as though it had come by some sudden aduenture.

About this time, or somewhat before, there came into Scotland (sent by saint Dominicke) The first comming of blacke friers into Scotland. certeine blacke friers, of which order the same Dominicke was the first author. These men that were first sent by him, liued according to his institution, more perfectlie than such as followed: for as it often happeneth, althings commonlie from a good beginning fall into woorse estate, so that the successors of those men declined from all good religion, into most insolent abuses and misorders, and so continuing in vicious liuing the space of thrée hundred yeares, at length were perfectlie reformed into a better rule, by a frier named Iohn Adamson, that proceeded doctor in Iohn Adamson. the profession of diuinitie in the vniuersitie of Aberden, at the same time that Hector Boetius the Scotish chronographer proceeded there in the same facultie. On the same maner, about The first comming of friers minors. the selfe same time, were sent into Scotland, as well as into all other parts of the chrisitian world, friers minors, of saint Francis his order. Manie of them also after his deceasse fell to dissolute liuing, kéeping no such streict rules, as both he prescribed, and also obserued.

But now to returne to the residue of the historie. The Scotish people inioied peace a long time after the appeasing of the trouble in Cathnes, till time that Alane lord of Galloway and The death of Alane lord of Galloway. His bastard sonne raiseth a commotion. constable of Scotland departed out of this life; and for that he had diuided his lands before his death amongest his three daughters, his bastard sonne gathered an armie of 10000 men, in hope to atteine the possession of Galloway by force of armes; but at length, after he had wrought much scath in the countrie by his violent inuasion, he was saline with fiue thousand of those that tooke his part, by the earle of March, and Walter Steward of Dunwald, which The earle of March. was sent against him with a power. The eldest daughter of the aboue mentioned Alane of Galloway, was giuen in mariage vnto Roger Quincie earle of Winchester, who after his father Roger Quincie earle of Winchester constable of Scotland. in lawes deceasse, was made constable of Scotland, which office continued in the hands of his succession, till king Robert the second his daies ; in whose time this Roger of Quincies posteritie was disherited and extinguished, for certeine offenses committed against the kings maiestie, and then afterwards the office of the constable was giuen to the Haies of Arroll. The second daughter of the foresaid Alane was maried vnto Iohn Ballioll ; & the third to the earle of Albemarle. Thus was the lordship of Galloway diuided into thrée, by reason whereof the The diuision of the lands of Galloway. inhabitants of that countrie, taking displeasure therewith, cleaued vnto the aboue mentioned bastard, till he was vanquislied and slaine, as before ye haue heard. This trouble being appeased thus within the realme, K. Alexander was aduertised of great diuision rising betwixt K. Alexander goeth into England. king Henrie of England and his nobles, and therefore to helpe towards an agréement betwixt them, he went to London with his wife quéene lane, and Isabell his sister. Through his earnest diligence, all the debates and quarels were remooued, and the parties throughlie accorded. Which being doone, he maried Isabell his sister vnto the earle of Norfolke, and in Isabell the sister of king Alexander maried to the earle of Norfolke. Iane quéene of Scotland deceasseth. 1239. King Alexander marieth the daughter of the lord of Coucie. Iohn Cumin earle of Angus departeth this life. Patrike earle of Atholl murthered. Iohn Bissart suspected. A conuocation of the cleargie at saint Johns towne. Somerleid thane of Argile rebelleth. the meane time his wife quéene lane deceassed, without leauing anie issue behind hir, which chance caused the king hir husband to returne with great griefe and lamentation into Scotland. In the yeare next following, which was after the incarnation 1239, king Alexander (because he had no succession begot of his bodie) maried at Rocksburgh the daughter of Ingelram lord of Coucie, a virgine of excellent beautie named Marie, on whome he got a sonne named Alexander, which succeeded after his deceasse in the gouernement of the realme.

About the same time, Iohn Cumin earle of Angus, being sent in ambassage to Lewes the French king, died by the way. Also at Hadington was holden a roiall tornament, where knights and esquiers aduanced themselues by valiant prowesse to win honor: neuerthelesse the end of all that pleasure and pastime ended in sorow. For Patrike Cumin earle of Atholl was slaine within his lodging in the night, and the house set on fire and burned ouer him, to the intent no suspicion should rise, but that it happened by some euill misfortune, and negligence of fire. But yet was Iohn Bissart, with Walter Bissart his vncle shrewdlie suspected for the matter, insomuch that though no euident proofe could be had against him, yet were they banished the realme, and lost all their goods by confiscation to the kings vse. After these things were thus passed, a conuocation was called of the cleargie at saint Iohns towne. In the which were diuerse prouinciall ordinances and statutes, made by consent of the king and nobles of the realme, which were obserued in the church of Scotland vnto these late daies. About the same time also, one Somerleid thane of Argile, the sonne of that Somerleid of whome ye haue heard before, following his fathers steps, rebelled against the king, sore indamaging by rodes & forages the parts bordering vpon the confines of his countrie of Argile, till at length the earle of March brought him to the brinke of such extreme Somerleids humble submission. necessitie, that he was faine to yéeld himselfe, with a cord about his necke in token of submission; and being so brought before the king, obteined pardon of his heinous offense.

In the same season, Henrie king of England, prouoked by the setting on of such seditious persons remaining in his court, as trusted by wars to aduance their priuat gaine (during which time law and iustice haue no place) began to build a castell iust against Berwike, in the same A castell begun to be builded by king Henrie against Berwike. Matth. Paris disagréeth frō the Scotish writers touching the occasion of this warre, as in the English chronicles ye may read. Ambassadors foorth of France. Scotishmen that went with Lewes king of France into Aegypt. The death of king Alexander the second. 38. Io. Ma. but that cannot be Alexander the third crowned. place where the other was begun afore by king Richard, which (as before is shewed) was raced and throwen downe by king William, by the articles of agréement with couenant that it should neuer be builded vp againe. This attempt of the Englishmen had ministred sufficient occasion of warre, if the nobles of England (considering that the building vp of this castell was contrarie to their bond and promised faith) had not staied the woorke, and so therevpon that beginning of new trouble betwixt the English and Scotish nations for that present ceassed.

In the yeare following came ambassadors forth of France into Scotland, declaring that K. Lewes was readie to passe forward on that iournie, which he had taken in hand to make into Iewrie, and therefore desired aid of king Alexander, to support him in those warres against Gods enimies. With these ambassadors were sent ouer into France, certeine chosen bands of men of warre vnder the leading of Patrike earle of March, Dauid Lindseie of Glenneske, and Walter Steward of Dundonald, thrée capteins of great wisdome, and perfect experience in feats of chiualrie. The most part of all those Scotishmen, that thus went foorth in that iournie, perished in Aegypt either on the sword or by sickenesse, so that few or none of them returned home againe. From henceforth, king Alexander liued not long: but falling into a sore and grieuous sickenesse within a certeine Ile called Carnere, not far distant from the coast of Argile, deceassed in the same Ile shortlie after, in the 51 yeare of his age, the 35 of his reigne, and of our redemption 1249, his bodie (according as he had commanded in his life time) was buried in Melrosse.

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