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AFTER that Alexander the second was thus dead and buried, his sonne Alexander the third of that name, not passing nine yéeres of age, was proclamed king. There was no small adoo on the daie of his coronation amongest the nobles, for that by reason of the obseruation of starres, it was iudged to be an infortunate daie for him to receiue the diademe. And againe
An infortunate day. some held opinion, how he ought to be made knight first, before he were crowned; so that thus they were at strife togither, in such earnest maner, that it was doubted, least this contention would haue bred some great inconuenience, had not the earle of Fife preuented the same, The earle of Fife preuenteth the occasion of further troubles. The salutation of an Hilland man. in causing vpon a sudden the crowne to be set vpon the kings head, being placed in the marble chaire, according to the custome, without regard to the friuolous allegations of them that spake to the contrarie. When the solemnitie was ended, there came before him an Hillandman (for so they call such as inhabit the mounteine countries of Scotland) who in a kind of méeter of the Irish language, saluted him as king, thus: Bennach de re Albin Alexander, mak Alax, mak William, mak Henrie, mak Dauid, and so foorth (reciting in maner of a genealogie or pedegrée, all the kings in order of whome he was descended, till he came vp to Gathelus the first beginner of the Scotish name & nation.) The woords in English are as followeth: "Haile king of Albine, Alexander the sonne of Dauid, the sonne of Alex, the sonne of William, the sonne of Henrie, the sonne of Dauid," and so foorth as before. This Hilland Scot was highlie rewarded by the king for his labour, according as was thought requisite.

In the second yéere of his reigne, king Alexander (or rather such as had the gouernement of the realme vnder him) assembled togither all the prelates and barons of the realme at Dunfirmling, and there ordeined to take vp the bones of his grandmother quéene Margaret, which being doone, he caused them to be put into a shrine of siluer, the 21 day of Iulie, and The translation of quéene Margarets bones. minding to place the same where it resteth at this present, as it was borne foorth toward that place, when the bearers came against the sepulchre of hir husband king Malcolme, they were not able to remooue the relikes anie further, till by the councell (as is said) of an aged man that was then & there present, they tooke vp the bones of the same Malcolme also, and bare them foorth with hirs to the place aforesaid, where they after rested in great veneration of the people. Such as were appointed gouernors (during the minoritie of king Alexander) doubting least the tender yéeres of their souereigne might imbolden the enimies of the relme to attempt some inuasion, sent ambassadors vnto Henrie king of England, requiring that the peace They were affianced in the daies of king Alexander the faire, as in the English chronicle it may appeare. An interuiew of the kings of England and Scotland. 1250. might be ratified anew with him and his people, and further to make a motion of mariage to be had betwixt king Alexander and a daughter of king Henries.

Shortlie after, vpon this motion, both the kings met at Yorke with a great number of lords, as well spirituall as temporall of both the realmes, where king Alexander (according to the promise before that time made) maried the ladie Margaret daughter to the forenamed king Henrie, on saint Stephans day in Christmasse, with all solemnitie and ioifull mirth that might be deuised. The charges whereof were borne partlie by king Henrie, & parlie by the archbishop, who in feasting those princes spent right liberallie. At length, king Alexander after he had solaced himselfe in the companie of his father in law king Henrie a certeine time, returned into Scotland with his new maried wife. During the minoritie of K. Alexander, the realme of Scotland was gouerned in great prosperitie by the nobles: but after his comming to ripe age, he was informed of certeine extortions doone by some of the péeres of his realme against the poore people, and therevpon determined to sée redresse therein. Amongst other there were Complaint made of the Cumins. accused of such transgression, the earles of Menteith, Atholl, and Buchquhane, with the lord of Strabogie, which were of one surname, that is to saie, of the Cumins. These being summoned to appeare before the iustices, with one Hugh Aberneth, and other of their complices, vpon their contempt so to doo, were proclamed traitors, and as the Scotish men tearme it, put The Cumins put to the horne. to the horne. The foresaid lords mooued with this displeasure, purposed to reuenge the same, and assembling their powers in secret wise, tooke the king at Kinrossie, and brought him vnto Striueling, The king taken by the Cumins. where they kept him as captiue in ward along time after. Through which aduenture much harme insued, by reason of misruled persons, that wrought manie oppressions against the people, in hope to escape the due punishment for their mischiefous acts prouided, sith the king who should haue séene iustice ministred, was holden in captiuitie by his presumptuous aduersaries. But of this matter ye maie see more in the English chronicles, about the 39 yéere of Henrie the third. The house of the Cumins was in those daies of great power within the realme, both in multitude The great power of the Cumins. Thirtie and two knights of one surname. The height of great families the cause oftentimes of their fall. The earle of Menteith is poisoned. The king set at libertie. of ofspring, riches, lands, possessions, and mainrent. There were at the same times to the number of 32 knights of that surname within the realme, all men of faire possessions and reuenues. But as it often happeneth, that men of great possessions and dominion are had in suspicion with the prince, whereby the same is for the more part the cause of their ruine and fall, speciallie when they presume too farre vpon their high power: so it chanced here. For within a short time after that the king was thus taken (as before is shewed) the chiefe author of the whole conspiracie, that is to saie, the lord Walter earle of Menteith, who was highest in authoritie among all those Cumins, was poisoned (as was thought) by his owne wife, through which mischance the residue of the Cumins were so exanimated, that obteining their pardon, for all offenses passed of the king, they did set him againe at libertie.

This woman did thus make awaie hir husband the erle of Menteith through instigation of an Englishman called Iohn Russell, as by coniectures it was suspected; namelie, for that Iohn Russell an Englishman. refusing to marrie with anie of the Scotish nobilitie, she tooke the said Russell to husband, though in estate to be compared with hirs, he was iudged a match farre vnméet, and therevpon constreined to flie with him into England, she died there in great miserie. About this time pope The feast of Corpus Christi instituted. The first comming of the Carmelite friers. A part of the holie crosse found. Vrbane the fourth of that name instituted the feast of Corpus Christi, to be celebrated each yéere on the thursday after Trinitie sundaie. The Carmelite friers came at this time into Scotland, and erected a chappell of our ladie without the walles of saint Iohns towne, which the bishop of Donkeid appointed them, therein to celebrate their seruice. It was also said, that in this season a moonke of Melrosse was admonished in a dreame, where he should find a part of the holie crosse, not far from Peplis in Louthian, inclosed in a case ingrauen with the title of S. Nicholas. And not farre from the same was likewise found a stone chest, right cunninglie wrought and ingrauen, wherein were found certeine bones wrapped in silke, but whose bones the same were it was not knowne. As soone as the case was opened, within the which the crosse was included, manie miracles were wrought (as it was then beléeued.) King Alexander for deuotion hereof, builded an abbeie in honor of the holie crosse, in the same place where An abbeie built. that péece of the crosse was so found. In this abbeie afterwards there were moonks inhabiting of the order of the Trinitie.

Not long after, the two kings of England and Scotland met togither at Warke castell, An interuiew. Matth. Paris writeth that in the yeare 1256, both K. Alexander & his wife came into England to visit king Henrie, whom they found at Woodstoke, as in the English chronicles further appéareth. 1262. A great derth. accompanied with a great number of the nobles and gentlemen of both their realmes, for the redresse of certeine misorders committed betwixt the borderers. Such reformation also was here deuised, and recompense made on either side, that both the realms continued afterwards in more perfect tranquillitie for a certeine space, than euer was séene in anie kings daies before that time. In this season was the church of Glasco finished in that perfection as it stands to be séene at this day, right sumptuouslie builded, for the most part at the charges of William bishop of that sée, who liued not long after the finishing of the said worke. In the yéere following, which was the yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 1263, there fell a great dearth through both the realmes of England and Scotland, by reason of the wet haruest preceding, so that the corne and graine was quite marred and corrupted before it could be got beside the ground.

Acho king of Norwaie, being informed how the Scots were thus oppressed with famine and Acho king of Norwaie. other miseries, by report of them that made the same more than it was in deed, supposed to find time and occasion fit for his purpose, to subdue them wholie to his dominion. Herevpon, preparing an armie and a fléet of ships conuenient for such an enterprise, he landed with the same in the westerne lies, on Lammas day otherwise called Petri ad Vincula. Those Iles The westerne Iles vnder subiection of the Danes & Norwegians. continued vnder subiection of the Norwegians and Danes, from king Edgars time vnto the daies of this Acho. From thence the said Acho with a mightie power of his Danes and Norwegians came ouer into Aran and Bute, which are two Iles, and onelie at that time amongst all the residue were vnder the dominion of Scots. But Acho hauing quicklie subdued them at his pleasure, in hope of more prosperous successe, transported his whole armie ouer into Acho landed in Albion. The castell of Aire besieged and woone. Albion, and landed with the same on the next coasts, where after he had besieged the castell of Aire a certeine time, hée tooke the same, and began to waste and spoile all the countrie thereabouts.

King Alexander being sore astonied with these newes, for that he was yoong, and not able King Alexanders purpose to inféeble his enimies force. (as it was doubted) to resist the force of his enimies, imboldened vpon such frequent victories as they had atchiued, thought best to prolong the time by colour of some treatie for a peace, that waie to diminish the enimies force, by long soiorning in campe without triall of anie battell. Héerevpon were ambassadors sent vnto Acho, of the which one amongst them Ambassadors sent to Acho. appointed therto, being well languaged and wise, at their first comming before him spake in this manner.

"Were it not that our king & nobles of the realme (by an ancient custome obserued euen The oration of one of the ambassadors. from the beginning) doo vse first to séeke redresse of all iniuries receiued, before they offer to be reuenged with the swoord; ye should not now behold orators sent vnto you to talke of concord, but a mightie armie in ordinance of battell comming towards you to giue the onset. We are of that opinion, that we neuer get so much gaines by victorie of the enimies, no though Peace to be preferred before warres. they haue robbed and spoiled our confines, but that we account it much better to haue peace, if we may haue restitution of wrongs doone to vs, by some maner of honest meanes. For what greater follie may be, than to séeke for that by fier and swoord, which may be purchased with faire and quiet woords? Neuerthelesse, when our iust desires and reasonable motions are refused of the enimies, when we find them not willing to haue peace (for the Wherefore warres ought to be mooued. obteining whereof all warres ought to be taken in hand) but rather that their onelie séeking is to haue warres, not respecting the quarrell: we are readie to rise wholie togither in reuenge of such contempts with all possible speed and violence against our aduersaries. We are sent The cause of their message. therefore from our king and souereigne, to inquire what occasion you haue thus to inuade his realme and subiects, in violating that peace and league, which hath beéne obserued and kept betwixt vs and your nation, the space of this hundred yéeres, and not onelie to take from him his two Iles of Bute and Aran, but also to inuade the maine land of his dominions, with such crueltie, as neither consideration of age or person séemeth to be had; but that women, children, and feeble old persons haue passed by the swoord, as well as those that haue stood at resistance with weapon in hand against you. What heinous offense haue the Scotishmen at anie time committed either against you or anie other (whose reuengers ye may séeme to be) that they should deserue to haue such crueltie shewed against them? What furious ire hath mooued you to burne the churches of God and his saints, with the murther of his people Burning of churches. that flee into the same for safegard of their liues? But if you dread not God that gouerneth all things (by his diuine prouidence) which heere in this world we sée; if ye dread not the saints nor vengeance to come on you by the punishment of the righteous God: ye ought yet to dread the two most puissant kings of Albion, alied togither in bond of amitie and mariage, which shall come against you with such puissance, that ye shall not be able to resist the same. Therefore sith ye may depart with honor, we on the behalfe of him from whom we are sent, doo admonish you, that better it is for you to redresse such iniuries as ye haue alreadie doone, and therewith to repaire home, than to aduenture to be brought vnto such desperate ends, that when ye shall be constreined to séeke for mercie, the same in no wise will be granted vnto you." ¶ These woords were spoken by the ambassadors, vpon purpose to put some terror into the hart of this hardie king Acho.

Neuerthelesse he was abashed so little therwith, that he answered them in this manner. King Achos answer. "Your beliefe is (I perceiue) ye ambassadors, to abash vs with your fierce and awfull words, supposing vs so weake harted, that we should leaue off our enterprise through your menacing threats: but ye are farre deceiued suerlie if your imagination be such. And where ye exaggerate our iniuries doone to you in taking from you certeine Iles, we perceiue you are not méet nor indifferent persons to be chosen for iudges in that cause, neither doo we mind to learne of you, what we ought to estéeme right or wrong in such behalfe. If ye desire further to know and vnderstand the cause why we haue inuaded Aran and Bute, we saie and affirme, that not onelie those two Iles perteine to vs and our people by good title and ancient right of inheritance, but also all the other Iles of Scotland, as we are able by firme euidences sufficiently to proue. And therfore are we now come to take presentlie so much in value out of The cause of Achos comming into Scotland. Scotland, as ye haue taken in issues and profits out of those Iles in times past from vs. Shew then to your king, that we feare neither his menacing woords, nor yet anie other violence that he can shew against vs. Notwithstanding, if he be more desirous of peace than of battell, and lusteth to auoid the spoiling and burning of his townes, and slaughter of his people; or if he desired not to sée the vtter extermination of his realme afore his eies, command him to send His demand. vnto vs foorthwith ten thousand marks sterling for the fruits of our lands taken vp and receiued by him and his elders in times past, and further that he make a cleare resignation of all claime or title that he may séeme to pretend vnto the said Iles, in such sort that the same may passe vnder our dominion in perpetuitie without anie contradiction."

When king Alexander had heard what the answer of his enimie was, he was therewith sore mooued, & perceiuing no waie to eschue the battell, but that he should be constreined to trie fortunes chance, he assembled togither an armie of fortie thousand men, that though King Alexander assembleth his power. The ordering of the Scotish host. Alexander Steward leader of the right wing Patrike Dunbar capteine of the left wing. The king in the middle ward King Alexander exhorteth his people to doo valiantlie. he were not able to match his enimies in prowesse, he might yet passe them in number. He diuided his host into thrée battels. In the right wing was Alexander Steward, a very valiant knight, nephue to that Alexander which indowed the abbeie of Paslie. He had with him all the men that came foorth of Argile, Leuenox, Atholl, and Galloway. In the left wing was Patrike Dunbar, hauing with him the men of Louthian, Fife, Mers, Berwike, and Striueling shire. In the middle ward was the king himselfe, with all the remnant people of the other parts of Scotland, to succour the wings when danger appéered. These battels were ordered in such arraie, that euerie band had a capteine assigned to them of their owne language, to exhort them to manhood, thereby to win praise and honor.

At his entring into the confines of Conningham, where he came first within sight of his enimies, he called his people togither, and exhorted them to doo their dutifull indeuors like hardie and valiant men, against those enimies that inuaded their countrie without anie iust cause or title of warre, and to put their trust in almightie God, desiring him to grant victorie vnto that part, which had most right and iustest cause of bartell. He further shewed how necessarie it was for them to behaue themselues valiantlie, and how much it stood them in hand to fight with manlie courages, in defense of their wiues, children, liberties, and lands, hauing no hope Hope of suertie in what point it rested. The necessitie of the cause. of suertie of life but in the valiant vsing of their able hands, so that their whole safegard rested in this point, either to vanquish their enimies with manhood, or else to liue in seruile bondage as their slaues and miserable thrals, and to suffer their wiues and daughters to be abused at their lust and pleasure. He willed them therefore to consider, that not onelie he, but all Scotland should sée them fight that day, noting both their manhood & cowardise. But sith their cause was iust, and mooued onlie in defense of their natiue countrie and ancient liberties, he trusted they would shew the more hardinesse and courage, namelie against them that sought Séekers of bloud & spoile. onelie bloud and spoile. These with other the like woords king Alexander vttered with bold spirit, to incourage his people. And on the other part king Acho likewise thought it Achos exhortation to his people. expedient to vse some exhortation vnto his armie, that they should not be afraid of the great number and huge multitude of the Scots.

The chiefest point to incourage them to doo valiantlie, he supposed was the hope of spoile, Hope of spoile incourageth men of warre. and therefore he put them in remembrance, how by victorie not onelie all such riches as the Scots had brought thither with them (which could not be small) but also all the whole substance and treasure of the realme to be at their commandement, yea and the realme it selfe, if they minded to inioy it: so that this was the day which they had so much desired, wherein sufficient opportunitie was offered to shew what reward should follow to ech man for his good and valiant seruice. But for that high enterprises and famous exploits might neuer be High enterprises atchiued with extreme perill. atchiued without extreme ieopardie, it behooued them to atteine to these so great commodities by persing thorough, and ouerthrowing by dint of swoord the arraied battels of their enimies, which how easie a matter it should be for them to bring to passe, such as well considered the circumstances, might soone coniecture. For through dearth and famine which so long hath reigned amongst the Scotish people, their bodies and forces (saith he) are so woonderfullie inféebled, that they appeere to represent rather shadowes than full personages of men able to make resistance.

Againe, in consideration how necessarie it was for euerie man to fight without fainting, sith they were inuironed on ech part without meane to escape, he desired them, that if it so fell out, that they should chance to be ouercome (which as he trusted should not come to passe) that in such misaduenture they would yet sell their liues déerelie, and not to die vnreuenged. Thus hauing opened vnto them what prosperous hap followed by victorie, and what danger by the ouerthrow, he thought to haue sufficientlie instructed them to put all feare aside, and to doo what lay in their vttermost forces to vanquish the enimies. The kings on either The ordering of the battels. side, hauing thus exhorted their people to doo their indeuors, they arraie their battels. Acho disposed all his best souldiers and whole force of his armie in the middle ward, for that he had knowledge how the Scotish king was placed in the middle battell of his people: wherefore he supposed; that if he might ouerthrow and vanquish that part where the king stood, he should easilie then put the residue to flight. His wings (bicause he had not number sufficient to The battels ioine. furnish them fullie) were arraied more weakelie in slender and thin ranks: but yet at the first incounter there was a terrible fight betwixt them, especiallie where the two kings fought: for they preassed still with great violence on that part where they saw anie danger, not ceassing to exhort & incourage their men to stand to the bargaine with manlie stomachs, so that on either side these two kings plaied the parts of verie valiant capteins.

The valiancie of the kings. Acho with a band of verie hardie souldiers assaied sundrie times to perse and disorder the battell where king Alexander fought: notwithstanding he had so great number of people there The great number of Scotishmen. with him, that he stuffed euen the ranks with fresh men where he saw it néedfull. Also betwixt the wings, there was no lesse crueltie shewed on either side in the beginning of the battell, till at length the Norwegians, perceiuing themselues ouerpressed with multitude, and compassed in on euerie side, did somewhat begin to shrinke, and first those in the left wing, The left wing of the Norwegians are put to flight. Achos nephue is slaine. constreined to breake their order, fell to running awaie. Alexander Steward therfore, that had the leading of the right wing of the Scots, hauing pursued the enimies a certeine space, and slaine Achos nephue, a man of high reputation and authoritie amongst the Norwegians, caused the retreat to be sounded, and gathering his men againe into araie, brought them against the enimies of the middle ward, where was hard hold betwixt the two kings, the battell continuing with great slaughter on both parts, and vncerteine a long while to whether part the victorie The maine battell of the Norwegians fléeth. would incline: but the Norwegians being now assailed on the backs by a new power of their enimies, at length they began to flee amaine.

In the meane time, the left wing of the Scots, whereof one Patrike had the leading, was in The left wing of the Scots in danger. great danger, by reason the capteine himselfe was sore wounded, and thereby all the companies in the same wing sore discomforted: but after they once beheld how the middle ward of their enimies was put to flight, they recouered new courages, and with great force caused their aduersaries, with whom they were matched, to giue backe also: and so were the Danes and The Danes and Norwegians chased by the Scots. Norwegians chased by the Scots, with verie cruell slaughter through all Cunningham, not ceassing from the pursute of the enimies, till night made an end of that daies woorke. King Acho with a few other escaped out of danger, and comming to the castell of Aire, which (as ye haue heard) he had woone before, he was there informed of an other losse which he had susteined: for his fléet conteining the number of an hundred and The losse of Achos ships by tempest. fiftie ships, were so beaten with an outragious tempest, that there were not past foure of all that number saued, the residue being drowned and broken against the rocks and cliffes. The mariners also, being constreined to come on land for safegard of their liues, The losse of the mariners. were slaine by the people of the countrie, so that few of them or none at all escaped.

Acho being thus abashed with these two infortunate mischances, aswell for the losse and Acho fléeth into Orkneie. discomfiture of his armie by land, as for the perishing of his nauie on the seas, got him vnto those foure ships that were saued, and sailed with them about the coast, till he arriued in Orkneie. In this battell, which was fought at Largis on the third day of August, in the yeere 1263, there were slaine of Danes and Norwegians 24 thousand, and of Scots about 1263. Iohn Fourdon. fiue thousand. Thus saith Hector Boetius. But Fourdon séemeth not to agrée altogither héerewith, who writing of this inuasion made by the Norwegians into Scotland, saith, that they were but twentie thousand men of warre in all, imbarked in foure score ships, which comming to the new castell of Aran, besieged as well the said castell of Aran, as the castell of Bute, and tooke them both, spoiling also the churches alongst the sea coast, and after arriuing at Largis in Cunningham, on the feast of the natiuitie of our ladie, lost the most part of their vessels, which were drowned togither with thousands of men in the same. The residue that got to land, incountring with the Scots led by Alexander Steward of Dondonald, were discomfited, put to flight, chased & drowned in the sea, into the which they were driuen. Amongest other that were slaine, a nephue of king Acho was one, a yoong gentleman of great valiancie. and sore lamented of his vncle, Acho had much adoo to escape himselfe, he was so egerlie pursued of his enimies.

Thus haue I thought good to shew the diuersitie of writers in this behalfe, that it may appéere how things are sometimes amplified by Boetius, to aduance the glotie of his countriemen, further perhaps than by the simple veritie of those that did write before him, may in some points be well auerred. But now to procéed. King Acho at his comming into Acho prepareth to make a new inuasion into Scotland, but dieth before his prouision was readie. Alexander prince of Scotland, as eldest sonne to the king is borne. Orkneie, sent into Norwaie and Denmarke for a new armie, prouiding ships & all other things necessarie, to haue made a new inuasion into Scotland against the next spring: but for that he himselfe departed out of this life in the beginning of the yéere next following, all that purueiance and great preparation was dashed, and came to none effect. The same day that Acho deceassed, that is to saie, the 21 day of Ianuarie, Alexander prince of Scotland, the eldest son of king Alexander, whome he begot on his wife quéene Margaret, the sister of Henrie king of England, was borne, to the great reioising of the people. For the people conceiued double ioy & gladnesse héereof, bicause that both a new prince was borne, and that enimie dead which sought the destruction of the whole realme. After the deceasse of king Acho, his sonne Magnus succéeded him, a verie faithfull prince, and one that had the feare of God before his eies.

In the second yeere of his reigne, he sent his ambassadors (of whome the chiefe was the Ambassadors sent from Magnus K. of Norwaie to king Alexander. chancellor of Norwaie) vnto king Alexander, whome they found at saint Iohns towne, and there signified vnto him, that king Magnus their maister would willing lie giue ouer all his title, right, and claime vnto Aran and Bute, so that the residue of the lies might remaine in quiet possession of him and his successors in time comming. Héerevnto was answer made by king Alexander, that the lies by right of old inheritance perteined vnto him and his progenitors kings of Scotland, and therefore he might not make anie agréement with the Danes or Norwegians, till he had recouered the full possession of the same Iles. The In time of the trouble betwixt the sons of Malcolme Cammore and their vncle Donald Bane Magnus K. of Norwaie the son of Olaue subdued these Iles. Richard South. well. ambassadors being dispatched and sent awaie with this answer, incontinentlie Alexander Steward of Pasiele, and lohn Cumin were sent with an armie ouer into Man, which lie they then recouered (though not without bloud) foorth of the hands of the Danes and Norwegians, who had kept the same in possession now for the space of 167 yéeres passed, but not without some alteration and trouble, as may appeere by the annales of Richard Southwell, a writer (as should seeme) well instructed in matters as well touching Scotland, and the north parts, as also concerning the state of the out Iles. And therefore that the same may the better appéere to the readers, I haue thought it not impertinent to set downe what I haue read in the same Southwell, touching the kings, or rather viceroies of Man, and those lies which for a season (as should séeme in déed) were substituted by the kings of Norwaie, though it may also appéere, that sometime there was a certeine succession in them, as from the father to the sonne, & from the brother to the brother, &c: in manner as if it had beene by waie of inheritance.

In the daies of king lohn therefore (as saith the foresaid Southwell) one Gothred reigned Guthred king of Man. Reginald. 1228. as king in Man. And in the yeere 1228, one Reginald being king of those Iles, was murthered by wicked persons, & then his brother Olaue reigned in his place. In the yéere 1230, the king of Norwaie appointed one Husbac, the sonne of Osmund (surnamed Hacon) Olaue, or Olauus. 1230. to gouerne the said Iles called Sodorenses, that is to say, the Ile of Man, & the other Iles there abouts the coasts of Scotland; the which Husbac, togither with two other capteins Olaue and Godred, surnamed Don, came by sea, and arriued at Bute, where they wan the Husbac. Insulæ Sodorenses. Olauus and Godredus. Bute. Husbac slaine. Olauus and Godredus diuide the kingdome of the Iles betwixt them. 1237. castell: but Husbac was slaine with a stone that was throwne downe vpon him. And then after this, the foresaid Olaue and Godred came vnto the Ile of Man, where they diuided the kingdome of the Iles betwixt them, so as Olaue had Man alotted to him for his part, and Godred the other Iles. But after that Godred was also slaine, Olaue gouerned both in Man, and in all the other Iles (those excepted which the sonnes of Somerleid held in possession.) In the yéere 1237, in the moneth of Maie, Alane king of Man, the sonne of Godred, & brother to Reginald, departed this life, after whose deceasse his sonne Harold succéeded him, and reigned 12 yéeres, being but 14 yeeres of age when he began his reigne.

In the yeere 1247, Haco king of Norwaie sent for Harold king of Man to come vnto Alane. Harold. 1247. his coronation, who comming thither, was honorablie receiued, and obteined king Hacos daughter in mariage: but as he returned from thence, in the yéere 1249, togither with his Harold passeth into Norway. Is drowned in his returne. 1249. wife, they perished in the seas by a tempest on the coasts of Ireland. Then succéeded his brother Reginald, who reigned but 27 daies, for he was slaine the first of Iune the same yéere, by the seruants of a knight called Yuarus. Then Harold the sonne of Godred Don gouerned Man one yéere, being remooued by the king of Norwaie: & after him Magnus Reginald. He began to reigne the sixt of Maie. Yuarus. Harold. Magnus. 1254. the sonne of Olaue began his reigne ouer Man & the other Iles, by consent of the Manskemen themselues. But in the yeere 1254, one Yuarus was ordeined king, or rather viceroy of those Iles, & gouerned the same, till the foresaid Magnus king of Norwaie resigned his title to all the said Iles vnto king Alexander (as ye haue heard) who placed his lieutenants there, of whome the first was called Godred mac Mares, the second Alane. And after him Maurice Okarfaire succéeded; and then followed one that was the kings chaplaine.

Yuarus. Lieutenant or bailife of the Ile of Man vnder the Scots. For the time of the reaignation made, I follow Hector Boetius, by reason of some contrarietie which appeareth in Southwell in the account of the yeares assigned to the reignes of those Iland kings, if you confer the same with the time of the foresaid resignation. But now to the matter. The lieutenant appointed to haue the rule of those Iles, now that they were thus come into the hands of the Scots, was bound by his office to be readie with thirteene ships, and fiue hundred mariners to come to the aid of the Scots, at all times when he should thereto be required. After this, were the earles of Atholl, Carrike, and March, Alexander Steward, with the thanes of Argile, and Lennos, sent with a puissant armie vnto the other of the westerne Iles, the which those that were greatest, they brought The westerne Iles recouered out of the hands of the Norwegians. The chancellor of Norwaie ambassador to king Alexander. with much a doo vnder the obeisance of the crowne of Scotland, the residue submitted themselues.

Magnus king of Norwaie informed hereof, sent eftsoones his chancellor in ambassage vnto king Alexander, to trie if he might by treatie recouer againe those Iles: and if he might not bring that to passe, yet to compound with him for a yeerelie tribute. The first motion of the chancellor would in no wise be heard, therefore surceassing to spend anie longer time about it, they fell in communication touching the second, which tooke effect at length in this wise. King Magnus by his letters vnder his great seale, renounced and gaue ouer his The release of Magnus king of Norwaie to the Scotish Iles. right or claime that he had or might haue, both for him and his successors to all the Iles of Scotland. And king Alexander for this resignation was agreed to paie the said king of Norway, foure thousand marks sterling, togither with a pension or tribute of an hundred A yearelie pension. marks by yeare. And for the more confirmation of loue and amitie betwixt the two kings and their people, Margaret the daughter of king Alexander, being not past one yeares of age, Margaret K. Alexanders daughter. was promised in mariage vnto Hanigo, the sonne of king Magnus, the same mariage to be consummat when she came to yeares mariable. Further, in place where the greatest slaughter of Danes and Norwegians had béene made, it was couenanted that an hospitall should be erected & founded there, for the sustentation of poore folks.

About this season, there were great warres in England betwixt king Henrie and his barons, Warre in England. King Henrie required aid of the Scots. of whome the chiefe was Simon Mountfort earle of Leicester, and diuerse other. K. Henrie being not well able to withstand his aduersaries attempts, requested K. Alexander to send him some aid of Scots to subdue the rebels of his realme, that had arreared warres against him. Herevpon shortlie after, was Alexander Cumin, with flue thousand chosen men, sent Alexander Cumin sent into England. by king Alexander into England, who right valiantlie bare themselues in that war which king Henrie held against his barons, whereof in the English chronicle ye may read more at large. In these daies (as the translator of Hector Boetius hath written) that notable and most famous outlaw Robin Hood liued, with his fellow little Iohn, of whome are manie fables Robin Hood and little Iohn his companions. and merie iests deuised and soong amongst the vulgar people. But Iohn Maior writeth that they liued (as he dooth gesse) in the daies of king Richard the first king of England, 1198.

In the yeare next and immediatlie following, after that Henrie king of England had subdued his domesticall enimies, there came a legat from pope Clement the fourth, requiring him A legat from pope Clement. to haue a collection of monie in Scotland towards the charges of leuieng an armie against the Saracens. But this legat was not receiued into the realme, but commanded to shew his message vpon the borders. He demanded therfore of euerie parish-church in Scotland The legats demand. foure marks sterling, and of euerie abbeie foure score marks. And to the end he might the sooner purchase fauor to the furtherance of his purpose, he deuised by the way certeine statutes and ordinances right profitable to be vsed in the realme of Scotland, as he iudged. But king Alexander for answer herevnto alledged, that the Scots minded not to receiue anie The answer of king Alexander to the legats message. The more precepts the more offendors. statutes or decrées, other than such as were ordeined by the pope, or some generall councell: for by a generall rule; The more precepts, the more offendors are alwaies found. And as touching the request made for the collection of so great summes of monie, it was not thought necessarie, that so much coine should go foorth of the realme: neuerthelesse if it were thought expedient, he would be contented to send foorth at his owne proper costs and charges, a number of armed men to go with the christian armie against the Turks: but for monie otherwise foorth, the realme would not depart with anie, least it should be wastfullie spent, or taken by the way of théeues, as it had béene aforetme.

Henrie king of England praised much the wisedome of king Alexander for this his King Alexanders wisedome praised by king Henrie. answer, as he declared shortlie after by his sonne prince Edward, who came to visit his sister the quéene, and his brother in law king Alexander at Roxsburgh, where they met him; for ye must vnderstand that K. Henrie had also learned by experience to be wise in that behalfe, as well as others King Alexander yet after this sent vnto the pope a thousand marks in A thousand marks sent to the pope. Scotish capteins sent into Affrike. siluer: and vnto Lewes the French king, that required his aid in that ioumie which he made into Affrike against the Saracens there, a thousand souldiers, vnder the leading of the earles of Carrike & Atholl, Iohn Steward brother of Alexander Steward, Alexander Cumin, Robert Keth, George Durward, Iohn Quincie, & William Gordon. All these going ouer with K. Lewes into Affrike, died there, either vpon the enimies sword, or by the intemperat heat of that countrie (whereto they had not béene accustomed) in the yeare after the incarnation 1270. The earle of Carrike, whose name was Thomas, perishing thus amongst the 1270. Thomas earle of Carrike. Martha daughter to the earle of Carrike. Robert Bruse. residue in Affrike, left no inheritor behind him to inioy his lands, sauing a daughter named Martha, being then about fiftéene yeares of age. This yoong ladie, chancing to ride on hunting in the woods for pastime and solace, as the vse is, fortuned by aduenture to méet with a noble yoong man one Robert Bruse the sonne and heire to Robert Bruse the lord of Anandale in Scotland, and Cleueland in England, begot of Isabell the second daughter of Dauid earle of Huntington. The ladie immediatlie became so inamored of this voong Robert Bruse maried to Martha daughter to the earle of Carrike. gentleman, that she led him with hir home vnto Carrike, where (without making hir friends priuie to the matter) she maried him in all hast, least anie man should be about to hinder hir determined purpose. Of this mariage was corne that Robert Bruse which afterwards (through want of heires of the linage of king Alexander) atteined the crowne of Scotland. As soone as Alexander was aduertised hereof, he tooke such indignation that she should King Alexander displeased with the foresaid Martha. bestow hir selfe so lightlie vpon one whom she neuer saw before, that he seized hir castell of Turneberie into his hands, with all hir other lands and possessions, as it were by escheat, for that she had maried without his consent. Notwithstanding, within short while after he tooke pitie on hir case, and for an easie composition of monie which she paied for hir mariage, restored to hir againe all hir lands and liuings, suffering hir to inioy hir husband without anie more trouble or vexation. In the third yeare after, the said ladie was deliuered of the afore-remembred Robert Bruse that was after king of Scotland. And the Robert Bruse that was after king of Scotland is borne. 1274. King Alexander with his wife the quéene came to London. same yeare, which was the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 1274, Dauid the second son of king Alexander deceassed; and the third yeare after, the brethren of Edward king of England came into Scotland to visit the quéene their sister, & their brother in law the K. & after did attend them in their iournie to London, whither they went to be present at the coronation of the foresaid Edward, as then returned foorth of Affrike after the deceasse of his father king Henrie, to take vpon him the gouernement of the kingdome descended vnto him by right of inheritance. He was crowned the same yeare on the day of the assumption of our ladie in August, with great solemnitie and triumph.

At the same time there was a Norman in king Edwards court, of such passing strength A Norman of passing strength. Ferquhard a Scotishman ouerthrew the said Norman. of bodie, that he ouerthrew all men with whome he wrestled, till at length one Ferouhard a Scotishman borne, of the countrie of Rosse, descended of noble parentage, vanquished him to his great praise & aduancement in honor: for king Alexander in guerdon of so woorthie a déed there doone in the presence of so honorable an assemblie, gaue vnto him the earledome of Rosse for euermore. Of this Ferquhard succéeded fiue earles all of his sumame, but the sixt earle was named William Rosse, otherwise Leslie, in whose sonne the seuenth The earledome of Rosse giuen to William Rosse alias Leslie. earle failed the dignitie of that house for fault of succession. At the same time prince Alexander king Alexanders sonne did homage vnto king Edward for the earledome of Huntington, as the Scotish writers doo testfie. Shortlie after that king Alexander was returned foorth of England at that time into Scotland, his wife quéene Margaret deceassed, The death of quéene Margaret. The mariage of Margaret king Alexanders daughter. and was buried in Dunfirmling, She bare by him two sonnes, Alexander and Dauid, and one daughter named Margaret, the which (according vnto the assurance before made) was maried about three yeares after him mothers deceasse, vnto Hanigo, or rather Aquine king of Norwaie, and deceassed in the second yeare after the solemnization of the mariage, leauing behind hir a daughter named also Margaret.

But before this hap fell so out, euen immediatlie after the death of quéene Margaret the The death of Dauid sonne to king Alexander. The mariage of Alexander prince of Scotland. 1279. mother, hir yoonger sonne Dauid deceassed: by reason whereof, king Alexander being carefull of his succession, procured a mariage for his elder sonne prince Alexander, with the earle of Flanders his daughter, the which being brought into Scotland, was maried vnto the said prince in Jedwoorth, on the sunday after the feast of saint Martine in winter, in the yeare of our Lord 1279. The feast of this mariage was holden with great triumph and solemnitie continuallie for the space of fiftéene daies togither. ¶ This yeare a number of the Scotish nobilitie, which haue attened the ladie Margaret into Norwaie, were lost by shipwracke, as they would haue returned backe againe to Scotland after the consummation of hir mariage there with king Hanigo or Aquine. Shortlie after, by the force of deaths dreadfull dint, two gréeuous losses chanced vnto king Alexander, the one following in the The death of Alexander prince of Scotland. The death of Margaret quéene of Norwaie. necke of another. For first his eldest sonne prince Alexander, being not past twentie yeares of age, departed out of this world, without leauing anie issue behind him; and not long after, his daughter Margaret queene of Norwaie deceassed also, leauing behind hir one onelie daughter (as before is mentioned) being as yet but an infant.

In the same yeere was a generall councell holden at Lions, the pope and a great multitude A councell at Lions. of the prelats of christendome being there assembled. To this conucell were summoned to appeare all the prouincials, wardens, and ministers of the begging friers. And for that there were so manie sandrie orders of them, each man deuising of his owne braine some new alteration ; all those orders were reduced into the foure orders, which after by the church of Rome The foure orders of friers. A commandement giuen against diuising new orders of friers. were approoued and allowed. A generall commandement was also giuen, that no man should go about to begin anie new forme of such vaine superstitious orders, which appoint themselues to eschue labor, to the end they may line in pleasure, lust & idlenes, vpon the trauell of other mens browes. In this mean time, after that the christian armie was returned home out of Affrike, by reason of a truce concluded with the Soldan, the same Soldan (that truce The Soldan contrarie to the truce inuadeth the christians. The Scots contribution for a iournie into the holie land. notwithstanding) ceassed not to make great slaughters and inuasions upon those christian men that remained behind. The christian princes sore mooued herewith, made their apprests for a new expedition into the holie land. The Scots gaue the tenth penie of all their lands, or rather (as some bookes say) the tenth part of all tithes belonging to churches, to the furtherance ofthis iornie : notwithstanding through such enuie and contentions as rose amongst the said princes, that iornie brake, to the great damage and preiudice of the christian faith.

King Alexander hauing lost his wife and children, in maner as is before expressed, not onelie hée himselfes, but also all Scotland was in great pensiuenesse and sorrow, each man by a certeine foreiudgement and misgiuing in mind, doubting the mishap that might thereof insue, K. Alexander maried the daughter of the earle not of Champaign but of Dreux, saith Southw. R. Southwell varieth somewhat from the Scotish writers in report of K. Alexanders death. Sée more in England. 35. H. B. 1290. 1285. H. B. 1286 Io. Ma. Thomas of Ersilton or the rimer. A prophesie of a tempest. But yet did king Alexander, by the aduise of his nobles, in hope of new issue, marie the daughter of the earle of Champaigne in France, named lolant. The mariage was celebrated at Iedburgh with great feasting and triumph: but that ioy and blithnesse indured not long after. For the same yéere on the 18 day of Aprill, as he was gallopping vpon a fierce horsse at Kingome, forcing him in his race somewhat rashlie, he was throwne ouer the west cliffe towards the sea by a woonderfull misfortune so rudelie, that he brake his necke, and so therewith immediatlie died in the 42) yeere of his reigne. He was buried at Dunfirmling, in the yéere after the incarnation 1290. It is said, that the daie before the kings death, the earle of March a little before night, demanded of one Thomas Leirmont, otherwise named Thomas the rimer, or (as the translator of Hector Boetius saith) Thomas Ersilton (who in those daies was reputed for a noble prophesier) or (as we may call him) a soothsaier, what weather they should haue on the morow ? To whome the said Thomas answered, that on the morrow [before noone] should blow the sorest wind and tempest that euer was heard of in Scotland at anie time before.

On the morrow when the skie appeared cleare and bright, without cloud or anie other signe of foule weather, and that it drew néere vnto the midst of the daie, and no wind heard from anie side, but all calme and quiet, the earle of March sent for the forenamed Thomas, and told him that he had mistaken his marks, in prophesieng of anie such notable tempest as he had spoken of the night before, considering it prooued so lithe a daie, without appearance of anie tempest to insue. This Thomas said little thereto, sauing that he said it was not yet past noone. And incontinentlie herevpon came a post to the castell gate of Dunbar, where this earle of March as then laie, bringing woord of the kings sudden death, as before is recited. Then said the prophesier: "That is the scathfull wind and dreadfull tempest, which shall blow such calamitie and trouble to the whole state of the whole realme of Scotland," This Thomas was a man in great admiration of the people, shewing sundrie things, as they afterward chanced: howbeit they were euer hid and inuolued vnder the veile of darke and obsctire spéeches.

Manie strange woonders and vnketh sights were séene in the daies of this Alexander the Vnketh sights and woonders. third. In the 17 yéere of his reigne, there was such an infinit number of woormes through all the parties of Albion, that not onelie the leaues and fruits of trées, but also flowres & herbs in gardens were eaten vp and consumed with them. And in the same yeere, the waters of Forth and Taie rose with such high tides in flowing ouer the banks, that manie townes and High tides. villages were drowned, to the great destruction both of men and beasts. In the 20 yere of his reigne, there was a comet or blasing starre séene of a meruellous quantitie, shining euerie A blasing starre. day toward the south, euen about noone daies. On the Epiphanie day next after, rose so Great winds. great winds, with stormes of such vnmeasurable great hailestones, that manie townes were throwne downe by violence thereof. In the meane time, rose through the vehement rage of Fire caused through wind. winds, a sudden fire, in manie bounds within the realme of Scotland, that did much hurt to buildings and edifices, burning vp stéepies with such force of fire, that the belles were in Bels melted. diuerse places melted, as though it had béene in a fornace. Amongest other, those of the abbeie of Abirbrothoke were most pretious, which were as then consumed togither with the stéeple wherein they hoong. The townes of Aberden and Perth were burned the same time: also part of Lainrike, with the temple, and all the townes and villages in Clow, a part of Angus: and likewise manie townes and othe buildings in Louthian, and in diuers other parts of the realme, too long here to rehearse.

In the 31 yéere of his reigne, was the first comming of the pestilence into Scotland, with The first comming of the pestilence into Scotland. great mortalitie of the people, where it had not bene heard that euer this sicknesse had come within that realme before that time. In the solemnization of the second mariage of king Alexander, as the bridegroome (according to the manner) led the bride in a danse, a great number of lords and ladies following them in the same danse, there appeared in their sight as A strange sight in dansing. it were closing vp the hindermost of the dansers, a creature resembling death, naked of flesh & lire, with bare bones right dreadfull to behold. Through which spectacle, the king and the residue of all the companie were so astonied, and put in such fright & feare, that they had quicklie made an end of their danse for that time. In the daies of this Alexander the third, Learned men. Michaell Scot a physician. liued sundrie great clearkes. Amongst other, Michaell Scot was reputed for an excellent physician, and for his singular practise & knowledge in that profession was no lesse estéemed and had in high fauour with Edward king of England, than with king Alexander, during his life time.

*This Alexander made manie healthfull and good lawes, whereof most by the negligence Francis Thins addition, to this marke.) The lawes of Alexander the third. of men, and longnesse of time are worne away; so that things so profitablie by him deuised, séeme rather by report to haue béene ordeined, than that they are by custome practised. He diuided the kingdome into foure parts, through which he made his progresse almost euerie yéere, remaining about thrée moneths in euerie place, there to sit in iudgement, and to heare the complaints of the poore, at what time the meanest person might haue frée accesse vnto him. As often as he went into anie prouince to giue sentence of law, he commanded the gouernor of that place to receiue him with a chosen companie; and when he departed thence, to bring him to the borders of his iurisdiction, where he was honorablie receiued of the next gouernors. The which trauelling about his realme he vsed, to the end that he might know all his nobilitie, and that he might also be knowne of all others. During which time of his progresse, no great traine or multitude of courtiers did follow him; bicause he would not charge his people in receiuing of them ; and for that cause also abated and restrened the troope of horsse men which followed the nobilitie, and brought them into a certeine & meane number, bicauss he supposed that the multitude of horsses (whereof in warre there was no vse) were néedlesse deuourers of meat. Further, he forbad his people to trauell by sea for gaine or merchandize, when he considered that through the vnskilfulnes of sailing, the rashnesse that men vsed in committing themselues to the seas, and the rapine of pirats, manie men were lost, and their goods spoiled : whereby the merchants were driuen to extreame pouertie. Which precept when it had continued almost a whole yéere, and by manie mens spéeches was reprehended as dangerous and hurtfull to the weale publike, at the length there arriued such plentie of strange merchandize in Scotland, that the abundance and cheapenesse hereof did excéed the memorie of anie former age. But yet to take order with and for the benefit of the merchants, he forbad his people to buie anie thing brought in by strangers, but such as were merchants of his land, and that all the other people should buie of them such things as they néeded.)

King Alexander the third, being in such miserable wise deceassed, as before is specified, the Scotland without a K. and gouernor. realme remained in great discomfort, by reson he had neither left anie issue behind him to succéed in the gouernement thereof, neither taken order in his life time by testament, or otherwise, for anie other to supplie the roome of a gouernor, so that hereof insued such infinit Mischiefes insuing for lacke of a king. misorders, by the presumption of wicked and vngratious persons, the which vpon hope to escape vnpunished (bicause iustice was like to want due processe) ceassed not to attempt manie vnlawfull acts, to the grieuous oppression of the people: which misruled demeanors and disordered enterprises of those outragious persons, when such as had anie zeale to the wealth of their countrie vnderstood dailie to multiplie and increase, they thought it apperteined to their duties to prouide some remedie in due time, and therevpon called a councell togither, wherein after sundrie consultations had, and manie matters debated touching the rule of the realme, it was finaliie agréed that six gouernors should be elected and chosen, of the which Six gouernors chosen to haue the rule of Scotland. thrée should haue the administration and rule of the north parts, and these were William Fraser bishop of saint Andrews, Duncane earle of Fife, & Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquane. The other thrée were appointed to the gouernance of the south countries, that is to say, Robert bishop of Glascow, sir Iohn Cumin (a man of high estimation for his wisdome and experience as well in matters concerning peace as warre) and fames high steward of Scotland.

But in the meane time Edward king of England, surnamed Longshanks, cast in his mind, how he might make some conquest of Scotland, now the same was thus destitute of an head to gouerne it. And for that he well vnderstood that the daughter of How can this be true, when K. Edward had a wife at that time? but verelie the Scotish writers shew themselues ouercome with too much malice in most things which they write in the defamatiō of K. Edward. Norwaie (of whom before ye haue heard) was right inheritor to the crowne of Scotland, though she were but verie yoong in yéeres, & not able for mariage: yet to compasse his purpose that waies foorth, he sent his ambassadors vnto the lords of Scotland, requiring to haue hir to wife, and the realme withall, as due vnto hir by good title and right of inheritance. The lords, after long deliberation herein had, consented to his desire, vnder these conditions, that the realme should remaine in all freedoms and liberties, without anie kind of seruile subiection, in the same maner and state as it was vsed in the daies of king Alexander last deceassed, and other his noble progenitors: and if it chanced, that no issue came of this mariage to succéed them, then shuld the crowne returne by remainder ouer to the next heirs of king Alexander, without anie claime or pretext of title to be made by king Edward or anie of his successors in time to come.

Immediatlie herewith, two noble knights, sir Iohn Scot of Albawore, and sir lames Wemis, were sent into Norwaie to fetch the bride ouer into Scotland: but before their comming thither, shee was deceassed, & so they returned backe into Scotland againe without The daughter of Norwaie deceassed. The contention betwixt the kinsmen of K. Alexander for the crown. Sée more of this matter in the English histories. The ancestors of Robert le Bruse. The line of the Balioll with his title to the crowne. effect of their errand. And thus by means of hir death, all anitie betwixt Englishmen and Scots ceassed. Then began to insue great trouble and businesse in Scotland, by reason of the contention which sprang betwixt the kinsmen of king Alexander, for the title and claime which they seuerallie made and pretended to the crowne. There were thrée chieffie that séemed by néerenesse of bloud to haue most right, and therefore made most earnest sute in their claime Iohn Balioll, Robert Bruse, and Iohn Hastings. This Robert Bruse was sonne to the son of that Robert Bruse, which maried Isabell the yoongest daughter to Dauid earle of Huntington, on whom he got a son named also Robert, that maried the inheritor of Carrike, as we haue shewed before, whose sonne this Robert Bruse was, that now claimed the crowne. Iohn Balioll came of Margaret, eldest daughter to the foresaid Dauid earle of Huntington: for Alane lord of Galloway, which maried the said Margaret, begot on hir two daughters, of the which the eldest namd Deruogill, was giuen in mariage vnto sir Iohn Balioll, father vnto this Iohn Balioll, that thus made claime to the crowne : alledging that forsomuch that he was come of the eldest daughter of earle Dauid, the brother of king William, he ought by reason to be reputed as next heire to the same king William, sith none other person aliue approched so néere vnto him in bloud.

* Here I. thinke it conuentent, before any more be spoken of this historie, to interlace Fr. Thin. somewhat (besides that which is airedie spoken, being here in part repeated) of the descent of this Deruogill, the daughter of Alane lord of Galloway, beginning the same somewhat higher, in this sort. In the reigne of William K. of Scots, which began in the yere of Christ 1160, as saith Lesleus, lib. 6. pag. 226, Fergusius gouernor of Galloway left two sons, Buchanan. Wil. Paruus nameth him Vtred. Gilbert, and Ethred, who after the death of their father, fell at variance for the lands of Galloway, to be diuided betwixt them in equall portions. This brail comming to the eares of king William, he was desirous to quench those flames of vnkindnesse betwéene the said brethren, and for that cause with indifferencie (as he supposed) he meant to pacifie and satisfie each part, by diuiding the inheritance equallie betwéene them. But Gilbert highlie taking this partition in grudge (bicause he was eldest, & that the whole inheritance belonged to him) did with like hatred pursue both the king and his brother, the one as enuious against him, and the other as an vnequall iudge, in giuing his right from him. Wherfore when king William was taken prisoner of the Englishmen this Gilbert being of Of this matter though not so fullie is somewhat intreated before. Th crueltie of one brother to another. bold spirit (and now by the kings mishap out of all danger, being deliuered from the feare of anie law) began to vtter his conceiued hatred till this time couertie concealed. For vpon the sudden, he tooke his brother prisoner, put out his eies, cut out his toong, and not contented with a simple death (to be giuen vnto him at one instant) did most miserable a long time togither put him to paine, by dismembring the seuerall parts of his bodie, before he should die. After which wretched fact against his owne brother, he ioined himselfe to the English nation, and taking preies on the borders, he did vnnaturailie and traitorous lie (as it were an vtter enimie to his countrie) rage against his owne citizens, with all kind of murther and slaughter of battell. In which he did such harme, and so great oppression, as if he had not bene resisted by his nephue Rowland (gathering a strong power to him of such common people as remained stedfast in dutifull obedience to the imprisoned king) he had vtterlie spoiled all the countries adioining to England, or else would whoiie haue brought them into his subiection. For this Rowland a iustie yoong gentleman, bold of spirit indued with noble strength of mind and bodie, did not onelie beat downe the force of his vncle, but did manie times (and that sometimes most happilie) fight with the English, when they spoiled his natiue soile, or that he made anie inuasion into their borders.

At length when king William was deliuered of restreint, and returned into Scotland, this Gilbert (notwithstanding all his former euils) by the mediation of his friends, found fauor in the king, and was pardoned of all his offenses, but yet so as he promised to make recompense of all such damages as he had committed; for the sure performance whereof, he found sufficient pledges to the king. But Gilbert shortlie after departing this life, they which had serued vnder him, giuen by continuall vse vnto theft and blood, did yéeld themselues to the fauourable protection of the king of England, either for inconstancie of mind, or feare of punishment, being touched with remorse of conscience for the euill which they had before committed. These men thus shadowed vnder the wings of Gilpatrike & other spoile Scotland. England, did againe take armes against their countrie, vnder the conduct of Gilpatrike Henrie Kennedie, and Samuell, who before had béene authors and executors to Gilbert, of all such euils as were by him performed. Against whom was Rowland sent with an armie, who in a set battle slue the capteine, and a multitude of both kinds of the Gilcombe spoileth his countrie. common people. They which escaped the conflict, did flie to the refuge of one Gilcombe, capteine of such persons as liued vpon spoile and pilfering, who by continuance of followers, & increase of people, were now growne to some number, & did wander ouer all Louthian, robbing & spoiling in euerie place where they set foot: and not so content, did Maketh himselfe lord of Gallowaie. from thence passe into Galloway, where this Gilcombe tooke in hand the defense of Gilberts cause (now vtterlie forsaken of all men) vnder colour whereof, he not onelie challenged the inheritance belonging to Gilbert, but also behaued himselfe as chiefe lord of all Galloway. At length incountering with this Rowland in the kalends of October (the third moneth after the companie of this Gilbert was before dispesed) this Gilcombe was valiantlie slaine, with the greatest number of his followers, by the said Rowland, on whose Gilcombe slaine. part there was verie few missing.

The king of England highlie offended therwith (bicause the yere before they had sworne themselues to serue faithfullie vnder him against their owne bloud) came in haste with a maine armie to Carleill to séeke reuenge thereof. Which when William king of Scots vnderstood, he laboured by all the meanes he could, to appease the king of Englands displeasure, and to reconcile this Rowland vnto him. In the end the king of Scots wrought Rowland restored to the fauour of the king of England. so with the English, that Rowland was admitted to come to Carleiil to the presence of the king of England ; the which Rowland did accordinglie. At what time before the king of England, refelling the standerous accusations of his aduersaries (and further declaring that he had doone nothing either rashlie, or vniustlie against his and the common wealths enimie) he was honorablie by the English king suffered to depart from Carleill. These things thus doone, & king William returned into Scotland, he called to remembrance the continuall constancie and good seruice, which Ethred the father of Rowland had manie times doone to him and to the realme; therewithall not orgetting the woorthie exploits which this Rowland had of late performed for the common wealth: for which considerations he woorthilie recompensed the said Rowland, in bestowing on him the whole countrie of Rowland made lord of Gallowaie. Galloway. And further (although he did not merit the same by reason of his fathers euils) yet the king mildlie considering, that the sonne was not to beare the offense of the father (but hoping by this vndeserued liberalitie, to bind him faithfullie to serue him) did giue Carrike giuen to the sonne of Gilbert. the lands of Carrike vnto the sonne of the said Gilbert. All which William Paruus reporteth to haue happened in the yéere of Christ 1183.

Rowland being thus made lord of Galloway, maried the sister of William Mooruill constable Rowland constable of Scotland. Alane lord of Galloway, & constable of Scotland. of Scotland, who dieng without issue, obteined the same office by inheritance in right of his wife, from whome did issue Aiane lord of Galloway, and constable of Scotland, by in heritance from his mother, a valiant gentleman, and such a person as for his notable seruice (imploied in Ireland on the behaife of John king of England) was rewarded by the said king with honorable and rich reuenues: for which by the permission of William king of Scotland, he professed himselfe the liege man of John king of England, and sware fealtie vnto him. This Alane (as is before said) maried Margaret the elder daughter of Dauid earle of Huntington, of whome he raised thrée daughters, whereof the eldest being Dornagiil, was maried to Balioll, the second to Bruse: in right of which Dornagill, the sonne of this Balioll challenged the crowne of Scotland, as descended from the elder sister) On the other side The title of Robert Bruse. Robert Bruse, albeit he was descended of the yoongest daughter to earle Dauid, yet was he come of the first issue male, for his father was first borne, and therefore if king William had deceassed without issue, the crowne had descended to him: for which consideration he mainteined that he ought now to be preferred. Hastings also for his part, bicause he was Hastings. come of the yoongest daughter of king Dauid, maried to his father Henrie Hastings, wanted not allegations to propone, why he ought to be admitted. Beside these, there were other also, that made claime to the crowne of Scotland, and had matter sufficient to mainteine their sute. This controuersie being brought before the gouernors, was at sundrie times argued with much contention, not without the assistance of the nobles fauoring the parties, as occasion of friendship or kinred mooued them, namelie Balioll and Bruse had no small number that leaned vnto their parts, by reason whereof the gouernors were in doubt to The doubt of the gouernors. procéed to anie definite sentence in the matter, least if they declared one of them king, an other would attempt to vsurpe the crowne by force.

Héerevpon they iudged it best to referre the decision of all this whole matter to some mightie king, which was of puissance able to constreine the parties repuguant to obeie his sentence. Heerevnto was noné thought so méet as Edward king of England, and Fr. Thin. Buchanan. therfore they chose him. [Of whose faith and loue towards them, they did not anie whit mistrust, bicause Alexander the last king of Scots had found the father of this Edward, both a louing father in law to himselfe, and vpright tutor to his realme. Wherevnto also they ioined this cause of hope in king Edward, for that the said Edward had of late before tried the fauor of the Scots towards him, by a singular testimonie, in that they so easilie consented to ioine the heire of Scotland with the son of the said Edward ] Wherevpon king Edward tooke this charge vpon him, as competent iudge, & promised by a certein day to come vnto Berwike, willing that their councell might be assembled there against that time. At his comming thither, at the day assigned, and hauing heard what could be said on ech part, and throughlie considering at length their allegations, he perceiued the same doubtfull, and required a longer time to discusse the truth by good The title doubtfull. aduise of counsell: and therefore required to haue twelue Scotishmen, the best learned and most skilfull lawiers of all the realme to be associat with twelue Englishmen, which he promised to choose foorth of the most perfect and wisest clerks that might be found within all his dominions, to the intent that by their ripe and aduised debating of the matter, the truth might appeere, according to the which he minded to giue sentence, without fauor either of one part or other. [Before which he tooke a solemne oth of the ambassadors Fr. Thin. Buchanan. The nobles sweare to stand to the order of king Edward. of Scotland, and such nobles as were there to stand to his definitiue sentence, further therevpon requiring a writing to be made, sealed with the seales of the same nobles.] After when all such matters and proofes as were proponed by the parties, alledged by them for furtherance of their titles were put in writing, as matter of record, he returned backe againe into England.

¶ Héere the Scotish writers report, that king Edward vsed himselfe nothing vprightlie This report of the Scotish writers smelleth altogither of malice conceiued against him, for that he scourged them so sore for their vutruths. in this matter, but accordinglie (as it often happeneth) had the eies of his conscience blinded, vpon hope to gaine somewhat by this credit thus to him committed. But how vniustlie he is slandered in this behalfe, I leaue to the indifferent readers to consider, by conferring that which the Scots doo write thereof, with that which is to be found in our English historie. But to procéed as we find it in the Scotish writers. King Edward to be satisfied in knowledge of the truth, sent into France for men learned and of great experience in the lawes, that he might haue their opinions in the demands of the parties for their doubtfull rights. But (saith Hector Boetius) he first commanded them in no wise to agree vpon anie resolute point, but rather to varie in opinions, that when the plée should séeme doubtfull by reason of their contrarietie in deciding thereof, he might the better vnder that colour, giue iudgement with which partie he thought most expedient to serue his purpose.

Howbeit the most part of the lawiers iudged with Robert Bruse, both for the woorthines Respect of persons in deciding controuersies is not to be considered. of his person, and also for that he was come of the first issue male. But some there were that gaue sentence with Iohn Balioll, for that he was descended of the eldest sister. King Edward supposing this to be the time most conuenient for his purposed intention to conquer the realme of Scotland, returned to Berwike, where he had appointed the 24 learned men before specified, to be present, that finall sentence might be giuen, according as he had before promised. When he was come thus vnto Berwike, and the foresaid 24 learned K. Edward commeth to Berwike. lawiers assembled as assistants with him, and the parties appéering before him in a chamber prouided for the purpose, he caused the doores to be suerlie kept, and the entries stronglie warded, that no man might come in or out, but by his appointment and licenceHis purpose was to make him king, that would be sworne to hold the crowne of Scotland The purpose of king Edward, as the Scots doo vntrulie report. of him, as superior lord thereof. And bicause he knew that Robert Bruse was a man of singular manhood and wisedome, he thought best to assaie him first, and if he found him not conformable to his purpose, then he minded to trie what the Balioll would do.

When Robert Bruse had throughlie heard king Edwards motion, he answered that he The answer of Robert Bruse. weied the libertie of his countrie, more than his priuate preferment, and therefore minded not to deliuer his countrie (which euen to that day had béeue frée) into the bondage and seruitude of the Englishmen. King Edward perceiuing his stoutnesse of stomach, brake off with him, and fell in talke with the Balioll, who had such blind desire to atteine the crowne, that he passed not whether he inioied the same in libertie or seruitude,so he might haue it. Héerevpon when this Balioll had giuen his faith by assured oth vnto king The Balioll promiseth to doo homage to king Edward. Edward that he would doo homage vnto him for the realme of Scotland, and acknowledge to hold the same of him as superior lord, king Edward gaue sentence with him, to haue most right to the crowne and realme of Scotland, now thus in controuersie.

It is said, that the earle of Glocester, a man of great prudence and authoritie in England The saieng of the earle of Glocester (as the Scots write, but not like to be true.) King Edward was no man so to be dealt with. Iohn Balioll crowned king of Scotland. 1292. Iohn Balioll dooth homage to king Edward. So say the Scotish writers, but how trulie, read more héereof in England. Fr. Thin. Buchana. li. 8. (séeing the Balioll thus made king, and Robert Bruse without reason put backe) spake in this sort to king Edward: Oh king, remember what is doone by thée this day, sparing to giue righteous sentence in this matter; for though the same be now couered and hid, it shall be reuealed, when the great iudge that searcheth consciences, and the secrets of euerie mans mind, shall cause thée to answer for it at the dreadfull day of that vniuersall iudgement: thou hast now giuen sentence on a king, but then shall iudgement be giuen on thée. Shortlie after, Iohn Balioll went in great arraie vnto Scone, where he was crowned king of Scotland on saint Andrewes day, in the yeere from the incarnation 1292. In the yeere next insuing, on saint Stephans dav in Christmasse, he came to Newcastell vpon Tine, and there did homage vnto king Edward for the realme of Scotland, contrarie to the mind and consent of all his nobles, for that by this meanes, he séemed to submit his realme, (which had remained in freedome vnto those daies) into the seruitude of the Englishmen: but small felicitie succéeded therof. * And héere it appeereth by Buchanan, that the nobilitie of Scotland, which held with Balioll, did also their homage: for being farre from home, they durst not contend against the power of two kings. Whereof some taking it gréeuouslie in their hart, dissembled with the present time, and couered their anger vnder the cinders of a faire countenance, which yet in the end burst out, notwithstanding this painted shew. For the declaration and proofe whereof, there was shortlie after occasion offered to Makduffe, by the death of the earle of Fife, being (in the time when there was no king) made one of the six gouernors of the realme : for this earle was not onelie killed by these of Abirnethie (which familie did then greatlie flourish in riches and authoritie within Scotland) but the brother also of the said earle was called into law by the Abirnethians, for whome the king in assemblie of the states did giue sentence against the other. This Makduffe after the land whereof the contention grew was so adiudged, supposing therein the king to be more vniust against him than was cause, and that the king was not so seuere a reuenger of his brothers death, as he hoped that he would be; forsooke the Balioll, and appealed to the king of England, before whom he commensed his sute against Balioll. The deciding whereof was appointed to be holden at London, where was an assemblie or parlement of the nobilitie, after the English manner, amongst whome this Balioll had his place also.

The parlement begun and Balioll there summoned or cited, would haue answered by his Iohn Balioll king of Scots answered a sute cōmensed against him in the parlement of England as an inferior person should. proctor or attornie: but this (not being allowed) Balioll was compelled to rise out of his seat, and to defend his cause himselfe in an inferior place. Which contumelio when he durst not at anie time redresse, secretlie he still bare in mind, vntill fit opportunitie might answer the reuenge thereof. But when he would, and then could not deliuer himselfe of such disgrace; he returned home with a mind of deadlie anger, rolling mounteins of choler therein, who still bending himselfe on euerie side to satisfie his anger, dwelled on this point; how he might reconcile the hearts of his subiects: and offend the state of the English. Whilest Balioll with this meditation was feeding his hot stomach, a fit means was now offered to performe his desire, by reason of the wars newlie growen betweene England and France, as after shall appeare. For vpon this occasion of wars, king Edward of England commanded this Balioll by tenure of his land, & tenure of his homage, to come with all the power he could prepare to aid him in his warres against the king of France.

King Iohn Balioll incontinentlie herewith became repentant, in that he had Iohn Balioll repenteth him. indangered himselfe thus by dooing his homage; and therevpon sent his ambassadors to king Edward, as then soiourning at London, to renounce his act touching the same homage, alledging that for somuch as it was doone without the aduise of the thrée estates of Scotland, it was of no strength in it selfe, and not méete to be obserued being doone by force ; for which cause he would renounce his friendship and allance, aswell for manie other Fr. Thin. iniuries doone vnto him and his; as for that he would séeke to restore his countrie to his former libertie. Which message when none of the better sort durst take in hand to execute, a certeine moonke (or as other haue the abbat of Alberbrethie) caried these letters into Ambassadors into England. England, vpon the receit whereof, king Edward answered the ambassadors (whom he tawnted with innumerable contumelies) that since we perceiue (saith he) your king will not come vnto vs, we intend shortlie to come vnto him, wherewith the ambassadors departed. Butus (saith Buchanan) could scarselie returne home in safetie : being at his returne into Scotland rather had in contempt of his owne people, than anie iot reuerenced for such an ambassage.

After this, king Edward the better to accomplish his purpose against the Scots, found The league renewed betwixt France and Scotland. means to conclude a peace with the king of France, and for the more confirmation of the same peace, the French kings daughter was giuen in mariage vnto king Edward his sonne. Neuerthelesse (as saith the Scotish chronicle) he purposed (when he had wrought his will once against the Scots) to inuade France as flercelie as before, notwithstanding anie bond of amitie or mariage by him contracted. After this, he procured the friendship of Robert Bruse, and vpon promise (as it is to be thought) to make him king, the same Robert deliuered into king Edward his hands all such castels as he held in Scotland. Iohn Balioll the Scotish king, vnderstanding that king Edward minded to make a conquest vpon him, sent William bishop of saint Andrews, and Matthew bishop of Dunkeld, with sir Iohn Ex chron. Abindon, as I take it. Sowlis, and sir Ingram Vmfraiuile into France, to renew the ancient league betwixt him and Philip the fourth, as then king of France ; which accordinglie was doone : and for the more corroboration thereof, the eldest daughter of Charles earle of Vallois and Aniou, brother to king Philip, was promised in mariage vnto Edward Balioll, the sonne of king Iohn, which Edward should inioy lands of yearelie rents & reuenues to the summe of fiftéene hundred pounds sterling, in places not of the demesnes belonging to the crowne, as Ballieuille, Dampiere, Harecourt, and Horneie, which his father held in France with Lanarke, Kidion, Maldeseie, Cuningham, and the castell of Dundee, with the appurtenances in Scotland : and hereto was annexed a prouiso, that if those seigniories and places exceeded the value of fiftéene hundred pounds of yearelie reuenues, then should the surplusage remaine to the K. of Scotland : but if the same amounted not to that summe, then shoud the said king make them good, and supplie the same with other rents in Scotland, or otherwise, as should be thought méet. And further, the said summe of fiftéene hundred pounds in yearlie rent was assigned as it were the dower of the said ladie, to inioy to hir selfe during hir life after hir husbands deceasse, if hir hap were to suruiue him.

In consideration whereof, king Philip couenanted to content and pay vnto king Iohn in name Hector Boetius. Abindon. of the mariage monie, the summe of 40000 crownes, or (as other write) 25000 pounds Turnois. The charter conteining the articles, couenants, and agréements of this mariage and league aboue mentioned, beareth date at Paris, the 23 day of October, in the yeare of our Lord 1295. And the letters procuratorie made by king Iohn to the said bishop of 1295. saint Andrewes, & the other his associats, bare date at Striueling, the third nones of lulie the same yeare. Shortlie herevpon, king Iohn was aduertised that king Edward purposed The gentlemen of Fife, and Louthian sent to Berwike to defend it against the Englishmen. to come and besiege Berwike; wherefore by aduise of his nobles he sent the most part of all the lords and gentlemen of Fife and Louthian vnto Berwike, to defend the towne against the enimie, if he came to besiege it. The Englishmen came not onelie with a mightie power by land, but also with a great nauie by sea towards the said towne of Berwike. Of whose comming the Scots being aduertised, came foorth against those that approched by English ships taken at Berwike. Berwike besieged. sea, tooke 17 of their ships, and chased awaie the residue.

King Edward rather prouoked than feared with this misaduenture, came with a farre greater puissance than before, to renew the siege: but when he perceiued his purpose tooke not so spéedie effect as he hoped it should haue doone, he deuised how to take this towne by some slightfull policie.Héerevpon he feined as would haue broken vp his The policie of king Edward to win Berwike. siege, and so raising his campe, withdrew a little from the towne, and then hauing prouided banners and ensignes, resembling altogither such as diuerse noble men in Scotland vsed, he suddenlie returned toward the towne, euerie one of his souldiers wearing a crosse of saint Andrewes aboue on their harnesse, after the manner of the Scotishmen. There were also sent before vnto the towne, certeine Scots that serued the king of England, which gaue knowledge to the capteins within the towne, that their lord king Iohn was comming with his armie to their succors. The Scots that were within the towne, beleeuing it had The Scots deceiued and intrapped. béene most true, set open the gates, and came foorth against their king (as they supposed) to haue receiued him with all ioy and gladnesse.

But when they came néere vnto the Englishmen, they perceiued both by their language and habit what they were: but this was not before the Englishmen were hard at the gates, so that when the Scotishmen would haue fled backe to haue got into the towne againe, The crueltie of the Englishmen. Berwike is woone. The 29 of March being good friday. 1295. H. B. the Englishmen pursued them so fast at the héeles, that they entered the gates with them, and so tooke the towne with great slaughter, as well of the souldiers and men of warre, as also of women, children, and aged persons, without all ruth or compassion, so that they left not one creature aliue of the Scotish bloud within all that towne. Thus was Berwike woone the 30 day of March, in the yéere 1296. Such abundance of bloud was spilled thorough all parts of the towne (as the Scotish chronicles testifie) that where at the falling tide the water was not able to driue about the mils, some of the same mils yet, were now The abundance of bloud spilled. Streames augmented with bloud. at a low water set on gate, by reason the streames were so hugelie augmented with bloud. There were slaine aboue seuen thousand persons that day, with the greatest part of all the nobles and gentlemen of Fife and Louthian.

King Iohn hearing of this slaughter of his people at Berwike, in great desire to be The Scots discomfited at Dunbar. auenged, gathered his power, and sent the same foorth against king Edward, with whome they met not farre from Dunbar, and there incountring with him in battell, the Scotish host was discomted, the most part of the Scots being either slaine or taken. The earles of March and Menteth, with 70 knights, fled to the castell of Dunbar, but they were The castell of Dunbar rendered to king Edward. besieged so streictlie by the English power, inuironing the castell on ech side, that in the end they were constreined for lacke of vittels to yéeld themselues to king Edward, on condition to haue their liues saued, which couenant was not obserued ; as the Scotish writers affirme: for king Edward hauing got them into his hands, caused them foorthwith to be put to death. It was reported that Robert Bruse vpon secret conference had with king Robert Bruse occasion of the ouerthrow of Scots at Dunbar. Edward before this battell at Dunbar, sollicited all his friends in the Scotish armie, to flée vpon the first ioining, which the residue perceiuing, were so discomforted, that incontinentlie they threw awaie both armor and weapon, and so were vanquished without resistance.

Truth it is, that after this victorie, Robert Bruse submitted himselfe vnto king Edward, Robert Bruse submitteth himselfe to K. Edward. requiring him to performe his promise touching the right which he had to the crowne of Scotland: howbeit he receiued no answer to his liking touching that request : for K. Edward had no lesse desire to inioy the kingdome of Scotland, than Bruse, as the Scotish writers affirme. Therefore to cast off Robert Bruse concerning his demand, he answered The answer of king Edward to Robert Bruse. thus, as is said; Beléeuest thou that we haue nothing else a doo but to conquere realmes, and to deliuer them ouer againe vnto thee? Robert Bruse hereby perceiuing the subtile meaning of K. Edward, returned right sorrowfull vnto his lands in England, hauing great indignation in his mind, that he had obeied king Edwards requests : but yet considered with himselfe that he must suffer for the time, till occasion serued to reuenge the iniuries receiued, which he minded to doo, and that in most cruell maner, as afterwards it will appeare. King Edward after he had thus woone the castell of Dunbar, got likewise both the castels The castels of Edenburgh and Striueling woone. of Edenburgh and Striueling, and pursued king Iohn, till he had constreined him to take for his refuge the castell of Forfaire. Herewith Iohn Cumin lord of Strabogie came to King Iohn driuen into the castell of Forfaire. king Edward, and was sworne his liege man.

Shortlie after, by a politike practise of the same Iohn Cumin, king Iohn with his sonne Edward came to Mountros, where perceiuing himselfe vnwiselie to be fallen into the hands of king Edward, through feare of death which he doubted by reason of the menacing words of king Edward, he suffered himselfe to be spoiled of all his kinglie abilimets, and with Iohn Balioll king of Scotland resigneth all his right to king Edward. A charter. a white wand in his hand (as the maner is) presented himselfe before king Edward, resigning there vnto him all his right and title which he had to the crowne of Scotland, vtterlie renouncing the same both for him and his heires for euer. Hereof was a charter made in most sufficient wise, confirmed with the hand and seale of king Iohn, and other the nobles of Scotland substantiallie as might be deuised, bearing date the fourth yeare of his reigneAfter this, king Edward assembled all the lords and barons of Scotland at Berwike, where Homage of the barons of Scotland to king Edward. Fr. Thin. he caused them to be sworne his liege men, and to doo homage vnto him as to their souereigne lord and supreme gouernor. Which William Dowglasse (a man of noble birth and famous for his déeds) refused to doo, and for his obstinacie was cast into prison, whereafter a few yeares he ended his life. And for the more suertie of their allegiance, he The holds of Scotland deliuered into king Edward his hands. constreined them to surrender into his hands all the strengths bz holds of the realme, both as well those that stood on the sea coasts, as also such other as were situat in the inner parts of the countrie.

These things doone, and order taken in each behalfe as was thought requisit for the quiet kéeping of the countrie, he sent king Iohn and his sonne Edward Balioll vnto London, Iohn Balioll kept as prisoner in England. where they were kept in strong ward ; till at length he suffered the said king Iohn to returne into Scotland : but leauing still his sonne in pledge behind him, least he should attempt anie new rebellion after his departure ; which after was deluered at the request of the pope. King Iohn vpon his returne into Scotland, perceiuing that he was in the hatred He returneth into Scotland. He renounceth the administration of Scotland. He returneth into France, and decesseth in castell Galliard. King Edward his purpose to inuade France. both of his lords and commons, he withdrew againe of his owne accord into England, forsaking wholie the administration of the Scotish dominion, and finallie went ouer into Normandie to his ancient inheritance and lands there, where at length falling blind, and wasting away by long age, he departed out of this world in the castell Galliard, leauing those lands which he possessed on that side the sea, vnto his sonne Edward Balioll, who being released out of captiuitie, was come ouer to his father before his deceasse.

In the meane time, king Edward hauing well in remembrance the warres which he had intended to make against France, had he not bin staied through the businesse of Scotland, purposed now to pursue the same with all diligence; & therefore garnishing all the strengths & forts in Scotland to withstand the Scots, if they attempted anie rebellion against him in his absence, he appointed Hugh Cressingham regent there, whilesr he should be occupied in Hugh Cressingham regent of Scotland. France, which Cressingham before was treasuror. Then hauing prouided a great nauie of ships, he passed ouer into France, trusting that the Scots would not stur, sith they had of late susteined so manie ouerthrows and sore losses one after an other by the last wars: but tyrannie is of such a nature, that by no kind of prouision it may anie long time be suerlie defended. For those people that be oppressed by anie tyrannicall seruitude, will not faile King Edward burdened by the Scotish writers of tyrannie. The Scotish lords assemble at Striueling. Twelue gouernors elected in Scotland. Iohn Cumin. to séeke to deliuer themselues from the yoke of that importable burden when soeuer opportunitie of time and occasion serueth. Therefore the lords of Scotland hauing knowledge that king Edward was passed ouer the seas, they got them all togither straightwaies, and assembled in councell at Striueling, where by generall agréement, twelue noble men were chosen to be gouernors of Scotland, euerie one in their limits appointed, that they might the better prouide to resist the enimie. Amongest these gouernors, Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhan was principall, a man of great wisedome and singular knowledge in all affaires, as well of peace as of war. This earle of Buchquhan raised a mightie armie, and with the same entered into Northumberland, where he wasted with fier and sword all that countrie. After this, he laid siege to Carleill, but he wan nothing there, the towne was so well defended. In that season also, the fame of William Wallase began to spring, a yoong William Wallase beginneth to wax famous. gentleman of so huge stature and notable strength of bodie, with such skill and knowlege in warlike enterprises, and hereto of such hardinesse of stomach in attempting all maner of dangerous exploits, that his match was not anie where lightlie to be found. He was sonne Sir Andrew Wallase knight father to William Wallase. to one sir Andrew Wallase of Cragie, knight, and from his youth bare euer an inward hatred against the English nation. Sundrie notable feats also he wrought against the Englishmen in defense of the Scots, and was of such incredible force at his comming to perfect age, that of himselfe alone, without all helpe, he would not feare to set vpon thrée or foure Englishmen at once, and vanquish them.

When the fame therefore of his woorthie acts was notified thorough the realme, manie were put in good hope, that by his means the realme should be deliuered from the seruitude of the Englishmen within short time after. And herevpon a great number of the Scotish nation as well of the nobilitie as other, were readie to assist him in all his enterprises. By reason whereof he might not easilie be intrapped nor taken of the Englishmen, that went about to haue got him into their hands. At length, when occasion serued to vse the helpe of such a notable chiefteine, he was chosen by generall consent of the Scotishmen as gouernour vnder Iohn Ballioll, to deliuer his countrie from bondage of the English nation. At the same time manie abbeies & spirituall benefices in Scotland were in Englishmens hands. Abbeies of Scotland in Englishmens hands. Neuerthelesse, this William Wallase by commission had of William Fraser bishop of saint Andrews, auoided and put them foorth of all parts of Scotland, leauing neither temporall nor spirituall person of their bloud within that realme. For shortlie after, by publike authoririe, he receiued the armie that Iohn Cumin earle of Buchquhan had led before, and constreined those Scots that fauored king Edward, to obeie his commandements, in renouncing all such faith and promise as they had giuen or made vnto him.

This doone, he passed foorth with great puissance against the Englishmen, that held Castels woon by William Wallase, sundrie castels within Scotland, and with great hardinesse & manhood he wan the castels of Forfair, Dundée, Brechen, and Mountros, sleaing all such souldiers as he found within them. Wallase now ioifull of this his prosperous successe, and hearing that certeine of the chiefest capteins and officers of those Englishmen that kept the castell of Dunoter, were Dunoter woon by William Wallase. gone foorth to consult with other Englishmen of the forts next to them adioining, came suddenlie to the said castell, & tooke it, not leauing a man aliue of all those whome he found as then within it. Then after he had furnished that hold with his owne soldiers in most defensible wise, he went to Aberden. The towne he found in maner void of all the inhabitants, but the castell was so stronglie garnished with men and munition, that considering it might not be woone without great murder, he raised from thence, and returned into Angus. King Edward as then being in France, hearing of these exploits atchiued by Hugh Cressingham sent into Scotland. this Wallase his aduersarie, sent diuerse noble capteins vnto his lieutenant Hugh Cressingham, with an armie into Scotland to redresse the matter.

Wallase in the meane time had laid siege vnto the castell of Couper, but now being aduertised of the comming of this armie against him, he raised his siege, & went to Striueling to defend the bridge there, that Hugh Cressingham with his armie shuld not passe the same, according as the report went his intent was to doo. Heere incountring with the Hugh Cressingham slaine at Striueling and his armie discomfited by William Wallase. The castell of Couper rendred to Wallase. enimies, the third Ides of September, he obteined a verie woorthie victorie, for he slue not onelie the foresaid Cressingham with a great part of his armie being passed the riuer, but also forced the residue to flee, in such sort, that a great number of them were drowned, and few escaped awaie with life. Thus hauing gotten the vpper hand of his enimies héere at Striueling, he returned againe to the siege of Couper, which shortlie after vpon his refurne thither, was rendred vnto him by those that were within in garrison. There were manie of the Scotish nobilitie the same time, that sent vnto him, offering to leaue the king of Englands part, and to aid him with monie and vittels, if he would onelie receiue them into fauour, wherevnto he granted. By which meanes, sundrie other castels were yéelded vnto him, the which after he had garnished with men, munition, and vittels (according as was thought requisit) he brake vp his campe, and went with sundrie of his most faithfull friends vnto the castell of Striueling.

Afterwards perceiuing that through scarsitie of corne, great dearth arose on each side Dearth in Scotland. The policie of Wallase to relieue the peoples lacke in time of dearth. within the realme of Scotland, he deuised which way he might best relieue the peoples necessitie and lacke in that behalfe, and herevpon he determined to passe with a mightie armie into England, and to soiourne there the most part of the winter, in susteining the whole number of his men of warre on such prouision as they might find within the bounds of their enimies countrie. He commanded therefore that all the Scots, appointed to go with him in that iournie, should be readie at a certeine day and place prefixed. But diuers Disobedience punished. of the northerne Scots (as they of Aberden and other) for that they disobeied his commandements set foorth by letters and prociamations, were hanged as rebels and traitors to their countrie. By whose example, other being put in feare, his commandements were the better obeied, so that hauing got togither an huge host of men, he entered with the same Wallase inuadeth Northumberland. into Northumberland, wasting and spoiling the countrie euen vnto Newcastell. Thus putting the enimies in great feare and terror of his awfull name, he brought his armie backe againe into Scotland, loden with spoile and glorie of their prosperous atchiued iournie. They entred into England (as Io. Maior writeth) about the feast of All saints, and remained Fr. Thin. there till Candlemas after, liuing still vpon the spoile of the Engishmens goods.

Edward king of England, being informed of the great slaughter of his people, and what K. Edwards message vnto Wallase. damage the Scots had doone in Northumberland, returned in great displeasure out of France into England, and sent his ambassadors vnto Wallase, sore menacing him, for that he had inuaded his realme in such cruell wise in his absence, which he durst (as he sent him word) full little haue doone, if he had béene at home himselfe. Wallase herevnto answered, The answer of Wallase to K. Edwards message as the Scots doo write. that he had taken the aduantage for the atchiuing of his interprise, touching the inuasion of England, in like sort as king Edward had doone for the conquest of Scotland, at such time as he was chosen by the nobles of the realme as indifferent iudge in decision of the right and lawfull title of the parties that stroue and were at contention for the crowne. And further, to the end it might appeare vnto king Edward, that he inuaded England in defense of his owne natiue countrie, and that he was fullie bent to imploie his whole indeuor to deliuer the same from all maner of subiection to any forreine power, and to reuenge the iniuries doone to them by the Englishmen in rimes past; he willed the English ambassadors to declare from him vnto king Edward, that he purposed to hold his Easter in England (if God afforded him life) and that in despite of king Edward, and all such as would beare armor against him.

And vndoubtedlie according to his promise he kept his day: for assembling togither an Wallase entred England with an armie of 30000 men. armie of 30000 men, he entred into England at the time before appointed, where king Edward was readie with an armie vpon Stanesmoore, double in number to the Scots, to giue them battell: but when the time came that both parties were readie to haue ioined, the Englishmen withdrew, hauing no lust (as should seeme) to fight with the Scots at that time; who perceiuing them to giue backe, incontinentlie would haue rushed foorth of their rankes to haue pursued in chase after them: but Wallase (doubting least the Englishmen had ment some policie, and saieng (as writeth Io. Ma. lib. 4. cap. 14.) that it was honor inough for him that he had inforced so mightie a prince in his owne countrie to forsake the field) caused the Scots to kéepe togither in order of battell, and so preseruing them from the deceitfull malice of their enimies, brought them backe into Scotland with liues and honors saued, besides the infinit spoiles and booties which they got in this iornie.

But as in the beginning all men were glad to support Wallase in all exploits and enterprises which he tooke in hand, so afterward when his fame began to wax great, to the derogation of other mens renowmes, such as were farre his superiors in birth and linage, that fauor which manie bare him at the first, was now turned into enuie, hauing no small indignation, that a man of so base parentage should so surmount them in all honor and Wallase is enuied. dignitie. Those that enuied him most, were of the Cumins bloud and Robert Bruse. King Edward being aduertised of this enuious grudge, and new sedition amongst the nobles of Scotland, had secret conference by his agents with the chiefest amongst those that thus enuied the high glorie of Wallase, and vpon trust of such practise as was concluded by reson of the same conference, he came with a mightie armie into Scotland, and at Falkirke K. Edward inuadeth Scotland. Wallase raiseth a power to resist him. Strife for the leading of the vantgard. met with this Wallase, who mistrusting no guile, had raised a power to resist him: but now being come in sight of the Englishmen, there rose a right odious contention betwixt the head capteins, who should haue the leading of the vantgard, which is reputed a most high honor among the Scotishmen. And among other, Iohn Steward, and Iohn Cumin, thought scorne, that Wallase a man of so low beginning, should be preferred before them in that honour: but on the other part, Wallase considering that the charge of the whole was giuen vnto him by agréement and consent of the thrée estates, thought it no reason that he should giue place to anie of them, though vnto his face, as saith Iohn Maior, the lord Steward had before vpbraided him with his pride, comparing him to an owle, which from his originall had begged a feather of euerie bird, and being now inriched with abundance of feathers, did aduance himselfe aboue all other birds.

In the meane time came the Englishmen vpon them right fiercelie, before the Scotish chiefteins (hauing their brests filled with more malice one against another, than with desire to defend their countrie against their enimies) could bring their men into anie perfect araie. Herewith at the comming to the point of ioining, the Cumins with their retinues fled out The Cumins fled. of the field, and left the residue of the Scots in all the danger. Robert Bruse seruing that day among the Englishmen, fetched a compasse about an hill, and came on the backs of the Scots, so that they were in maner compassed in, and beaten downe on each side: yet Wallase left nothing vndoone that might perteine to the dutie of a valiant capteine. But at length, all his indeuors notwithstanding, the Scots (ouerset with multitude of enimies, as the Scotish writers affirme) were slaine in such huge numbers, that he was constreined to draw out of the field, which such small remnants as were left aliue. The Englishmen The Scots discomfited at Falkirke. Frere Brian laie slaine by the hands of William Wallase. Nobles of Scotland slaine at the battell of Falkirke. pursued fiercelie after him, & namelie one valiant capteine named Frere Brian Iaie, a templer, whome Wallase perceiuing to be within his danger, stepped foorth vnto hm, and slue him there in sight (as it is said) of all the English armie. Which valiant act of Wallase cause the Englishmen somewhat to staie, for doubt of further perill by their vnwise pursute likelie to befall them. In this infortunate battell, were saine on the Scotish side, Iohn Steward of Bute, with his Brandans (for so they name them that are taken vp to serue in the warres foorth of the Stewards lands) Makduffe earle of Fife, with sir Iohn Graham, whose death was much lamented by Wallase, as one whome he highlie estéemed for his great experience in warlike knowledge. Manie other noble and valiant men died in this conflict, whose names would be too long to rehearse. This battell was striken on Marie Magdalens daie, Marie Magdalens day prosperous for the Englishmen to fight against Scots. Fr. Thin. Iohn Maior lib. 4. cap. 14. Buchan. lib. 8 Lesleus epis. Ross. li. 6. p. 235. Conference betwéene Wallase & Bruse. in the yéere of our Lord 1298, and therefore the Englishmen haue holden it euer since an happie day for to fight against the Scots.

* When William Wallase was passed the riuer Carran, where he might defend himselfe, and gather his dispersed people, Bruse desired to speake vnto him, which Wallase did not denie. Wherevpon each of them (drawing alone by themselues without any arbitrers to the bankes of the riuer, in such place as it was narowest, and they might without anie companie best heare one another; Bruse began to say as followeth. "I doo much muse, thou most valiant of all men, what came into thy mind to be caried away by the vncerteine fauor of the common people, and to stand against the mightiest king of our age, supported with the greatest forces of the Scots: and dailie to offer thy selfe to euerie danger, and that for no reward assured to thée for all thy labors. For if thou shouldest ouercome king Edward, the Scots will neuer aduance thée to the kingdome, and if thou be ouercome, there resteth no refuge for thée, but onelie the mercie of thine enimie. And doost thou not sée the Cumins, and mée, and the most of the nobilitie, to follow the English faction? Neither doost thou consider the malice of the princes conceiued against thée? Looke vnto thy selfe, and thou hast but a few of the nobles thy partakers, and a small number of the commons (which are more vncerteine than the wind) to follow thée, whose fortune it now almost ouerthrowne." All these words Iohn Maior supposeth that Robert Bruse did speake, to serch the mind of Wallase, whether he ment to aspire to the erowne or no: being in deed rather contented that Wallase had left the field, than otherwise to reduce him to the part of king Edward.

To whome Wallase answered in this sort. "The end of all my trauell was not to atteine the kingdome; for my birth and fortune neither did or could deserue it, and my mind did neuer desire it: but the negligent slouth of thée (to whome the right of that diademe doth apperteine, and who doth greedilie hunt therafter) made my citizens (perceiuing themselues destitute of faithfull gouernors) to follow me, and caused me (when I saw them in that miserie, rather butcherlie torne, than in honest seruitude to be oppressed) to séeke for libertie. Which suerlie I had obteined for them and you, if the nobilitie had not so euillie striued against me, refrained themselues for comming into the field, and had but sent their hinds (which till their land) foorth to the battell, at which time I had scarse 10000 men, & those of cōmon sort. Trulie if the princes had not béene impediment thereto. I could haue brought foorth to fight a hundred thousand bold and chéerefull souldiers. But now in truth I perceiue the hatred of the nobles against me this day. Wherefore if thou pretend to possesse the kingdome, I giue thée faithfull warning, especiallie to beware of the Cumins: who if they had more regarded the glorie of their countrie, than of secret malice to others, would not so wickedlie haue forsaken the field, what hate soeuer they had conceiued against me. It they haue giuen their faith to the king of England, they are not bound to kéepe it: in a wicked promise no oth is to be performed. I am now wearie of my life, and rather desire to die, than to liue in this sort, to see the miserie of my beloued countrie. Wherefore imbrace you this thraldome (which is so much estéemed of you) to whome filthie seruitude with ease séemeth more pleasant, than honest libertie with danger: for I had rather choose willing death with fréedome (in which I meane to spend my bloud) than to doo as you haue doone, because the loue of my countrie shall not depart from my hart, before the life of my bodie depart from his office." Which being said, Bruse burst foorth in teares, considering the nobilitie of the mind of Wallase, although perhaps he nothing misliked the misfortune of the man, as doubting the end of all his pretense to be, to atteine to the crowne. This being thus doone, they both depart to their companies. By which conference (saith Leslee bishop of Rosse) this good was wrought to Scotland (to recompense the ouerthrow of Falkirke) that Wallase partlie by the bitternesse of his woords, and partlie for the loue of his countrie, did now draw Bruse from the English, to take part with the Scots.)

But notwithstanding all these valiant spéeches of Wallase, when he considered the 1298. Wallase renounceth his office. infortunat discomfiture by him so treacherouslie receiued, he came to Perth, and there vttering by complaint the iniurious enuie of the nobles against him, he renounced and discharged himselfe of all the authoritie which had béene committed to his hands, touching the gouernance of the realme, and went into France, as saith Lesleus. But Iohannes Maior saith, that he neuer came there, although he will not flatlie denie it. The same time, Philip king Philip king of France. of France, the fourth of that name, and surnamed le Beau, hauing great ruth in his hart for the miserable calamities thus chanced to his ancient confederat friends the Scots, and that chieflie for the quarrell of France, sent his ambassadors vnto Edward king of England, who had latelie before maried his daughter, requiring that there might be some peace or abstinence of warre granted. At his request therefore a truce was taken betwixt the Scots and A truce. Englishmen, to indure from the feast of All saints, till the feast of Pentecost next following.

The Scots in the meane time sore oppressed by reason of long warres, sent ambassadors Scotish ambassadors sent to pope Boniface. to pope Boniface, in presenting a verie gréeuous complaint vnto him, for the great affliction doone to them by king Edward, who was fullie bent by iniurious meanes (as they alledged) to conquer their realme, and therefore they besought him to constreine king Edward by vertue of his prerogatiue, which he pretended to haue ouer the realme of England, to stand to his order in deciding the right concerning the liberties of Scotland, which might no other waies be determined, but by intollerable damage falling to the people through blind desire and couetous ambition of the nobles, contending for the crowne. The pope (as is said) The opinion of the pope. after he had by good and deliberat aduise heard the matter, gaue sentence with the Scots, that they had iust cause of warres in defense of the liberties of their countrie, against K. Edward and his fautors. ¶ But for this matter, looke in the English chronicles, where it shall well appéere, that the pope by these letters of king Edward, was fullie satisfied of his superioritie ouer Scotland.

The Scots somewhat recomforted héerewith, shortlie héerevpon chose Iohn Cumin to their Iohn Cumin the yoonger elected gouernor of Scotland. An armie of Englishmen sent into Scotland. gouernor, in purpose to trie with the Englishmen for their liberties. Whereof king Edward being aduertised, sent foorthwith an armie into Scotland, which passed through the countrie to saint Iohns towne, with great damage of those that were adiudged rebels to king Edwards empire. All the countrie in manner vnto Forthrie, at this season was subiect to the Englishmen, sauing such few of the inhabitants, as liued within the woods, hauing more regard to the ancient liberties of their countrie, than to anie desire of preseruing their goods or liues. Iohn Cumin therefore, desirous to redresse this heauie miserie and lamentable case of his countrie, admitted Simon Fraser fellow with him in the administration of the warres against the Englishmen, and therewith gathering an armie of eight thousand hardie men of warre, setteth in hand to reuenge the iniurious dooings of the enimies, chasing out of the realme all such officers with their seruants, as king Edward had placed in anie roomes King Edwards officers chased out of Scotland. within the bounds of Scotland; and such as resisted, he pursued in most cruell wise, not sparing to put them vnto the swoord in all places, where he might find them.

King Edward sore kindled in displeaure with these attempts of such desperat persons, Scotland againe inuaded. raised an armie of thirtie thousand men, and sent the same into Scotland, vnder the leading of a verie stout and valiant capteine, named Radulph or Rafe Confraie. This Radulph at Radulph Cōfraie. I remember not that anie of the English nobilitie bare this surname in those daies, wherefore I thinke it was the lord Iohn Segraue. Iohn Cumin and Simon Fraser. his comming into Scotland, tooke small regard to the ordering of his field, but diuided his armie into thrée parts, euerie part conteining ten thousand men, and appointed them to passe foorth to forraie the countrie, and to meet altogither at Roslin, in such sort and time as he prescribed. Iohn Cumin and Simon Fraser being aduertised héereof, gathered their powers togither, to the number of seuen or eight thousand men, and determined to trie the chance of battell with one part of the English armie first, trusting that if they happened to haue the vpper hand of one of the thrée parts, the other two would be the more easie to deale with. The Scotish capteins resolued thus vpon that point, exhorted their people to remember how they were to fight in defense of their wiues, their children, their goods, and liberties of their countrie, against such as sought to bring them into thraldome and vile seruitude.

With which woords the Scots were so imboldened, that minding either to die or to win the victorie, they gaue the onset so fiercelie on their enimies, that the first battell of the The first battell of the Englishmen ouerthrowne. Englishmen was quicklie ouerthrowen and vanquished. But scarselie had they gathered the spoile, when an other part of the Englishmen came vpon them with more fiercenesse than the other before: neuerthelesse, the Scots incouraged with their fresh woone victorie, got themselues spéedilie into arraie, & receiued their enimies with such incredible manhood, The second battell ouercome. that they had quickly got the vpper hand of these also. But scarse had they made an end with this second battell, when the third part was at hand readie to charge them, being now sore infeebled, what thorough wearinesse and wounds receiued in the two former incounters, besides the want of such of their numbers as were slaine: yet by exhortation of their capteins, and the valiant presence of the officers of bands beside, they rushed foorth on their enimies with such earnest forwardnesse to receiue them, that after a verie sharpe bickering, they put the whole number of them to flight. Few of the Englishmen had escaped the Scotishmens hands, had they not béene so wearied with continuall fight, that they were not able to follow anie great waie in the chase.

This victorie fell to the Scots in manner as is before rehearsed, vpon saint Matthewes day, The third battell of the Engishmen vanquished at Roslin. in the yéere after the birth of our Sauiour 1302. The glorie of this victorie was great, 1302. The matter is amplified by the Scots to the vttermost. The great preparation of king Edward to inuade the Scots. The Scots withdraw to their holds. The English armie passeth through Scotland from the south parts to the north. K. Edward sendeth vnto Wallase. Wallase refuseth the offers of K. Edward. considering that thirtie thousand Englishmen well furnished, & throughlie appointed for warre, should be thus in one day vanquished with an handfull of Scotishmen. For as their histories make mention, they passed not eight thousand at the most: and therefore all men supposed that it came to passe by the singular fauour and grace of almightie God. But yet the Scots did not long inioy the benefits of so notable a victorie. For king Edward heaing of this discomfiture of his people at Roslin, gathered a mightie armie of Englishmen, Gascoigns, Irishmen, and such Scots as tooke his part, and hauing all his furniture and purueiance readie both by sea and land, he set forward with the same to inuade the Scots on ech side. The Scots perceiuing they were not of puissance able to resist his inuasion, withdrew to their strengths: by means whereof the English armie passed through all Scotland, euen from the south parts to the north, & found few or none to make resistance, except Wallase, and such as followed his opinion, which were fled to the mounteins and woods, to eschue the malice of the Englishmen.

It is said, that king Edward required by a messenger sent vnto this Wallase, that if he would come in and be sworne his liege man and true subiect, he should haue at his hands great lordships and possessions within England, to mainteine his port as was requisit to a man of verie honorable estate. But Wallase refused these offers, saieng that he preferred libertie with small reuenues in Scotland, before anie possession of lands in England, were the same neuer so great; considering he might not inioy them, but vnder the yoke of bondage. The castell of Sterling at the same time was in the kéeping of one sir William Vthred knight, who would not render it to king Edward by anie summons or other meanes, till after three moneths siege he was constreined to giue it ouer vnder these conditions; That The castell of Sterling rendred. This Vthred the Scotish bookes name Olises. all persons being within the castell, should depart by safe conduct with bagge and baggage at their pleasure. Neuerthelesse king Edward caused the said sir William Vthred to be conueied to London, where he remained as prisoner manie yeeres after.

Sundrie other castels were taken by force the same time by king Edward, and all such as resisted, being found within anie of them, slaine without mercie or ransome. Amongest other, the castell of Vrquhard in Murrey land was taken by force, and not one left aliue that The castell of Vrquhard taken by force. was found in the same (one gentlewoman onelie excepted) who being great with child, was in that respect preserued. She was the wife of Alexander Boyis, lord of that house, though by reason she was got into poore apparell, the Englishmen tooke hir but for some other woman of meaner estate. She therefore with hir life saued, being suffered to depart, got hir ouer into Ireland, where she was deliuered of a son, that was named at the font-stone Alexander. who when Scotland was recouered out of the Englishmens hands, came to king Robert le Bruse, requiring him to be restored unto his fathers heritage, being as then in the occupation of other possessors. King Robert doubtfull what to doo héerein, for he thought it neither conuenient that a prince should take lands or possessions from noble men, which had béene giuen to them in reward of their manhood, shewed in defense of the realme; neither iudged he it to kéepe him from his rightfull inheritance that had lost his father, his friends, and all his whole substance in the like cause and quarell by iniurie of the common enimies.

Wherefore to qualifie the matter, he deuised this meane: he gaue vnto this Alexander Boyis certeine other lands in Mar, nothing lesse in value (considering the largeness and fertilitie) than the other of Vrquhard were: and willed him to content himselfe with those, inrecompense of such as belonged to his father: to the intent that all parties might be satisfied, and no man should séeme to haue wrong in being depriued of his rightfull possessions. This Alexander Boyis had afterwards his name changed, and was called Forbesse, for that The beginning of the name of the Forbesses. he slue a beare in those parties, by great and singular manhood. And so the surname of the Forbesses had beginning, as descended from him. Scotland being subdued by the mightie puissance of king Edward, he went about to abolish all the old statutes and ancient constitutions of the realme, trusting by that meanes, that Scots liuing togither with Englishmen, vnder one vniforme maner of lawes, they should finallie sort themselues to be of one mind and opinion, as well touching the supreme gouernement of their publike weale, as also in all other thinngs, touching the friendlie societie of life.

He burnt all the chronicles of the Scotish nation, with all manner of bookes, as well those Chronicles and other bookes burnt. conteining diuine seruice, as anie other treatises of profane matters, to the end that the memorie of the Scots should perish: and thereto appointed greeuous punishments for them that should disobeie his commandements héerein, in kéeping anie of the said bookes vndefaced. And he ordeined also, that the Scots should occupie church bookes after the vse of Sarum, and none other. Moreouer, he compelled all such Scotishmen as were of anie Scotishmen learned, commanded to be resident in Oxford. singular knowledge learning or literature, to be resident in Oxford, doubting least the Scotish nobilitie increasing in politike prudence by their instructions, should seeke to throw off the yoke of bondage. Thus king Edward going about (as the Scotish writers doo report) to extinguish the name of Scots, togither with their rule and empire, passed through the most part of all the bounds of Scotland. And vpon verie hate which he had to the The temple of Claudius was at Colchester, and not in Scotland, whatsoeuer Hector Boetius or other dreame othereof. Arthurs hoif. Scotish antiquities, at his comming to Camelon, he commanded the round temple standing ouer against the same, to be thrown downe, which was builded (as before is shewed) in the honor of Claudius the emperor, and the goddesse Victoria. But for that his commandement was not immediatlie put in execution, he changed his purpose, and appointed onelie that the monuments of Claudius, with the superscription of his name, should be taken awaie; and in place thereof, the armes of king Arthur, with his name to be set vp; commanding the place to be called Arthurs hoif (as ye would say) Arthurs court.

Moreouer king Edward at his returning into England, tooke the chaire of marble with The marble chaire is conueied into England, and placed in Westminster. The nobilitie of Scotland sworne to K. Edward. Wallase eschueth to agrée with the Englishmen. Odomare or Aimer de Valence gouernour of Scotland vnder king Edward. Conference betwixt Cumin and Bruse. him, and causing it to be conueied vp to London, did place it at Westminster, where it remaineth yet vnto this day. Furthermore, before his departure out of Scotland, he appointed all the Scotish lords to assemble at Scone, where he caused them to take a new oth, that from thencefoorth they should take him for their souereigne lord, and to obeie him in all things as loiall subiects. All the nobilitie of Scotland was sworne to him that day (Wallase onelie excepted) who eschued more than the companie of a serpent, to haue anie thing to doo with the Englishmen, touching anie agréement to be made with them, agréeable to their desires. Moreouer, to kéepe the Scots from rebellion, king Edward ordeined Odomare de Valence to be gouernour there, as his generall lieutenant ouer the whole realme of Scotland in his absence. And hauing thus set all things in good and quiet order (as he supposed) he returned into England with great ioy and triumph.

In the meane time; Iohn Cumin surnamed the red, and Robert Bruse hauing conference togithers, complained the one to the other of the miserable seruitue wherein the realme of Scotland as then stood by the oppression of king Edward. And at length vpon offers made betwixt them, it was agréed, that if by anie meanes they might deliuer the realme out of the Englishmens hands, the one of them should be king, that is to say, the Bruse, and the other, that is to say, the Cumin, should inioy all the Bruses lands and possessions, with manie other preferments of honors and dignities, as next vnto him in all authoritie touching the gouernment of the realme. There were indentures made betweene them, subscribed with Indentures of agréement betwixt Cumin & Bruse, touching the conspiracie. their names, and sealed with their seales interchangeablie, for the full ratifieng of couenants agreed in this confederacie betwixt them. Shortlie after, vpon deliuerie of those writings, Bruse went into England, for he might not remaine long in Scotland, for doubt of suspicion which king Edward had in him, because of the title which he had to the crowne of Scotland (as before is specified) so that (as was thought) king Edward would haue put both him and his brethren vnto death long before, if he might haue once got them all into him hands.

Iohn Cumin (after that he and Bruse were thus agreed vpon articles, and departed the one from the other) began to doubt, least this conspiracie deuised betwixt them, would not Iohn Cumin dooth doubt. sort to anie luckie conclusion for his purpose, either for that he feared the great puissance of king Edward, either else for that his authoritie and power (as he mistrusted) would not be great, if the Bruse once atteined the crowne : and héerevpon he sent one of his seruants Cumin discloseth the conspiracie. to king Edward, with his counterpane of the indenture, conteining the couenants of the conspiracie, signed and sealed with Bruses owne hand and seale. The messenger deliuered this writing in secret wise to king Edward, declaring vnto him the whole matter, as it was passed and concluded betwixt the Bruse and his maister, according to instructions giuen him in that behalfe. But king Edward at the first gaue light credit either to the wrtings or woords of the Cumin, supposing that the same proceeded onelie through enuie, which he bare towards the Bruse, euer dreading lest he should beare no rule in Scotland, if the Bruse once atteined anie authoritie within the same. Yet at length, king Edward pondering with himselfe the whole circumstance, and being in some doubt of the matter, he shewed the counterpane of the indenture vnto Bruse himselfe, questioning with him, if he knew his Robert Bruse is examined. He denieth his writing. owne hand ? Bruse stoutlie denied that he was priuie to anie such deuise or writing, and therefore desired of king Edward to haue the same for one night, to peruse and scan ouer at leasure, & then if he were not able to prooue that it was forged, and maliciouslie deuised vpon an enuious purpose, to put him in danger of life, he would forfait all his lands and liuings that he held either within the realme of England, or else where. King Edward, because he coniectured at the first how this accusation of Cumin was nothing like to be true, granted his request, wherein manie iudged he did vnwiselie: but such was the ordinance of almightie God, that Bruse should escape that danger, to accomplish that wherevnto he was appointed. The earle of Glocester immediatlie after that Robert Bruse was departed from the kings presence, sent vnto him twelue sterling pence, with two sharpe spurs, whereby he coniectured his meaning to be, that the best shift for him was to auoid out of the waie in most spéedie wise, wherevpon he causing a smith to shoo thrée horsses for him, contrarilie with the calkins forward, that it should not be perceiued which waie he had taken by the tract of the horsses, for that the ground at that time (being in the winter season) was couered with snow : he departed out of London about midnight, accompanied Robert Bruse dooth flée. onelie with two trustie seruants.

It chanced also, that there fell on the same night more snow aloft vpon the other snow that was fallen before, by reason whereof it could not easilie be iudged in the morning which way he was gone, though king Edward vpon knowledge had that he was fled, sent out a great manie of horssmen after, to haue brought him againe, if they might anie where haue found him. But Bruse hasted foorth with such speed in his iournie, that the He commeth to Louchmaben. Robert Fleming. seuenth day of his departure from London, he came to Louchmaben in Annandale, and there found Dauid, or (as some books haue) Edward his brother, with Robert Fleming, 2 woorthie yoong gentleman, vnto whome (they musing what he meant by his sudden comming) he declared into what perill of life he had fallen by means of Cumin, and how narowlie he had escaped out of king Edwards hands. His brother hearing the matter, consented to go with him, and to be partaker of all haps that might fortune to fall out in his flight; and by the way they chanced to light vpon one of Cumins seruants, that was going A seruant of Cumins taken with letters on him. with letters vnto king Edward from his maister the said Cumin, signifieng by the same, that if Bruse were not the sooner put to death, there would insue shortlie such trouble and ruffling in Scotland against K. Edward, that it would be much adoo to appease it.

These letters being found about Cumins seruant, through means of yoong Fleming, the Bruse after he had apposed the bearer throughlie in each behalfe, and learned of him that his maister the said Cumin was in the friers at Dunfrise, he first slue this fellow that was Cumin was at the friers in Dunfrise. thus sent with the letters, & after in all hast possible came to Dunfrise, by the guiding of the same Fleming, where in the quier of the friers church there he found Cumin. And reasoning the matter there with him, for that he had vsed him so euill, and withall shewing him the indenture which king Edward had deliuered to him, as before is mentioned, in the end (after some multiplieng of words togither) Robert Bruse plucked foorth his sword, and stroke the foresaid Cumin a sore blow in the bellie, and therevpon fléeing out of the church, met with two of his dearest friends, Iames Lindseie, and Roger Kirkpatrike; who beholding his countenance altered, and comming foorth of the church in such hast, demanded of him what was the matter : I trow (said he) that Cumin is slaine. Why (said they againe) hast thou attempted so high an enterprise, and left it doubtfull? And immediatlie herewith they went to the place where Cumin lay wounded (as before is mentioned) and asked of him whether he thought he had anie deaths wound, or hoped to recouer if he might haue a good surgian. And for that he answered how he trusted to doo well inough if he might haue a good surgian in time; they gaue him thrée or foure other wounds so grieuous and deadlie, that foorthwith vpon the same he yéelded vp the ghost. Cumin is slaine. 1305. Wallase is taken. This chanced in the yeare of our Lord 1305, the fourth Ides of Februarie. About the same time was William Wallase taken at Glaskow by the means of sir Iohn Menteth and others, in whome he had euer put a most speciall trust ; but they being corrupted with the offers of large rewards promised by king Edward to such as could helpe to take him, wrought such fetches that he was apprehended at length by Odomare de Valence earle of Penbroke, who with a great power of men brought him to London, where he was put to Wallase is brought to London. He is put to death. death, and his quarters sent into Scotland, and set vp in sundrie great townes there for a spectacle, as it were to giue example to other. This was the end of that puissant champion William Wallase, praised amongst the Scotishmen aboue all other in that age, for so much as he would neuer yeeld or consent to acknowledge anie superioritie in the Englishmen ouer his countrie, no not when all other had submitted themselues to king Edward as his liege subiects and most obedient vassals. It is said, that when he was yoong and went to schoole, he learned by heart two verses of his schoolemaister, which euer after he bare in mind, and vsuallie would rehearse them, (when a toy tooke him in the head) as followeth.

Iohn Fourdon. Dico tibi verum, libertas optima rerum,
Nunquam seruili, sub nexu viuito fili.
Iohn Maior. My sonne I say, freedome is best,
Then neuer yeeld to thrals arrest.

Of this William Wallase one Henrie, who was blind from his birth, in the time of my Fr. Thin. natiuitie (saith Iohn Maior) composed a whole booke in vulgar verse, in which he mitred all those things vulgarlie spoken of this Wallase. But I doo not in all points, saith the same author, giue credit to the writings of such as he was, who onelie get their food and clothing (whereof this man was most woorthie) by reciting of histories before the nobilitie of Scotland.

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