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BUT now to procéed in order with the historie, yee shall note, that after the decease of king Robert, his sonne Dauid, a child scarse seuen yéeres of age, was proclamed king, and afterwards crowned at Scone, the 23 day of Nouember, in the yéere of our Lord 1331.
1331. Earle Thomas Randall gouernor of Scotland. During the time of his minoritie, earle Thomas Randall was ordeined gouernor of the realme, who for the space of foure yéeres in the latter end of K. Roberts reigne, had the whole administration of things committed to his charge by the same king, for that by reason of sicknesse he was not able to attend the same himselfe. This earle Thomas then being elected gouernor by the generall consent of all the nobles of the realme, considered with himselfe, how necessarie it was for the people to continue in peace, till they had somewhat recouered their hinderance & losses chanced to them by the former wars. He addressed therefore certeine Ambassadors sent into England. ambassadors immediatlie after the death of king Robert, vnto the king of England, to require a new confirmation of the peace betwixt both the realmes for a season. These ambassadours found the king of England easie inough to be intreated for the grant of their sute, so that a generall A truce for thrée yéeres. truce was taken for the space of thrée yéeres.

In that meane time, earle Thomas applied his whole studie for the maintenance of iustice and equitie through the whole realme, not omitting yet to appoint order, that men should be prouided of armor and weapon for defense of the countrie, if necessitie so required. [ Fr. Thin. Buchanan. Wherefore when he was going to Victone (a towne in Galloway) woord was brought to him, that there was a strong assemblie of théeues in that countrie, besetting the high waies, and spoiling the passengers: whervpon sending foorth a companie of his followers, he apprehended and hanged them all, not fauouring anie vnder pretext of deuotion or religion. For one of them latelie come from Rome (and safe as he supposed by the charter of the popes pardon) was also apprehended and executed by appointment of this Randall, saieng, that the pardon of the fault belonged to the pope, but the punishment thereof belonged to the king.]

Moreouer, for the better proofe of exercising iustice amongst them that coueted to liue by truth, and to haue more readie occasion to punish others that ment the contrarie, he A meane to haue iustice executed. commanded the saddles and bridles, with all other such instruments and stuffe as perteined to husbandrie, should be left abroad both day and night without the doores: and if it chanced that anie of them were stollen or taken awaie, the shiriffe of the shire should either cause the same to be restored againe, or else to paie for it on his owne pursse. Finallie, such punishment was Punishment of théeues. exercised against théeues in all places, that both theft and pilfering were quite suppressed, and the realme brought to more tranquillitie than euer it was in anie kings daies before. Manie insolent and misruled persons were tamed by his seuere clastisement and iustice. Also that vertue might bée cherished within the realme, he commanded that no vagabund A laudable ordinance against vagarant persons. or idle person should be receiued into anie towne or place, except they had some craft or science wherewith to get their liuings. By this meanes he purged the realme of Scotland of manie idle & slouthfull roges and vagabunds.

It is said, that during the time whilest such streict punishment was exercised against offendors, by the ministers of the lawes thereto by him authorised and assigned: it fortuned that a earle of the countrie, bicause he durst not steale other mens goods, stole his owne plow irons, that he might haue the value of them recompensed to him by the shiriffe: neuerthelesse, such earnest diligence was vsed in the search and triall, who had the plow irons, that finallie the truth came to light, wherevpon for his craftie falsehood the partie giltie was hanged, as he Vpright iustice. had well deserued. The gouernor himselfe, for that he saw how hard it was to reduce them that had béene brought vp in slouthfull loitering, vnto honest exercise, held euer about him a gard of warlike persons, that hée might the more easilie oppresse all stubborne offendors, which would not submit themselues to his commandements. Those that appeared before Iustice tempered with mercie. him, vpon summons giuen, had fauourable iustice, tempered with much mercie ministred vnto them.

Others that refused to obeie, were pursued with his gard, and hanged euer as they were taken: as it happened on a time at Haddington, where threescore euill and naughtie disposed Stubborne rebels sharpelie punished. persons being gathered togither, robbed and spoiled the people on each side: and for that they regarded not, but rather misused a purseuant, whom he sent vnto them, they were all taken incontinentlie by his foresaid gard, which followed the said purseuant at the heeles, and without respit hanged them vp on gibbets to giue example to others. Thorough such rigorous iustice, K. Edward enuieth the felicitie of the Scots. no rebellion was heard of within the realme of Scotland manie yeres after, so that such tranquilitie folowed, that not onelie theeues and loitering lubbers were daunted, but the realme also aduanced in wealth and riches, to the great terror of all the foes and enimies thereof. King Edward aduertised of this great felicitie chanced to the Scots by this meanes, began to enuie the same, and imagined with himselfe, that if earle Thomas, the author of the same felicitie were dispatched out of the way, it should not onelie impeach the procéeding of so great wealth to the Scots, but also make for the suertie of the realme of England: for the singular manhood and high prowesse of this earle was by him and other his nobles sore suspected.

He thought good therefore to attempt the thing by sleight, which might not be doone by K. Edwards purpose to destroie earle Thomas (as the Scots doo write.) But this is a kind of practise amongst men to forge slanderous reports to bring princes in contempt. force, that afterwards the realme of Scotland might be the more inféebled, and as it were made open to receiue displeasure at his hands. For king Dauid was yoong, and manie of his nobles bare small good will either towards him, or his house, for the slaughter of their fathers and friends in the blacke parlement. Herevpon he deuised, which way he might best destroie earle Thomas, the onlie confounder of all his imagined hope, as to atchiue anie luckie enterprise against the Scots. At length he deuised to dispatch him by poison: and after he had long debated by whome he might worke that feat: finallie he found none so fit for his purpose, as a moonke of the order and facultie of those, that wandering from place to place, can with dissembling visage say that thing with mouth, which they neuer thought in heart: for oftentimes men of that order, put no difference betwixt shame and honestie, cloking their execrable wickednesse vnder the feined shadow of their hypocriricall cowles.

This moonke, fullie instructed in that wherabout he was sent, came into Scotland, and A moonke sent into Scotlād to poison the gouernor. The fittest instrument to bring such a thing to passe. feining himselfe to be a physician, got credit within a while amongst the people, to be a man of most excellent knowledge, for he had a companion with him, that being made priuie to the matter, set foorth his cunning and practise to the vttermost, declaring what notable and most desperat cures he had taken in hand, and made the patients perfectlie whole of the same, where all other had quite giuen them ouer: namelie he bruted it abroad, that for healing of the stone and grauell, his like was not to be found in all christendome, as euidentlie had appeared by cures which he had shewed vpon sundrie noble men, both in England and France. This he spake, for that it was knowne, how the lord gouernor was sore vexed with that disease, hoping by this meanes to haue him in cure, that he might thereby the more easilie worke his diuelish enterprise.

And euen according to his desire it came to passe: for being taken for such a man as he was named to be, he was sent for to the gouernour, and comming before him, he handeled the matter so with woords, that the gouernour was contented he should take him in hand, which he did with such wicked intention, that persuading him to keepe such diet as he prescribed, and héerewith to take such sirrups & other things as he would giue him, at length he most The gouernor is poisoned. traitorouslie poisoned him in deed. The venem was of such mixture, as would not slea him out of hand, but by little and little waste his entrails, that the moonke might haue leasure to escape home into England, yer it were perceiued what he had doone. He therefore after he had mimistred his wicked poison, found meanes to conueie himselfe out of the waie, and returned The moonke fléeth. most spéedilie into England, informing king Edward how he had delt. The gouernor féeling himselfe tormented dailie woorse and woorse in his stomach and wombe, and hearing that the moonke was gone, and minded not to returne to him againe, he began to doubt the matter, and shortlie after learned by physicians that he was poisoned, and that the venem had taken such hold within his bowels, that it was not possible to remooue it.

In the meane time was king Edward come with an armie to the borders, purposing to K. Edward his purpose to inuade Scotland. inuade Scotland, for that he thought how the gouernour was either dead, or at the verie point of death, and therefore he was in hope, that comming in time of the trouble vpon his death into Scotland, he should fina occasion to atchiue some enterprise, highlie to his aduantage. But the gouernour aduertised heereof, raised a power, and though he were not able either to The gouernour in an horsselitter is caried foorth to incounter the Englishmen. An herald sent to the gouernour. ride or go, yet he caused himselfe to be caried foorth in an horsselitter. King Edward hearing that the gouernour was comming towards him with an armie, & that himselfe in person quite contrarie to his expectation, he sent an herald vnto him for meane of communication of some peace, as was outwardlie pretended, though nothing else was ment but that he should espie how all things in the Scotish campe stood. The gouernour hearing of this heralds comming, arraied himselfe in his best apparell, that it might appéere he was rather recouered of his infirmitie, than otherwise weake and féeble thorough his disease, and then causing the herald to be brought before him, where he was set in a chaire, to heare what his message was, which consisting in certeine demands not greatlie agreeable to reason, the gouernour with bold countenance answered, that he trusted within short time to make it knowne, what right the The gouernours answer to the herald. Englishmen had to mooue such vnreasonable requests, and thus dispatching the herald, he gaue him all such gorgeous and rich apparell as he ware at the same time when he thus talked with him.

King Edward at the returne of the herald, not perceiuing otherwise by his report, but that the gouernor was in health, he returned immediatlie with his armie into England, and licencing euerie man to depart to his home, laid hands on the moonke, and as one that had dissembled The moonke is burnt. with his prince (for so he tooke it) caused him to be burnt for his vntruth. Thas was the wretch righteouslie recompensed, as he had most iustlie deserued. In the meane time, the gouernour returning homewards, through force of the venem still increasing, deceassed at Muscleburgh, and was buried at Dunfirmling, in the yéere of our redemption 1331. [He left Fr. Thin. Buchanan. 1331. behind him two sonnes, Thomas and Iohn, woorthie such a father, they being persons of great valure, and friends to their natiue countrie.]

After his deceasse, by common consent of the three estates of the realme in councell The gouernours chosen to rule Scotland. assembled, Patrike earle of March, and Dauid earle of Mar were chosen gouernors, the first: that is to say, the earle of March) had the charge of that part of the realme which lieth on the south side of the Forth, and the other (that is to say, the earle of Mar) was appointed to gouerne all that on the north side. Shortlie after rose great trouble in Scotland by meanes of Edward Balioll, the sonne of Iohn Balioll before remembred, as thus: It chanced there was one Twinam Lorison. Twinam Lorison, a gentleman borne, but spotted with vile conditions, as adulterie, and diuerse other, for the which being put vnder censures of the church by the officall of Glascow: he tooke at length the same officiall as he was going toward the towne of Aire, and held him in captiuitie, till he had paied two hundred pounds for his deliuerance. But this iniurie remained not long vnpunished: for sir Iames Dowglasse, before his passage to the holie land, would not suffer him to rest, till he had constreined him to flée into England for his more safegard.

At his comming into England, he met with Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl, and manie other Scotish lords banished into England. Scotishmen, which were banished in times past by king Robert, for that they assisted the king of England against him. These persons being driuen out of the realme, and confederat altogither in one band, remained in England long time after, euer trusting to sée some occasion offered, whereby they might one day returne againe into their owne natiue countrie. And now, hearing that earle Thomas Randall the gouernour was deceassed, this Twinam Lorison Twinam Lorison sent vnto Edward Balioll. in name of them all was sent ouer into France to persuade Edward Balioll to attempt the recouerie of the crowne and realme of Scotland, as the rightfull heritage of his father, and descended vnto him as lawfull and rightfull heire. Though the Balioll had no regard to make anie claime at all to the crowne of Scotland before this time, yet through the pithie persuasions of the earnest messenger, declaring how easiea matter it were for him to atchiue, considering the aid which he should haue in England, both at the kings hands, and also by the Scotishmen which remained there in exile, by whose meanes he might assure himselfe of support inough within Scotland it selfe, after he was once entered: finallie he concluded to passe ouer into England, to proue what purchase he might make there.

At his comming thither, he made sute to the king, to aid him in his righteous quarell Edward Balioll commeth into England. The promise of the Balioll to K. Edward. K. Edward dooth agrée to aid the Balioll. The English writers speak but of two thousand, or 2500, at the most. Ri. Southwell. Fr. Thin. towards the atteining of the crowne of Scotland, which if he might bring to passe with pro perous successe, he promised to hold the same of him and his successors as superior lords thereof. King Edward gladlie vpon that condition, condescended to his request, notwithstanding the aliance contracted with king Dauid, by the mariage of him with his sister. Heerewith he appointed foorth six thousand men well apparelled and araied for the warre, to passe by sea with the Balioll, and other the confederats into Scotland, trusting that vpon their arriuall there, they should find no small number of friends to assist them. For beside the Balioll, there was the lord Henrie Beaumount a Frenchman, who had maried the earle of Buchquhanes daughter and heire: also the earles of Atholl & Angus [the lords Persie and Wake, Richard Talbot, Henrie Ferres, Iohn Mowbraie] & other Scotish lords such as were banished Scotland, when K. Robert le Bruse recouered it out of the Englishmens hands. These were appointed to go with the Balioll to assist him in that enterprise: and likewise the lord Stafford, and diuerse other English capteins, wherevpon when all their prouision was once readie, with the number appointed them by king Edward, and a few others, they got them a shipboord, and sailing Edward Balioll landeth in Scotland. Alexander Seiton is slaine. foorth by the coast till they entered into the Forth, at length they came on land néere the towne of Kingorne, and shortlie after, incountring with Alexander Seiton, they slue him, and put his folkes to flight.

Balioll verie ioifull of this happie successe, came with his people to Perth, otherwise called S. Iohns towne, whereof the earles of Mar and March being aduertised, they raised two mightie The earles of Mar and March gather their people. armies, and hasted toward the enimies, not as though they should haue to doo with men of warre, but to chastise a number of théeues and robbers that were come out of England. Yet at length they concluded to ioine both togither in Stratherne, that they might iointlie set vpon their enimies both at once. The Balioll séeing the matter brought so far foorth, that no feare of death nor starting-hole by flight might auaile him, boldlie came forward, and pitched downe his tents at Duplin néere to the water of Erne, trusting that if his armie would stand to it, and Edward Balioll at Duplin. fight with manlike constancie, he should weild his enimies well inough, notwithstanding their huge number. The same night came the earle of Mar with his power, and incamped with the same within sight of the English armie, but the earle of March lodged about fiue miles from thence, at Othirardour.

The Scots that were with the earle of Mar, hauing knowledge of the small number of their enimies, made no accounts of them, so that they neither tooke héed to their watch, nor to anie The negligence of the Scots. other order for defense of themselues, but fell to singing, dansing, reuelling, and drinking, in most dissolute manner. The Balioll taking occasion héereof, determined to assaile them the same night in their campe; and therevpon causing his people to make them readie to accomplish that enterprise, in the dead of the night he issued foorth of his campe, and comming vnto the water of Erne, passeth the same by the foord, where one Andrew Murrey of Tullibard had pight a stake of set purpose, in midst of the streame, to shew them the waie. Thus hauing got all his armie ouer the water, without anie noise or din, so secretlie as might be deuised, he entered the campe of his enimies, and brake through till he came to the tent of the earle of Mar, the Scots generall, before he was once descried. Héere at the first was the earle himselfe The earle of Mar is slaine in his bed. Sée more héereof in England. slaine, lieng fast asléepe in his bed, & after with huge noise they set vpon the whole campe, murdering the Scots as then buried in sléepe without all defense. And therevpon followed so cruell slaughter, that nothing was heard but grunting and groning of people, as they lay on heapes readie to die, weltering togither in their owne bloud. And if it had not béene that Edward Balioll had caused ech of his men to wrap a white cloth about his arme, no man might haue knowne (by reason of the darknesse of the night) his friend from his fo.

The Englishmen were so earnestlie bent to the slaughter of Scots, that they might not be The great slaughter of Scots. Sixtéene thousand saith Ric. Southwell. filled with the bloud and murder of them, so that they saued none whome they might ouertake. There were slaine of nobles and gentlemen, to the number of three thousand, beside innumerable of the commons. A certeine number of the Scots that escaped out of the place, The earle of Mar was not slaine in the night as before ye haue heard, but now in the morow following as saith Southwell. Noble men slaine at Duplin. Fr. Thin. closed themselues togither, and in purpose to be reuenged on the Englishmen for the death of their fellowes, returned vpon them againe, and were slaine themselues euerie mothers sonne. The chiefest nobles that were slaine at this battell, were these, the earle of Mar generall of the armie, Robert Bruse earle of Carrike, Alexander Fraseir knight, William Haie constable of Scotland, with all his linage so wholie, that had not his wife as then being great bellied, beene afterwards deliuered of a sonne, all his surname had béene vtterlie extinguished. [Wherevpon saith Buchan. Thomas Randolph, Robert Bruse, William Seintclere bishop of Dunkeld, and Doncan Makduffe despairing of good successe, sware fealtie to Balioll.] There were slaine also Robert Keith marshall of the realme, with manie of his surname, Dauid Lindseie of Glenneske, Alexander Beiton, George Dunbar, Robert Strathaquhen, Thomas Haliburton, and Iohn Skrimgeour knights, with manie other ouerlong to rehearse. The earle of The earle of Fife taken. Fife & a few other were taken. This battell was fought on the thirtéenth day of August, in the yeare 1332. After that Edward Balioll had atchiued this victorie thus at Duplin, he went 1332 H. B. straightwaies vnto Perth (otherwise called saint Iohns towne) and giuing assalt thereto, Perth woone by the Balioll. quickelie entered it by force, without anie great resistance. The earle of March that lodged (as is said) the same night that the battell was fought, not past flue miles off, hearing what had chanced both in the battell and towne, came with his people arraied in good and perfect order vnto Perth aforesaid, to besiege the Englishmen with Edward Balioll and other as then within it. But hauing lien there a certeine space, and filled the ditches in the meane time to such Perth besieged by the erle of March. He raiseth his siege. aduantage, that it was thought if he had giuen the assalt, he must needs haue entered, he suddenlie raised from thence, and departed, to the vnspeakeable damage (as was thought) of the whole Scotish nation. The siege being thus raised, there came dailie great numbers of nobles and commons to the Balioll, offering him their aid and seruice as his loiall subiects, towards the atteining of his right to the crowne.

HEREVPON, perceiuing his power sufficientlie increased, and receiuing the othes of the earle of Fife, and William de Seintclere bishop of Dunkeld, he went accompanied with them and a Edward Balioll crowned king of Scotland, not the 24 of September, but the fourth of October, as Ri. Southwell saith. King Dauid is conueied ouer into France. Ri. Southwell. great number of other, vnto Scone, where he was crowned the 24 day of September, in the yeare last before remembred, and receiued there the same time the homages and feaities of a great companie of nobles & gentlemen, at that solemne feast there assembled. King Da id being not past nine yeares of age, to auoid all dangers in that troublesome time, as destitute of succors, by aduise of his councell, was conueied ouer into France with quéene lane his wife, sister to Edward king of England, and was most friendlie receiued by Pailip king of France the sixt of that name, so that they remained there with him for the space of nine yeares. And in the meane time diuers noble men that yet remained at the deuotton of king Dauid, vnderstanding that K. Edward le Balioll soiourned within the towne of Perth, otherwise called saint Iohns towne, which standeth almost in the middle part of the realme. and was at that present not closed with anie wall, or rampire, they raised their powers, and besieged him within the Saint Iohns towne besieged. same towne, he hauing as then no great companie about him.

Whereof when they of Galloway had aduertisement, because the king was their speciall lord and chiefe gouernor, they assembled togither vnder the conduct of the lord Eustact de Makeswell, and inuaded the lands of those Scotishmen that had thus besieged their lord king Edward Balioll, and by that means constreined the aduersaries to leuie their siege. Wherevpon earle Patrike and the new earle of Murrey, with the lord Andrew de Murrey, and the lord Archembald Dowglasse, with an armie assembled in all spéed, entered into Galloway, Galloway inuaded. dooing all the mischiefe they could deuise, with fire & sword, taking & bringing away from thence a great number of cattell and other goods; but they slue no great number of people, for they found them not at home, being withdrawen out of the way for feare of this terrible inuasion. Thus did the Scots in that part of the realme spoile & harrie each others countries.

In the meane time, king Edward le Balioll fortified the towne of Perth, appointing the earle Saint Iohns towne fortified. of Fife to the keeping thereof, whilest he with an armie passed into the countrie; but before he returned, his aduersaries (that is to say) the sonnes of them that had béene slaine at the battell of Duplin, Robert Keith, Alexander Lindseie, Iames and Simon Fraseir wan S. Iohns Saint Iohns towne woone. towne in the third moneth, after they had laid siege thereto, as Hector Boetius saith, But whither that is to be intended after the first besieging thereof, or now after their last comming thither, I can not aflirme; but as the same Boetius writeth, now when the towne was woone, the earle of Fife, and Andrew Murrey of Tullibard, were taken, with other of their complices, The earle with his wife and children were sent to the castell of Kildrummie, there to remaine vnder safe keeping; but Andrew Murrey for his treason afore committed, was beheadded. The towne being thus woone, was deliuered to the kéeping of Iohn Lindseie. But Buchan. out of an other author supposeth that it was not committed to the custodie of anie; but that the walls were pulled downe to the ground. The gaining of this towne put the Scots in hope of more prosperitie to succeed.

And therevpon Iohn Randoll the earle of Murrey, sonne to earle Thomas late of famous memorie, and Archembald Dowglasse lord of Gailoway, the brother of Iames Dowglasse latelie slaine (as before is mentioned) in Spaine with Simon Fraseir and others, gathered a Fr. Thin. great armie, and came with the same [and William Dowglasse lord of Liddesdale to Maufet] against the Balioll, who being aduertised thereof, met them in Annandale, where incountring togither, after cruell fight & great slaughter on both parts, at length Baliols part was put to The battell discomfited and put to flight in Annandale. the woorst, so that he himselfe was glad to flee, hauing got an horsse without a bridle, and rested not till he came to Roxburgh, or rather to Carleill, as Richard Southwell saith. In this battell were slaine sir Henrie Balioll, a man of great valiancie, sir Iohn Mowbraie, Walter Cumin, and Richard Kirkbie; but Alexander Bruse earle of Carrike, and the lord of Galloway were taken prisoners, and saued by the helpe of the earle of Murrey, for that they had submitted themselues to the Balioll but latelie before. Shortlie after the atchiuing of this victorie, Andrew Murrey a man of great puissance and possessions was chosen to be gouernor, as Andrew Murrey chosen fellow gouernor with the earle of March. colleage and associat with the earle of March. These two gouernors, hearing that the king of England was minded to inuade Scotland with a maine armie, sent sir Alexander Seiton with manie other gentlemen vnto Berwike for defense of that towne and castell; [Alexander (as saith Buchan.) being capteine of the towne, and Patrike Dunbar capteine of the castle and Fr. Thin. Andrew Murrey the new gouernor is taken prisoner. borders aioining.] Shortlie after, the new gouernor Andrew Murrey was taken prisoner at Roxburgh, by reason that hauing put his enimies to flight in a skirmish which he made with them at the bridge without the castell, he pursued ouer rashlie in the chase, and was inclosed amongst them, and so taken yer he might be rescued. [At which time also William Fr. Thin. Dowglasse lord of Liddesdale was sent to Annandale, to defend the west marches.] There was also taken beside the gouernor, a notable pirat named Crab, who before that time had doone Ri. Southwell. Crab, a pirat taken. manie displeasures to the Englishmen both by sea and land: and now because his countriemen would not ransome him, but to his further griefe had slaine his sonne within Berwike, he became the king of Englands man, and did the Scots more damage afterwards, than euer he had doone to the Englishmen before. The gouernor at length was ransomed for a great summe of gold.

About the same time William Dowglasse of Liddesdale named for his singular manhood, William Dowglasse of Liddesdale taken prisoner. The flower of chiualrie, fought with the Englishmen in Annandale, where himselie was taken, and his people discomfited. Both these noble men thus taken prisoners, were deteined in captiuitie more than a twelue moneths space, & then ransomed for a great summe of gold. This William Dowglasse was sonne to sir Iames Dowglasse, of whom so often mention is made heretofore. The realme of Scotland being thus diuided in two parts, the one assisting the Balioll, and the other continuing in their allegíance sworne and promised to king Dauid: Edward king of England purposeth to subdue the Scots. Edward king of England iudged the time to serue well for his purpose to make conquest on the Scots, and herevpon gathering a mightie armie both of Englishmen and strangers, as well such as were subiects to him as other, whome he reteined out of Normandie, Aniou, and Flanders, he came with the same to subdue (as he outwardlie pretended) onelie such Scots as would not yéeld themselues to the Balioll. The Scots perceiuing themselues thus ouerset with enimies on each The earle of Murrey is sent into France. side, sent Iohn Randoll earle of Murrey into France vnto king Dauid, that by his means they might purchase some aid of the French king to defend the realme from the force of the enimies. In the meane time the king of England besieged Berwike both by sea and land, Berwike is besieged. notwithstanding such as were within it defended the towne so manfullie that he got but small gaines by assaults; by reason whereof the siege continued for the space of foure moneths: during which time manie issues and skirmishes were made betwixt the Scots and Englishmen, whereat manie proper feats of armes were atchiued with variable fortune.

Buchanan. William Seiton bastard sonne to the capteine of the towne was taken prisoner, and his bastard brother, as he assailed the English ships one night ouer-fiercelie, was drowned by mischance in the sea. At length, when they within the towne began to want vittels, the Sir Alexander Seiton capteineof Berwike. capteine sir Alexander Seiton sent vnto king Edward, promising that if he would grant a truce for the space of 6 daies, if no succour came in the meane time to resist his siege, the towne should be deliuered into his hands at the end of that terme; and for the assurance thereof, he was contented that his eldest sonne and heire Thomas Seiton should remaine with the said king in hostage. Whilest things passed thus at Berwike, the nobles of Scotland by common Archembald Dowglasse chosen gouernor in place of Andrew Murrey. consent chose Archembald Dowglasse to be gouernor in place of Andrew Murrey. This Archembald Dowglasse raising a mightie armie of Scotishmen entered with the same into the borders of England, so to withdraw king Edward from the siege of Berwike to defend his owne lands from burning and spoiling. But king Edward aduertised hereof, deuised an other shift; for immediatlie sending a messenger to sir Alexander Seiton capteine of the towne, he certified him plainelie, that vnlesse he rendered the towne forthwith into his hands, both his sonnes which he had with him, the one as hostage, and the other as prisoner, should be without further delay hanged on a gibbet there in sight afore his owne face.

Sir Alexander Seiton hereto answered, that as yet the terme of the truce was not expired, & therefore desired the king either to obserue the couenants, or else to deliuer the pledges, that he might be at his aduantage: but king Edward (as saith the Scotish chronicle) immediatlie caused a paire of gallows to be raised before the towne, and both the sonnes of sir Alexander to be led thither, to suffer on the same without further respit. Sir Alexander Seiton beholding that pitifull sight, and weieng with himselfe, that he might sane the liues of those innocent creatures, if he would, was brought into great perplexitie of mind: the naturall affection and compassion which he bare towards his sonnes mouing him to haue Sir Alexander Seiton in doubt what to doo. rendered the towne on the one side, and the dutie with faith promised to his king and countrie restraining him from all such resolution on the other. But in the end, the tender regard he had to saue the liues of his sonnes, had ouercome him, and caused him to haue rendered the towne into his enimies hand, had not his wife and mother to his said sonnes, exhorted him most The manlie stomach of Alexander Seitons wife. earnestlie to the contrarie, alleging that such reproch and dishonor should redound vnto them, and their posteritie, if through their fault the towne were traitorouslie deliuered into the enimies hand, that from thenceforth they should be infamed for euer: and as for the death of their sonnes, it was not to be counted a losse, for by this kind of death, they should win immortall name, & leaue to their parents the high honor and renowme of faithfull & loiall subiects. Againe they were yoong inough to beget and bring foorth new children, where they should be neuer able to recouer honor once lost; if by deliuering the towne into the enimies hands, they should séeme to betraie their countrie, & falsifie their faith to their naturall prince and souereigne.

With such & manie other the like words, this noble & woorthie ladie persuaded hir husband to refraine his inward griefe, and brought him with right sorrowfull and heauie chéere vnto his chamber, that through commiseration had of his sonnes, he should commit nothing either against his honor or weale of the towne. In the meane time, his two sonnes were put Sir Alenxedar Seitons sonnes executed. Fr. Thin. to death, ending their liues (saith Hector Boetius) with most honor, for the righteous quarell of their countrie: [at what time K. Edward remoued his campe to Halidon hill.] Arcembald Dowglasse the gouernor, being at that present entered into Northumberland with his armie, hearing that king Edward had thus cruellie put to death those two yoong gentlemen, came the third day after with all his power, and pitched downe his tents not far from K. Edwards Archembald Dowglas purposeth to giue battell. armie, fullie resolued to giue him battell, as well to reuenge the displeasure for the death of the said gentlemen, as to deliuer the towne of Berwike from further danger of the enimies force.

Yet were there sundrie prudent councellors in the Scotish armie, that for diuers respects aduised him in no wise to fight with the enimies at that present, considering the huge number of practised souldiers which they had amongest them, and the want of skilfull warriours on his side, hauing few with him saue yoongmen, and such as lacked experience in the wars, for that they had béene but little trained therein. Notwithstanding, he himselfe was of contrarie opinion, iudging that the good willes and desire which his people had to fight with the Englishmen, should supplie their lacke of skill: and therevpon determining to trie the chance of battell with them, commanded his armie to refresh themselues with meat, drinke, and sléepe for that night, and to prouide themselues readie for battell on the next morning. In the breake of the day he arraied his people in order of battell. The vauntgard was giuen to Hugh, lord The appointing of the Scotish battels. Rosse, hauing with him Kenneth earle of Southerland, Simon and Iohn Fraseir, and Iohn Murrey lieutenant to the earle of Murrey, who as then was sore tormented with a grieuous maladie or sicknesse. The second battell was committed to the gouernance of Alexander Lindseie, with whome were ioined Alexander Gordon, Reinold Graham, and Robert Kenneth. In the third battell was the gouernor himselfe, accompanied with Iames, Iohn, and Alane Stewards, the sons of Walter great Steward of Scotland.

On the other part, the Englishmen were nothing slow to come forward to incounter the The policie of the English men. Scots, but at the first to take the vantage of the ground, they gaue somewhat backe, withdrawing to the side of an hill, which they hauing once got, boldlie turned themselues to the Scots that pursued them ouer rashlie, in hope that the victorie had béene alreadie theirs: but being here fiercelie receiued by the Englishmen, and beaten downe in heaps on each side, though they inforced themselues with all their might to be reuenged both for old and new iniuries which they had receiued, and so slue no small number of the enimies; yet in the end was the Scotish The Scotish armie put to flight. The great slaughter of Scots. armie put to flight, and more slaughter made in the chase, than was afore in the battell: for one wing of the Englishmen making forwards to get before the Scots, so stopped their passage, that they were slaine miserablie on each side, as they had beene inclosed within a toile or deerestall. There were but few in number that were taken prisoners, those on the next day were beheaded by commandement of king Edward, except a small number which were kept secret by some of the Englishmen for profit of their ransome. There were slaine on that day of the The number of Scots slaine at Hallidon hill. battell, to the number of fourtéene thousand men, amongest whome were these as principall: Archembald Dowglas the gouernour, Iohn Steward, Iames Steward, and Alane Steward, the sonnes of Walter Steward; the earle of Rosse, the earle of Southerland, Alexander Bruse earle of Carrike, Andrew, Iames, and Simon Fraseir. This battell was fought on Magdalen day, in the yeare of Grace, 1333.

1333. H. B. Buchanan. ¶ That this number and therewith manie mo doo abound by one yeare, Wil. Harison dooth gather togither by the feries*, because Adam Meremouth saith, that Magdalen day fell on the *Ferias. monday this yeare, and that the morrow after being tuesday, Berwike was surrendered. But for so much as the same Meremouth maie be perhaps deceiued, or mistaken herein: I haue here thought good (as in other places) to note in the margent the yeare, according to the account of Hector Boetius, speciallie in this place, the rather because he agréeth with Richard Southwell, Robert Auesburie, and other of our English writers, concerning this yeare in which this battell was fought: but where the same Boetius saith, that it was fought on Magdalen day, R. Southwell, Robert Auesburie, Thomas Wals. and diuers other affirme, that it was fought the ninetéenth of Iulie being saint Margarets euen. But now to procéed. The place where this battell was striken, is called Hallidon hill.

Immediatlie vpon this ouerthrow of the Scotish power, Alexander Seiton and Patrike onlie not haue place, but Balioll was also driuen to that extremitie, that he must haue one of them (with his faction) to be his enimies. For now Alexander, stroken with this iniurie (to haue the iudgement giuen before for him thus to be reuoked) forsaking the Balioll, ioined himselfe with Andrew Murrey gouernor of Scotland (for Dauid Bruse) hauing a little before ransomed himselfe, with a great masse of monie out of the Englishmens hands. These things (although doone at seuerall times) we haue ioined togither, least by often repeating of them in other places, the course of the historie might be broken: for (vpon this) Andrew Murrey besieged Beaumont in the castell of Dongard, the inheritance of his 1334. Scala chron. wife, where he surrendered the same, vpon condition that he might fréelie repaire into England: at what time also Richard Talbot, (being beyond the mounteins, in the inheritance of his wife the daughter of Iohn Cumin of Scotland (for now manie English nobles possessed great reuenues in Scotland by mariages) hearing of these newes, that Balioll was Scala chron. Iohn Maior. forsaken by the earle of Atholl and Beaumont, would haue gone into England, but was taken in Lownes. ¶ This yeere the earle of March holding on the part of the king of Scala chron. England, came to him to Newcastell vpon Tine, who returning homeward, was grieuouslie wounded of the people of Northumberland, for couetousnes, to haue robbed him of such monie as K. Edward had liberallie bestowed vpon him.)

Not long after this, Edward Balioll came to Rainfrew, and there receiuing the people The castels of Rothsaie and Dunnone deliuered to the Balioll. Fr. Thin. into his obeisance, had the keies of the castell of Rothsaie and Dunnone, brought vnto him by sir Alane Lile shiriffe of Bute [at what time the king gaue to him the kéeping of the castell of Rothsaie, hauing before made him shiriffe.] Thus did the Balioll increase in puissance, by such confluence of people as dailie submitted themselues vnto him, & he inriched them liberallie with lands and goods still as they came to him, thereby to win there good wils. He sought by all meanes possible to haue gotten Robert Steward into his Robert Steward. hands, as the person whome he knew to haue most right, next vnto king Dauid, to the crowne of Scotland: but through the diligent foresight of his friends, this Robert Steward being about the age of fiftéene yéeres, was conueied [with bote and horsse, by the belpe Fr. Thin. of William Hariot and Iohn Gilbert] to the castell of Dunbreton, where he was ioifullie receiued by Malcolme Fleming the capteine.

The Balioll being sore offended, that such castels as were kept by his enimies, were so great an impediment to his interprises, by succouring and relieuing his aduersaries to make warres against him, he got togither an armie, and the next yéere laid siege to the castell of Lochleuin besieged. Lochleuin: but perceiuing that this castell might not be woone without long siege, he appointed sir-lohn Striueling to continue the siege with a great power of men, vntill the castell were yeelded. There were left also with him, Michaell Hariot, Dauid Vemis, and Richard Maleuill, with diuerse other. These capteins aduising the place and site of the castell, lodged themselues within the churchyard of saint Serfe, beside Kinrosse, making bastiles and other defenses within the same, for their more safegard. Within the castell were two valiant capteins to defend it, the one named Alane Vepont and Iames Lambie, Alane Vepōt and Iames Lambie capteins of Lochleuin. citizens of saint Andrews.

The enimies assaied all the meanes that might be deuised to haue woone this castell, but all was in vaine. At length, they deuised a subtill sleight, whereby to compasse their intent, on this wise. They went about to dam vp the mouth of the riuer where it issueth A deuise to drowne the castell. out of the Loch, with earth, trées, & stones, that the water being so kept in, might rise to such an height, that it should ouerflow the castell, and so drowne all the people within it. And to cause the Loch to swell more speedilie, they turned the course of diuerse riuers and brookes in the countrie thereabouts, and brought them into the same Loch. It chanced at the same time, that sir Iohn Striueling capteine of the siege, with a great part of the armie, went vnto Dunfirmling for deuotion sake, to visit the shrine of saint Margaret, sometime quéene of Scotland. Whereof Alane Vepont then capteine of the castell, hauing vnderstanding, about midnight prepared three botes, and taking certeine souldiers with him, rowed foorth to the head of the dam or water, and there, with such engins as he had deuised for the purpose, assaied to boare through and make a hole in the banke or rampire that kept vp the water, which when they had brought to passe, they returned quickelie againe to the castell.

The water hauing once gotten an issue, within a while ware the hole so large, that entering with more violence, it finallie brake downe the banke, and rushed foorth with such an huge streame, that it bare downe all afore it, drowning vp the bastils and tents of them The bastiles and tents of them that lay at siege drowned. that lay at siege there, and caried the same with men and all downe into the déepe sea, they were so suddenlie taken, yer they could make anie shift to escape. Alane Vepont, when the water was fallen to the old marke, issued foorth of the castell, & setting vpon those that had escaped the danger of the water, slue part of them, and put the remnant to flight. Iohn Striueling hearing the mischiefe that had happened to his folks, returned to the siege, and made a vow neuer to depart from thence, till he had taken the castell, and slaine all them within it. But yet, after he had laine there a long time, and saw it was not possible to win that fortresse, he was constreined to raise his siege, and to go his waies, after he had lost thereat no small number of his people. This siege of Lochleuin chanced in the Lent season, in the yéere 1335.

1335. K. Edward inuadeth Scotland both by sea and land. In the yéere following, king Edward prepared an armie both by sea and land, to enter into Scotland. He sent by sea 70 ships well and sufficientlie decked for the warres, to enter by the Forth: but by a sore tempest manie of those vessels perished betwixt Inchketh and the North land. He himselfe hauing the Balioll in his companie, with fiftie thousand men, came by land vnto Glascow, and perceiuing there was little for him to doo, for that no rebellion greatlie anie where appeared, he returned backe againe into England with the Balioll, and left Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl gouernor in his roome, to subdue the residue of the rebels, and to win those strengths, which as yet were defended against him. Dauid Cumin Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl gouernor of the Balioll in Scotland. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. left thus to be gouernor in Scotland, tooke vpon him the rule in name both of the king of England, and also of the Balioll, and seized into his hands all those lands in Murrey and Buchquhane, which perteined to Robert Steward, confiscating all the goods of such the inhabitants, as would not be sworne vnto him. [Who notwithstanding that hee was of such great authoritie in Scotland, of credit with both kings, Edward of England, & Edward of Scotland, and of excéeding great possessions of his owne, would yet neuer vsurpe anie superioritie to him himselfe in stile, but passed all the grants and writings in the name of Edward king of England, and of Balioll king of Scots. At what time none would publikelie professe him a subiect to Dauid Bruse, but boies, who in their plaies & games would alwaies call their king, Dauid Bruse.]

Incontinentlie héerevpon, Robert Steward assembled his friends by the helpe of Dungall Campbell of Lochquhow, and suddenlie tooke the castell of Dunnone, sleaing all the The castell of Dunnone taken. Fr. Thin. Englishmen and other, which were found therein. [Which Campbell (as saith Iohn Maior) came with 400 men, and by the testimonie of Buch. was a man of great power in Argile.] The commons of Bute and Arrane, glad of this prosperous beginning, assembled togither to the number of foure hundred persons, and set forward, that they might come to support Robert Steward in such his late begun enterprises: and being incountered by the waie by The shiriffe of Bute slaine. Fr. Thin. Alane Lile shiriffe of Bute, they laid so lustilie about them, that they slue the shiriffe, [with Iohn Gilbert capteine of the castle of Bute] there in the field, & discomfited all his people [which they did after this manner. These people of Bute, (called the seruants of Bawdanus) Fr. Thin. Buchanan. Iohn Maior. séeing such sturs to be made by Alane Lile, ran to a heape of stones not farre from them, and with great force pelting the shiriffe, they in the end killed him with stones, and put the rest to flight.] Diuerse of them taken prisoners, were brought awaie, and presented vnto Robert Steward, who in recompense of this seruice, granted sundrie priuileges vnto the inhabitants of Bute and Arrane: as among other things, to be frée from paieng tribute for A releasement of tribute. their corne and graine. Such felicities succéeding one another, caused manie of the Scots to ioine themselues with Robert Steward, in hope to recouer the realme out of the English mens hands. Amongst other, Thomas Bruse earle of Carrike, and William Canther [whome Iohn Maior calleth Carucher, & Buchanan Carruder of Annandale] with a number Fr. Thin. of the commons came vnto him.

About the same time, the earle of Murrey returned foorth of France, and landed at The earle of Murrey returneth foorth of France. Fr. Thin. Countries reduced to the obeisance of king Dauid. Fr. Thin. Donbriton, where he was most ioifullie receiued by the said Robert Steward. Shortlie after the said Steward, and the said earle, hauing with them a great power of their friends and alies [as Godfrie Rosse, and others] came into Clidesdaie, Ranfrew, Kile, Cunningham and Aire, which togither with Ros and Murrey, they reduced to the obeisance of king Dauid. [At which time (as saith Buchanan) did Ranfraie come to his old lords the Stewards.] The earle of Murrey also, to reuenge the iniuries doone by the earle of Atholl, went vnto Aberden, and there learning where he soiorned, made thither with all spéed; but the earle of Atholl vnderstanding how all the countrie tooke part with his aduersaries, fled into the mounteins, where he susteined his life with hearbs and roots for a time, and The earle of Atholl fléeth into the mounteins. He submitteth himselfe. durst not come foorth to shew his head. At length, when he saw no waie to escape, he came foorth and in most humble wise submitted himselfe to the lords that defended the part of king Dauid. They receiuing him vpon his submission, sware him to be true vnto king Dauid, and exhorting him to be as diligent in reconciling the people vnto king Dauid, as he had béene afore to subdue them to the obedience of the Balioll, they suffered him to depart.

About the same time, sir William Dowglasse of Liddesdale, and Andrew Murrey, were Sir William Dowglasse, and Andrew Murrey ransomed. The earle of Murrey and Robert Steward elected gouernours. ransomed home out of England, for a great summe of monie after they had béene kept there by the space of thrée yéeres in captiuitie. At their comming to Edenburgh, they found the lords assembled in councell, at the which Iohn Randolph earle of Murrey, and Robert Steward, with generall voices were elected gouernours. Manie Scotishmen at this time reuolted from the king of England, submitting themselues to king Dauid, as Aiexander Ramsay, a verie skillfull warrior, Laurence Presion, Iohn Herring, and Iohn Haliburton knights, with diuerse other.

* After this, Iohn Randolph, and Robert Steward, were sent into the north parts with Fr. Thin. Buchanan. a strong armie, gathered of such as were wearied by the English gouernement, whereat Dauid Cumin (being feared with the sudden assemblie) fled for his safetie, whome they egerlie pursued, and taking him (being then beset in a narrow streict, and oppressed with penurie of all things) they compelled him to yéeld (without anie more circumstances) to their faction, who then swearing fealtie to Dauid Bruse, was permitted to depart vpon his promise: wherevnto they gaue such faith, that they left him deputie for them. At what time he did not faintlie dissemble the fauouring & defending of the part of Bruse. In the meane time, Randolph returned into Louthian, and ioined himselfe with his old friend William Dowglasse latelie returned out of England, & now with great slaughters of his enimies egerlie reuenged the long lothsomnesse of his imprisonment: to whome also to make their partie the stronger, came Andrew Murrey, which was taken at Bokesborowe. Wherefore these gouernours sufficientlie garded with the nobilitie, appointed a parlement at Perth, in the kalends of Aprill. Whither when the nobles came, there could not be anie Hector Boet. saith it was holden at Darsée. thing performed, by reason of the secret hartburning harbored in the bosoms of William Dowglasse, and Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl: the cause whereof was pretended to be, in that Dowglasse did obiect vnto Cumin, that it was by his meanes, that he was no sooner deliuered out of prison from the English: amongst which nobilitie, Steward fauored Cumin, and almost all the other tooke part with Dowglasse. Which dissention amongst the nobilitie, was occasioned for suspect which they had of the Cumins comming to that place with so great a traine: for he brought thither such number of his friends and followers, that he was a terror to all the rest of the assemblie, to the increase of which suspicion, they further ioined a conceit they had of Cumins great and changeable wit, his aspiring mind, and certeine rumors spred abroad of the comming of the English, with whome no man did doubt, but that the earle of Atholl would ioine for his defense.)

Edward king of England vnderstanding the rebellion of the Scots, determined to assaile Ye may read more of this matter in the historie of England. A nauie sent into Scotland. Shipwracke. K. Edward inuadeth the Scots by land. them both by sea and land: and so prouiding a nauie of an hundred and foure score ships; sent the same well vittelled and manned to saile into the Forth, the which being there arriued, burnt and spoiled the townes on both sides that riuer, but returning backe into England, they lost manie of their vessels by a tempest. King Edward himselfe, togither with Edward the Balioll entered by land, with an armie of fiftie thousand men, leading the same to the towne of Perth, otherwise called saint lohns towne, and there lodged in campe, abiding for the comming of the earle of Atholl, who as then being solicited thereto by the king of Englands agents, was readie to turne againe incominentlie to his side [who after Fr. Thin. Scala chron. accordinglie, with Godfrie of Rosse, & Alexander Mowbraie, with otherd, came to the king of England.]

The same time, whilest the king of England lay thus at Perth, the earle of Namure (whom the Scotish writers wronglie name the duke of Gelderland) came into England with an Not the duke of Gelderland but Namure named Guy. armie, and purposing to passe thorough Scotland vnto the place where king Edward lay in campe, to come to his aid, was discomfited on the Burrowe moore, beside Edenburgh, by the power of the gouernours and others, which were there assembled against him. There died manie on both parts in the fight (as Iohn Fourdon writeth) for the strangers fought Iohn Fourdon. verie valiantlie: insomuch that if William Dowglasse, with diuerse other, had not come William Dowglasse commeth to the succour of the Scots. downe from Pictland hils to the aid of the Scots, whilest they were thus fighting, the strangers that day had woone the victorie. But now discouraged with the sudden comming of this fresh aid to their aduersaries, they began to giue place, and drew towards Edenburgh: neuerthelesse kéeping themselues in order of battell, they fought still: and at length comming to Edenburgh, they were driuen vp thorough the friers street, and so by an other street, called saint Marie Wind, where one sir Dauid de Anand, a verie valiant knight Dauid de Anand a Scotish knight. chanced to be wounded by one of the enimies, by reason whereof he was so kindled in wrathfull desire to be reuenged, that with an axe which he had in his hand, he gaue his aduersarie (that had hurt him) such a blow on the shoulder, that he claue him downe Hyperbole. togither with his horsse, that the axe staied not till it light vpon the verie hard pauement, so as the print of that violent stroke remained to be séene a long time after in one of the stones of the same pauement.

The strangers still retiring, and manfullie defending themselues, at length got to the hill where Edenburgh castle standeth, and there slue their horsses, making as it were a rampier of their carcasses, so to defend themselues from the force of their enimies: but being inuironed by the Scots on ech side all that night, and hauing neither meate nor drinke wherewith to susteine their languishing bodies, the which beside hunger and thirst, were sore tormented with cold also, and want of conuenient lodging, they yéelded themselues the next day, with condition to haue their liues saued. When the spoile of the field (where they first ioined) was gathered, amongst the dead bodies there was found a woman of. an huge A woman of manlike force and stature. stature, who in the beginning of the battell stept foorth before hir companie, and incountering in singular fight with an esquire of Scotland, named Richard Shaw, she ouerthrew him, and afterwards beating downe hir enimies on ech side, long it was yer she might be ouerthrowne, which chanced not before she was inuironed about on ech side with hir enimies.

The earle of Namure hauing yéelded himselfe into the hands of the gouernours, was verie courteouslie vsed, the earle of Murrey not onelie rendering vnto him all his goods, but also granting him licence to depart: and for his more suertie, he went himselfe in person with him to the borders, to sée him safe deliuered out of all dangers. But by a ambush The earle of Murrey is taken prisoner. that lay in wait for the earle of Murrey, he was taken prisoner, and brought to king Edward. Dauid Cumin earle of Atholl, hearing that the earle of Murrey one of the gouernours was thus taken, supposing king Edwards part to be much aduanced thereby, came streightwaies vnto Perth, and gaue his faith eftsoones vnto Edward Balioll, and was againe established by The earle of Atholl reuolting to the Balioll is eftsoones established gouernor. him gouernour of the realme of Scotland, as he was before. The king of England, hauing in the meane time gotten the towne of Perth, returned into England, and tooke the Balioll The king of England returneth home taking the Balioll with him. with him, for doubt least when he had recouered the whole gouernement of the realme, he should shrinke awaie from him. The earle of Atholl hauing now regained his former authoritie, began to exercise great crueltie against all those that were enimies to the Balioll.

The nobles of the contrarie faction (as Patrike Dunbar earle of March, Andrew Murrey, & William Dowglasse, with other) tooke great despite therat, and raising an armie to restreine his insolent dooings, came towards him, whereof he being aduertised (as then lieng at siege before the castle of Kildrummie) rose and met them in the fields within the forrest of Kilblaine, where he gaue them a sore battell, and had gone awaie with the victorie, had not Iohn Crag capteine of Kildrummie sallied foorth of the castle with three hundred fresh men, and comming to the succour of his friends, renewed the battell in such earnest wise, that the aduersaries thereby were discomfited, earle Dauid their chiefteine being slaine in the field, The earle of Atholl is slaine. with Walter Bride, Robert Cumin, and a great number of other, both gentlemen and commons. Sir Thomas Cumin was taken prisoner, & beheaded the next day, being Newyéeres day. For the battell before mentioned was fought the last day of December (as Fourdon noteth.) Who further saith, that the earle of Atholl had with him thrée thousand Fourdon. men against his aduersaries, which were not past eleuen hundred.

* This Dauid earle of Atholl was verie inconstant & gréedie of gouernment, who if he Fr. Thin. Iohn Maior lib.5. cap. 14. had brought all the Scots to haue taken king Edwards part, would out of doubt, haue afterward contended with king Edward, and inuaded the kingdome of Scotland by violence; he did most grieuouslie oppresse the giltlesse and poore people, and wickedlie ordered all things after his own fansie, without reason.) Cumin earle of Atholl was slaine on this wise: Andrew Murrey was chosen gouernour in place of the earle of Murrey, taken (as Andrew Murrey chosen gouernor. before is said) by the Englishmen. This Andrew Murrey in the beginning of his new office, laid siege to the castle of Couper, with a mightie power of men, but hearing that the Cumins made foule woorke in the north parts of the realme, against such as fauoured The Cumins put to flight. not the English part, he left that siege, and went against them, with whome incountering in battell, he ouerthrew their armie, and put them all to flight.

At this bickering were slaine two of the Cumins, Robert and William, Thomas Caldar, and diuerse other valiant men, though enimies for the time vnto the gouernour. This victorie reduced all the north parts of Scotland vnto the obeisance of king Dauid. Few The north parts of Scotland reduced to the obeisance of king Dauid. The castle of Dungard woone. The castle of Lochindoris besieged. Englishmen after the same abode within the north bounds of Scotland, except those that were within the castle of Dungard in Buchquhane. At length this castle was woone, & all that kept it slaine, except Henrie Beaumont the capteine, who being sworne neuer to returne againe into Scotland, was licenced by the gouernour to depart into England without anie interruption. After this, the gouernour came to the castle of Lochindoris, and laid siege to it, where within was the countesse of Atholl, the wife of the late slaine earle Dauid. This woman hauing knowledge aforehand, that hir house should be besieged, had sent vnto the king of England and to Edward Balioll for succours.

The king of England now doubting least all the strengths in Scotland, kept by such as were his friends, would be lost without recouerie, if the same were not the sooner rescued, he raised an armie of fortie thousand men, and entering therewith into Scotland, came to The king of England commeth to raise the siege of Lochindoris. the castle of Lochindoris aforsaid. The Scots that lay there at siege, vpon knowledge had of his comming towards them, brake vp, and departed from thence. Héerevpon, when he had refreshed the hold with new men, munition, and vittels, he tooke the countesse foorth with him, and passed with bloudie swoord thorough Murrey, euen to Elghine, and returning by Mar, burnt the towne of Aberden. [Then he went to Striueling, where he stronglie The towne of Aberden burned by the Englishmen. Fr. Thin. Scala chron. repared the castle: from whence he tooke his iournie to Botheuill, and there also in winter he made the castle stronger, in which he placed a valiant garrison: to this fort the lord Berkeleie conueied vittels from Edenburgh, and in one night discomfited William Dowglasse that lay in wait to intercept him. After which, king Edward did shortlie lose all the said castels, which he had before with so great care fortified.] His nauie being on the sea at the same time, entered into the Forth, and spoiling (as other had doone afore time) the church of saint Colme, felt reuenge thereof shortlie after: for that ship (as they tell the tale) wherein saint Colmes goods (for so they call them) were laden, soonke to the bottome of the sea, without force of anie tempest, or other apparant occasion.

The king of England at his comming to Perth, foorth of the north parts of Scotland, and The towne of Perth newlie fortified. finding the towne vnfortified, caused the same to be newlie fensed with wals and bulworks, at the charges and onelie expenses of these six abbeies, Aberbrothoke, Couper, Lundoris, Balmerinoch, Dunfirmling, & saint Andrewes. Henrie Beaumont also, who contrarie to his oth before taken, was now returned with king Edward into Scotland, was made capteine of saint Andrewes. Also Henrie Ferrar was made capteine of the castle of Lucres, William Montacute of Striueling,William Felton of Rockesburgh, and the kéeping of the towne of Perth was committed vnto one Thomas Vthred. Whilest king Edward or lered things in Scotland after this maner, his brother (surnamed by the Scotish writers Eltaam) came vnto him at Perth, who in the west parts of Scotland had exercised much crueltie, as well against the enimies of the Englishmen, as against those that were fauourers and friends vnto them, insomuch that passing through Galloway, Carike, Kile, and Cuningham, he put all to the fier and His crueltie. swoord that came in his waies. He burned the church of saint Bute, and a thousand persons within it, which were fled thither for safegard of their liues. At his comming to Perth, he found the king his brother within the church there, who being sore offended with him for his misordered dooings, verie sharpelie reprooued him for the same: and forsomuch as he K. Edward sleieth his brother Eltham. answered him somewhat frowardlie, he plucked foorth his swoord, and there thrust him through the bodie, euen before the altar of saint Iohn, wishing that all such might perish on the same wise, as put no difference betwixt friend and fo, place hallowed and vnhallowed; as being no reason, that the church should be anie more refuge for him, than he had made it for other.

It may be, that king Edward slue some other man in this sort, as the Scots héere doo write: but for the earle of Cornewall that was brother to king Edward, and surnamed Iohn of Eltham, because he was borne at Eltham, it is nothing true that he was so made awaie, for he died of He died of a naturall infirmitie, as by the English writers it appéereth. K. Edward returneth into England. Andrew Murrey commeth foorth of the mounteins. He winneth the castle of Kincleuin. a naturall infirmitie, as by our English writers it manifestlie appéereth. But now to procéed with the historie, as we find it written. Such things accomplished in Scotland (as before ye haue heard) king Edward returned into England, & left the Balioll behind him with a great power of men at Perth. About the same time, Henrie Beaumont slue all such Scots as he might lay hands on, that had beene at the battell of Kilbleine, where his coosine Dauid Cumin was slaine. Moreouer now, after that king Edward was returned into England, Andrew Murrey came foorth of the mounteins, into the which he was before withdrawen to esch the furie of the Englishmen, and by the assistance of sundrie of the nobles of Scotland, he wan the castle of Kincleuin, and rased it to the earth. Shortlie after he came into Mernes, and there tooke the castle of Kilnesse, and likewise rased the same. Then passing forward, he burned Dunnoter.

On the other part, the Englishmen made no lesse spoile and destruction on ech side where they came, so that the Mernes, Angus, Stermond, and Gowrie through spoile, murther, & The calamitie chancing to sundrie countries of Scotland thorough continuall wars. The victorie of Andrew Murrey gotten at Panmore Henrie Mountfort slaine. other disgraces, chancing by continuall warre, were left in manner waste and desolat. At length, this Andrew Murrey assembling a great power, with support of them of Murrey, Mar, and Buchquhan, fought with his enimies at Panmore in Angus, where he obteined the victorie with huge slaughter of Englishmen, and other his aduersaries. In this battell was slaine Henrie Mountfort, who latelie before had béene sent by king Edward into Scotland to support the Balioll, beside foure thousand others, the most part gentlemen: so that this ouerthrow was verie displeasant to the king of England, hauing his side sore weakened thereby. After the gaine of this victorie, Andrew Murrey passed thorough Fife & Angus, ouerthrowing the castle of Lucres, with all the other strengths of Fife, the castle of Couper onelie excepted.

The castle of Lucres ouerthrowne. Fr. Thin. Scala chron. * Andrew Murrife gardian of the Scots (and sir Dauid Bruse) did much harme in the countrie of Carleill, from whence he went to besiege the castle of Edenburgh (as yet in the hands of the English) whose intent cōming to the knowledge of the marchers of England, they hastned to repaire to raise the same siege of Edenburgh, and to rescue their countriemen within the towne. By meanes whereof, the Scots remooued and came to Clerkington, and the English came to Krethtowne not farre distant; betwéene whome there was a great fight, and manic slaine on both sides. But the victorie inclining (without anie great conquest) to neither partie, both armies parted: for the English went ouer Tweed, and the Scots feining that they would go into England, lodged themselues at Galuschell. So that king Edward hearing of such prosperous successe chancing to his aduersaries, sent incontinentlie two capteins with Two armies sent into Scotland. William Talbot, or rather Tailbois is taken prisōer. Richard Mountfort or Montacute is slaine. The castell of Dunbar is besieged by the armies of Salisburie and Arundell. Fr. Thin. 1337. Blacke Agnes of Dunbar. two armies into Scotland, to the support of the Balioll.

William Tailbois a man of notable prowes, hauing the conduct of the one of these armies, was incountred by William Keith, and after the discomfiture of his people, being taken prisoner, was kept in captiuitie till he paid two thousand marks for his ransome. The other was led by Richard Mountfort with whome Laurence Preston and Robert Gordon met, and giuing him battell, slue the same Richard with the most part of all his companie. About the same time sir William Montacute earle of Salisburie, togither with the earle of Arundell came into Scotland with a great power of men, and besieged the castell of Dunbar, lieng at the same for the space of 22 wéeks. [At which battell also was king Edward, the earle of Glocester, the lords Persie and Neuill, being in the yeare 1337, as saith Scala chron.] Within the said castell was the countesse hir selfe, surnamed blacke Agnes of Dunbar, who shewed such manlie defense, that no gaine was to be got anie waies forth at hir hands, so that in the end they were constreined to raise their siege, and to depart without spéed of their purpose. It is said, that this countesse vsed manie pleasant words in iesting and tawnting at the enimies dooings, thereby the more to incourage hir souldiers.

One day it chanced that the Englishmen had deuised an engine called a sow, vnder An engine called a sow. the pentise or couert wherof they might approch safelie to the wals: she beholding this engine, merilie said, that vnlesse the Englishmen kept their sow the better, she would make hir to cast hir pigs: and so she after destroied it. In the yeare next after this siege, there A great dearth and also a death in Scotland. was such a dearth through all the bounds of Scotland, with such mortalitie of people, as a greater had not lightlie béene séene nor heard of. The cause of which mortalitie procéeded (as was thought) for that the ground lay vntilled and not occupied, by reason of the continuall warres before passed. [The marchers of England (that were left behind the Fr. Thin. Scala chron. lords that went into Scotland) were discomfited at Preffen: where Robert Maners was taken, with manie other prisoners, beside a multitude that were slaine, by reason of certeine displeasant words amongest them, which caused that they brake order, diuided themselues, and fought in an inconuenient place.] All the souldiers that kept the castell of Couper, for The castell of Couper left void. lacke of vittels left the house void, and comming to the sea side, hired a ship to haue passed into England, but through negligence of the maister mariner, they fell vpon a sand-bed, and so were cast away. About the same time the most part of all their strengths and fortresses The castell of Louthian in the hands of the Englishmen. in Louthian were kept by Englishmen.

The towne of Edenburgh was stuffed with a great number of souldiers, both Englishmen and Scots. Amongest whome there was a Scot of a right stout stomach named Robert Pendergest; he, for that it was perceiued he loued but little the English nation, was euill intreated and vsed amongst them, in so much that on a day, hauing his head broken by the marshall named Thomas Knatoun, he ceassed not to séeke some meane to be reuenged, till he brought his purpose to passe, so that shortlie after he slue the said marshall, and afterward to auoid the danger of death due for that fact, he got away, and came to William Dowglas, whome he persuaded with all diligence to passe vnto Edenburgh, where he might find his enimies at some great aduantage, by reason of the slothfull negligence as then growne amongest them. William Dowglas following this aduertisement, came secretlie on a night vnto the foresaid towne, and slue foure hundred Englishmen snorting in sléepe and dronkennesse, before they were able to make anie resistance.

Not long after, Andrew Murrey the gouernor of Scotland deceassed, to the great damage The death of Andrew Murrey the gouernor. of the common-wealth, and was buried in Rosmarkie, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 1338. It came well to passe for Scotland, that about the same time the King of 1338. England entering into wars against France, was constreined to ceasse his pursute of the conquest which he minded to make in Scotland, the which must néeds haue come to full effect, if he had followed his former purpose and intent. But to procéed, after the deceasse of Andrew Murrey the gouernor, Robert Steward tooke all the charge on him for the gouernment of the realme, till king Dauid returned home out of France, and began to rule all things himselfe. Tiuidall also was recouered out of the Englishmens hands, with diuers other places, about Tiuidall recouered out of the English mens hands by William Dowglas. Fr. Thin. Io. Maior. lib. 5, cap. 5. this time, by the high prowes and manlie valiancie of William Dowglas and other Scotish capteins; and therefore in the reward of the good seruice shewed by the same William in conquest of that countrie, he inioied the same afterward as his rightfull inheritance. [Henri earle of Lancaster and Derbie, hearing of the valure of these two woorthie capteins, William Dowglas, and Alexander Ramseie, earnestlie desired to sée them, and to trie their strengths in iusting. Wherevpon, there was a day appointed therefore at Berwike by all the said parties, where they me, with their complices prouided accordinglie. At what time a certeine Englishman asked Peter Grame, if he would not refuse to iust with him, to whome he answered, that he accepted the chalnge, but willed him first to dine well, because he should that night sup in paradise. Which fell out accordinglie, for in running togither the Englishman was slain.] The king of England mooued with high displeasure at these dooings, sent a right valiant knight named sir Thomas Berkleie with a great power of men into Sir Thomas Berkleie. Scotland. Against whome came William Dowglas, and Robert Steward the gouernor, and gaue him battell at Blackeborne, where the Scots were discomfited and so beaten downe, that few The battell of Blackeborne. of them escaped, which were not either slaine or taken. Notwithstanding the two capteins saued themselues by flight.

Not long after, William Dowglas fought with his enimies at the Cragings, where hauing not past fortie men in his companie, he discomfited sir Iohn Striueling, who had with Sir Iohn Striueling discomfited. The castell of Hermitage woone. him néere hand fiue hundred Englishmen and Scots, that tooke his part in the king of Englands quarell. In the yeare following, the same William Dowglas wan the castell of Hermitage, & slue all them that were found within it. In the yeare next after, he fought fiue times in one day with sir Laurence Abernethie, principall capteine vnder the Balioll, and being put to the woorse at foure of those times, at the fift he vanquished his enimies, and tooke prisoner their capteine the said sir Laurence, who was sent to the castell of Dunbreton, Sir Larence Abernethie taken prisoner. there to remaine in safe kéeping for a time. For these and such woorthie enterprises hardlie atchiued, this Will. Dowglas was much commended, and within a few daies after the taking of the said sir Laurence Abernethie, he was sent by the gouernor the said Robert Sir William Dowglas sent into France. Steward into France, as ambassador to king Dauid, for the dispatch of certeine weightie matters touching the state of the realme.

In the meane time, Robert Steward the gouernor raised a mightie armie, and came 1339. The towne of Perth besieged. with the same vnto the towne of Perth, planting a strong siege round about it; for diuiding his host into foure parts, he lodged them with their capteins in foure seuerall places. The first consisting for the most part of westerne Scots, he gouerned himselfe; There was also in that armie beside other noble men William Keith of Galleston. the second he committed to Patrike Dunbar earle of March, the third to William earle of Rosse, and the fourth, to Maurice of Mowbray lord of Clidesdale. These lay thus at siege of this towne for the space of ten wéekes. And though sundrie times they gaue alarmes and assaults to it, yet was it so stoutlie defended by Englishmen and other within, that the Scots for a long time lost more than they wan. At length when they were in William Dowglas returneth out of France. maner past all hope to get the towne, & readie to haue departed from it, William Dowglas arriued in the Taie, bringing with him out of France in fiue ships, both men of war, and also munition of armour, artillerie, and weapons, which serued the Scotishmen in that season greatlie to purpose.

Amongest other, there were two knights of the familie of Castelgaliard, and two Iohn Fourdon. esquiers, Giles de la Hois, and Iohn de Breise; also a noble pirat, named Hugh Handpile, who had the charge ouer the foresaid fiue ships. [While Edward the third was at the siege of Turneie, the earls of March and Southerland made a rode into Scotland, and were Fr. Thin. 1340. Scala chron. discomfited by Thomas Greie the elder, Robert Maners, & Iohn Copland, with the garrison of Roksborow, then in the hands of the English, but after woone by the Scots, on Easter day, at the verie houre of the resurrection; the gouernement whereof séemed to be fatall, because all the capteins of this towne died of euill deaths, amongst whome was Alexander Ramseie the capteine hereof that died with hunger, being put in prison for verie enuie that William Dowglas bare vnto him.] About the same time, one William Bullocke had taken eftsoones the castell of Couper to the king of Englands vse, but by persuasion of this William Dowglas, he rendered it vp againe, and departed with bag and bag gage. Those Scots that had serued vnder him likewise, were content to forsake the king of Englands wages, and to serue William Dowglas, who led them foorthwith to the siege of Perth, the The towne of Perth rendered to the gouernor. 1341. Iohn Fourdon. which towne shortlie after his comming was rendered into the gouernors hands, by Thomas Vthred the capteine, in the third moneth after it was first besieged, & in the yeare after our redemption 1341.

Among other exploits attempted at this siege after the comming of the lord William Dowglas, the Frenchman Hugh Handpile, taking vpon him on a day to approch the towne with his ships, and to giue an assault thereto, he lost the chiefest vessell he had, although afterwards when the towne was now rendered, the lord William Dowglas caused the same ship to be to him againe restored, and with great thanks and liberall rewards giuen as well to him as to the other of the Frenchmen, he sent them backe into France, greatlie to their pleasure and contentation; although in their returne, as they passed out of Drumlie Firth, they escaped verie hardlie from the shore. [The winter after the siege of Turneie, Fr. Thin. king Edward went to Melrosse, but from thence riding through part of the forrest of Etrike, in a tempestuous time, he came backe againe to Melrosse, where Henrie earle of Lancaster iusted with William Dowglasse (by couenant) in the kings sight. King Edward taking a truce, departed from Melrosse, halfe ouercome with melancholie against those that first mooued him to this iournie, not succéeding as they hoped and desired that it should haue doone.]

In the same yéere (as some doo write) or (according vnto other) in the yéere following, A sore dearth. there was such a miserable dearth, both through England and Scotland, that the people were driuen to eat the flesh of horsses, dogs, cats, and such like vnused kinds of meats, to susteine their languishing liues withall, yea, insomuch that (as is said) there was a Scotishman, an vplandish felow named Tristicloke, spared not to steale children, and to kill women, Children eaten. on whose flesh he fed, as if he had béene a woolfe. Perth being once deliuered (as before is said) to the gouernor, he went with his armie to Striueling, and besieging the castell, The castell of Striueling rendered. Alias Rugbie. had it rendered vnto him the eight day after his comming thither, on these conditions, that Thomas Foulkie the capteine, with his wife and children might safelie passe into England, without fraud or guile of anie impeachment [of which castell (as saith Buchanan) Maurice Fr. Thin. the sonne of Andrew Murrey was made capteine.] Edward Balioll, by such good and Edward Balioll withdraweth into England. prosperous successe, as did thus dailie fall vnto his enimies, to auoid further danger, after oft remoouing from place to place, at length he was constreined to flie into England, lest he should haue fallen into his aduersaries hands.

Not long after, the castell of Edenburgh was woone by policie on this wise. William The castell of Edenburgh woone. Fr. Thin. Dowglas hauing acquaintance with one Walter Towers, [whom Buchanan called William Cur a merchant] caused him to prouide a ship, and to arriue therewith in the Forth, feining as though he were a merchant, and to offer wines to sell vnto the garison that kept Edenburgh castell. This Towers according to instructions thus giuen him, prouided him of all A policie. things necessarie for the purpose, & so comming into the Forth with his ship, came on land himselfe, and brought with him into Edenburgh two punchions of wine, which he offered to sell vnto the steward of houshold to the capteine of the castell, who falling at a price with him, appointed that he should bring them earlie in the morning vp to the castell, that they might be receiued in. Towers hiring a cart ouer night, came with the punchions vp to the castell gate, earlie vpon the breake of the day in the next morning, and hauing the gates opened, entred with his cart, and being come within the gates with it, he plucked foorth a wedge or pin deuised of purpose, and immediatlie therewith the cart with the punchions fell downe, so stopping the entrie of the gates, that in no wise they might be shut or closed againe.

The Dowglasse hauing in his companie William Bullocke, Walter Fraseir, and Iohn Sandlands, right valiant knights, with diuerse other hardie and bold personages, laie in couert not far from the castell, & hauing knowledge giuen him by sound of horne, or otherwise, when to come foorth, he hasted therevpon with all diligence vnto the gates, and finding them thus open, first slue the porters, and after into the castell, within a while had dispatched all them within, and so became maisters of that fortres, within the which for capteine they left one William Dowglas, the bastard brother of the other William Dowglas, by whose conduct chieflie, both this enterprise and diuers other were luckilie atchiued. Thus was the realme of Scotland clearelie recouered out of the enimies hands, the Englishmen, and all other that tooke part with the Balioll, constreined to auoid out of all the parts and bounds thereof. The castell of Edenburgh was thus recouered by the Scots in the yeere last before remembred, to wit, 1341.

1341. H. B. The same yéere, or in the next insuing, the second of lune, king Dauid with his wife 1342. I. Ma. King Dauid returneth into Scotland. Alexander Ramsey rodeth into England. This Ramsey was so renowmed, that euerie noble man was glad to haue his sonne and kinsman to serue vnder him. The castell of Rokesburgh woone by Alexander Ramsey. quéene Iane, and sundrie nobles both French and Scotish, came safelie through the seas, and arriued in Innerberuie, from whence with no small triumph they were conueied vnto Perth. About the same time, Alexander Ramsey of Dalehouse, one of the most valiant capteins knowne in those daies, gathering a great power of men, entered into England, and hauing knowledge that the Englishmen were assembled, in purpose to giue him battell, laid an ambush for them, and training them within danger thereof, by such a fierce and new onset as he gaue vpon them, he put them out of order, and chased them most egerlie, killing and slaieng a great number of them at his pleasure. Amongest the prisoners that were taken, the earle of Salisburie (as the Scotish historie saieth) was one, and the capteine of Rokesburgh another.

Sir Alexander Ramsey, perceiuing that the most part of the garrison of Rokesburgh were either slaine, or taken in this last conflict, togither with their capteine, came hastilie thither, and giuing a right fierce assault thereto, by fine force tooke it. Wherefore king Dauid in recompense of his valiancie thus declared in his seruice, gaue vnto him the kéeping of this castell, togither with the shirifwike of Tiuidale. Whereat William Dowglasse tooke such displeasure, that seeking to be reuenged, he found meanes to apprehend this Alxander Alexander Ramsey taken by William Dowglas, & imprisoned. Fr. Thin. Ramsey within the church of Hawike, and put him in prison within the castell of Hermitage, where he remained in great miserie and lacke of food till he died. [About which time by the said kind of death (as saith Buchanan) was William Bullocke slaine, by Dauid Berkelie. The death of which two did draw Scotland into manie factions, and filled it with seditions.]

King Dauid was sore mooued herewith, purposing to sée such punishment doone William Dowglasse for that rebellious attempt, as might serue for an example to all other how they went about anie the like offense. Neuerthelesse, the Dowglasse kept him out of the way amongst the mounteins and other desert places, till finallie Robert Steward and other nobles purchased his pardon, so that at length he came into fauor againe, and had all his lands and liuings restored vnto him, as well in Tiuidale as elsewhere.

Soone after the earle of Salisburie was taken by sir Alexander Ramsey (as is said) he The earle of Salisburie exchanged for the earle of Murrey. Froisard. was exchanged for the earle of Murrey, that had beene holden manie yéeres before as prisoner in England. But it should appeare by other writers, that the earle of Salisburie was not taken at that time in the borders of Scotland (as before is supposed) but in the borders of France, where he was in the wars which king Edward the same time made against the Frenchmen, & now was exchanged for the earle of Murrey. But howsoeuer it was, king Dauid after the realme of Scotland was once brought into a quiet estate from 1342. A parlement at Perth. The bounteous liberalitie of K. Dauid. This Hugh was grandfather to Hector Boetius. 382 THE HISTORIE OF SCOTLAND. the former trouble of war, he called a parlement at the towne of Perth, where he rewarded verie liberallie all such as had either done any notable seruice themselues, or had lose any of their friends or parents in defense & recouerie of the relme out of his aduersaries hands. Among other, Hugh Boece had in recompense of his fathers slaughter at Duplin, the in heritor & ladie of the baronie of Balbrid giuen him in mariage, which baronie is yet possessed by the heires of the said Hugh.

Shortlie after vpon the breaking vp of this parlement, king Dauid raised a mightie armie, King Dauid inuadeth Northumberland. and entered with the same into Northumberland; but committing the whole charge to Iohn Randolph erle of Murrey as lieutenant generall, he wold not that anie of his owne banners should be spred and borne in all that voiage [although himselfe were there in Fr. Thin. person, seruing secretlie, and would not be knowne in this iournie.] The most part of all Northumberland was burnt and spoiled, for they remained there a moneth before they returned, conueieng awaie with them great riches, which they got abroad in all places where they came. Shortlie after, he came with a new armie into England, causing his own King Dauid the second time inuadeth the English borders. standard to be caried afore him at that time, as he that tooke vpon him the whole gouernance of that enterprise himselfe. The Englishmen withdrawing all their goods into strengths, minded not to giue the Scots any set batell, but to take them euer at some aduantage, if they straied abroad any where vnwarilie to fetch in booties. Neither were they altogither disappointed of their hoped prey, for 5 Scotish knights, whose names were Steward, Fiue Scotish knights taken prisoners. Eglinton, Craggie, Boid, and Fullarton, pursuing their enimies on a time ouer fiercelie, were taken prisoners, and after redéemed for great summes of monie. At length, king Dauid perceiuing that he wasted but tine, returned into Scotland. But not long after he went againe into England, in which iournie his people were so beaten with vehement stormes King Dauid the third time inuadeth England. Foule weather. of raine and haile, that they had much adoo to saue themselues from perishing through the vnmeasurable force of that so rigorous weather.

On the other side, the Englishmen that were gathered to resist against him, were in semblable maner néere hand destroied with the like rage of tempest. Herevpon king Dauid, to the end that his enterprise should not séeme altogither to want effect, ouerthrew sundrie strong houses on the English borders, and so returned home without other damage either doone or receiued. About the same time did Edward king of England besiege the towne Calis besieged. of Calis. The French king therfore deuising all waies possible whereby to saue that towne, and to cause his aduersarie to raise his siege, sent ambassadors into Scotland, to Ambassadors frō ye French king into Scotland. require king Dauid, that with an armie he would enter into England, and doo what damage he might vnto the Englishmen, to trie if by that meanes king Edward could be constreined to leaue his siege, and to returne home for defense of his owne countrie and subiects. In the meane time also (as I find in the Scotish chronicles) king Edward addressed his orators Ambassadors from the king of England into Scotland. The king of Englands offers. The Scots readie to helpe the French, & hinder their neighbors the English. into Scotland, offering vnto king Dauid, vpon condition that peace might be had, to deliuer into his hands not onelie the towne of Berwike, but also Edward Balioll his old aduersarie, for whose cause the warres had so long continued betwixt them.

These offers being proponed in councell, though some of the wiser sort gaue aduise that in no condition they ought to be refused; yet the king himselfe (for loue that he had to the French king with whome he had béene brought vp) and other of the nobles hauing yoong heads, vpon desire to be reuenged of the Englishmen by practise of warres (wherevnto they were inclined) wold néeds condescend to the French kings chargeable request, & refuse the king of Englands beneficiall offers. Wherevpon an armie was leuied, and An armie raised to inuade England. solemne proclamation made, that all such as were able and fit to beare armour, should méet the king at a certeine day and place, which was to them in the same proclamation assigned. The earle of Rosse therefore came with his people vnto Perth, and there made his musters before the king: but in the night following he slue the lord of the Iles, with seuen of his The lord of the Iles slain by the earle of Rosse. Fr. Thin. kinsmen as they were in their beds, and therevpon fled, and got him with all speed againe into Rosse [whereby the armie was greatlie diminished, when the friends of both parts fearing ciuill warres amongst the families departed home.]

King Dauid, though he was sore displeased herewith, and desired most earnestlie to haue punished that heinous act; yet bicause he would not hinder his iournie, he let passe the punishment therof till more conuenient opportunitie might serue thereto. [Notwithstanding Fr. Thin. that William Dowglasse of Lidesdale did earnestlie persuade him, at that time to leaue the lournie, and first to punish these turmoils at home, whereby all things might be quieted in his absence.] At his comming to the borders, and before he entered into England, he made William Dowglasse created earle of Dowglasse. manie knights, to stirre them the rather to doo valiantlie; but first he created William Dowglasse an earle, which William was sonne to Archembald Dowglasse, slaine before at Halidon hill. There was vndoubtedlie a mightie power of the Scots assembled at that Ri. Southwell. present; insomuch as there was of earles, lords, knights, and gentlemen, to the number of two thousand men of armes; and of such armed men as they called hoblers, set foorth by Two thousand men of armes, 20000 hoblers. the burrowes and good townes twentie thousand; beside the archers and other footmen; so that they were at the least fortie thousand men in all, or (as some writers affirme) thrée score thousand.

King Dauid with that his puissant armie, the sixt of October entered Northumberland, King Dauid inuadeth England. The fort of Lidell. and comming to a fortresse not farre off from the borders called Lidell, they laie round about that place for the space of thrée daies, without giuing thereto anie assault: but the fourth day they assailed it right fiercelie, and in the end entered by fine force, sleaing the more part of all those which they found within the house. The capteine sir Walter Selbie Sir Walter Selbie beheaded by the Scots. was taken aliue, but immediatlie by king Dauid his commandement, had his head striken off, and was not permitted to haue so much time as to make his confession, which he instantlie desired to haue doone, but it would not be granted. From thence the armie remooued, and went vnto the abbie of Lauercost, which they spoiled; and that doone they Lauercost. departed, and passing by Naward castell, and the towne of Redpeth, kept on till they came vnto the priorie of Hexham, which they sacked; but the towne was saued from fire by commandement of king Dauid, who in this iournie appointed to preserue foure townes onelie from burning; to wit, Hexham aforesaid, Corbridge, Darington, and Durham, to the end he might in them lay vp such store of vittels, as he should prouide abroad in the countrie, wherewith to susteine his armie during the time of his abiding in those parties.

From Hexham, where he laie thrée daies, he marched to Ebchester, wasting and spoiling King Dauid lodged in the manor of Beaurepaire. the countrie on each hand, and after turned towards the wood of Beaurepaire; and comming thither, lodged himselfe in the manour, and set his people abroad into the countrie to fetch in booties, & to burne vp the townes and houses in all places where they came. The spoile, waste, destruction, and slaughter which the Scots practised with fire and sword, was woonderfull to heare, and incredible almost to be told, they spared neither yoong nor old, church nor chappell: religious houses as well as other were consumed to ashes. The abbeie of Durham, and all places thereabout (as the Scotish writers affirme) were spoiled The abbeie of Durham spoiled. and miserablie sacked, although it was said king Dauid was admonished in a dreame, that he should in anie wise absteine from violating the goods and lands perteining to saint Cuthbert.

The earle of Northumberland lieurenant of the North vnder king Edward, to resist The earle of Northumberland lieutenant of the North. A herald. these iniuries, raised a great power of men, and ioining the same with such bands of old souldiers as king Edward had latelie sent ouer out of France for that purpose, first dispatched an herald at armes vnto king Dauid, requiring him to staie from further inuading the countrie, and to returne into Scotland, till some reasonable order for a finall peace might be agréed vpon betwixt him and the king his maister: otherwise he should be sure to haue battell to the vtterance within three daies after. King Dauid contemning this message, required his folks to make them readie to receiue their enimies if they came to assaile them, and on the next morrow, he diuided his armie into thrée battels. In the first was Robert Steward prince of Scotland, and Patrike Dunbar earle of March: in the second were The appointing of the Scotish battels. appointed Iohn earle of Murrey, and William earle of Dowglasse: in the third was the king himselfe, with all the residue of the nobles. [Contrarie to the which Buchanan placeth Fr. Thin. Dowglasse in the first, the king in the middle, and Steward in the third.]

In the morning earlie before the battell, the earle of Dowglasse departed from the armie The earle of Dowglas chased. to descrie the English host, and to vnderstand their force and order (if it were possible:) but entring somwhat vnwarilie within danger of his enimies, he was chased, and that to such disaduantage, that he lost fiftie, or rather fiue hundred (as some bookes haue) of yoong gentlemen, and such other light horssemen as he tooke foorth with him, escaping verie narrowlie himselfe also from being taken at the chase. In the meane season, the English host diuided likewise into thrée battels, approched forward, and came within sight of the Scotish armie. Wherevpon Dauid Graham with a wing of fiue hundred horssemen, well appointed gaue a full charge on the skirts of the English archers, thinking to haue distressed them: but he was so sharpelie receiued and beaten with arrowes, that losing a great Dauid Graham driuen backe. number of his men, he was constreined to flée backe to the maine battell, and that not without great danger of being taken in his flight by such as followed him.

These two discomfitures notwithstanding, the Scots rushed fiercelie vpon their enimies, & fought with great manhood a lorg season; but in the end, Robert Steward, and the earle of March, perceiuing their people partlie to shrinke backe, caused the retreat to be sounded, in hope to saue their men by withdrawing into some safer place: but this flieng backe of the earle of March and Robert Steward, brought the discomfiture vpon all the residue of The cause of the ouerthrow. the Scots. For that battell of Englishmen that was first matched with them, came now with such violence vpon the maine battell where king Dauid fought, that within a short while after, the same was vtterlie discomfited and put to flight. In this businesse king Dauid The Scots discomfited. himselfe did in euerie point plaie the part of a most valiant chiefteine, incouraging his people as well with woords as notable examples to doo their indeuours. Neither would he flie after hee saw himselfe destitute of all conuenient aid, but still continued in earnest fight, King Dauid his valiancie. desiring nothing so much (as should appeare) as death, for that he thought nothing more displeasant than life, after the slaughter of so manie of his nobles and liege people.

At length hauing his weapons striken out of his hands, one Iohn Copland came vnto King Dauid taken by Iohn Copland. him, and willed him to yéeld; but he with one of his fists gaue this Copland such a blow on the mouth, that by force of the gantlet he strake out two of his téeth before he did yéeld vnto him. Which Copland is misnamed by Iohn Maior, and not onelie called Couptaunt, but also reported by him to be a Gascoigne, whereas it is euident by our histories, that he was named Copland, and a meere Englishman. But to our purpose. The Scots that fought in the rereward had no better successe than the other: for that battell was also broken & put to flight, with great slaughter as well of the nobles, as other commons, besides those that were taken. There were slaine in this dolorous conflict, the earle of 1346. Scala. chron. Nobles slaine in this battell. Fr. Thin. Prisoners taken. Fr. Thin. Murrey, the earle of Stratherne, the constable, the marshall, the chamberleine and chancellor of Scotland, with a great number of other nobles and commons [with Maurice Murrife.] There were taken with the king fiue earles, that is to say, Dowglasse, Fife, Sutherland, Wigtoun, and Menteith [the earle of March & the Senescall fled, but after the earle of Mench being taken, was with the earle of Menteith (as saith Scala chron.) drawne and hanged at London.] And besides other great riches lost in this field, the holie crosse (as they call it) of holie rood house, was found vpon king Dauid, who bare it about him, in trust that by vertue thereof he should be inuincible: but he was spoiled both of that and all other his iewels which were found vpon him at the same time. This battell was striken néere vnto Durham, the 17 day of October, in the yéere 1346. What countries and places the Englishmen got after this victorie, ye may read in the English historie.

In the yéere following, the Balioll, with the earle of Northumberland made a road into The Balioll soiorneth in Galloway. Louthian, and Cliddesdale, bringing a great bootie of goods and cattell out of those countries into Galloway, in which countrie the Balioll abode a long time after. At length, the Scots recouering themselues with much paine, after the slaughter of so manie of their nobles and commons, beside the discomfort for the taking of their king, chose and appointed Robert Steward gouernour of Scotland. Robert Steward as gouernour to haue the rule of the realme. About the same time, William Dowglasse the sonne of Archembald Dowglasse, that was brother vnto good sir lames Dowglasse, who (as before is said) was slaine in Spaine, returned foorth of France, and by support of his friends chased the Englishmen out of Dowglasdale, Tiuidale, Twidale, Countries recouered out of the Englishmens hands. Iohn Copland chased. 1349. The second pestilence that was heard of in Scotland. Sir Dauid Berklie slaine. Etrike forest, & Twedale. Iohn Copland capteine of Rokesburgh, to resist such enterprises, gathered a number of men, and came foorth against his enimies, but receiuing the ouerthrow, he was chased into Rokesburgh againe, with losse of diuerse of his men.

In the yéere next following, which was from the incarnation 1349, there came such a pestilence thorough all parts of Scotland, so vehement and contagious, that it slue néere hand the third part of all the people. This was the second time that the pestilence was knowne or heard of to haue come in Scotland. The same yéere, or (as other bookes haue) the yéere next insuing, one Iohn saint Mighell slue sir Dauid Berklie knight at Aberden, in the night season, by procurement of sir William Dowglasse of Liddesdale, as then prisoner in England with the earle of Dowglasse, both of them being taken at Durham field. The occasion was, for that this sir Dauid Berklie had aforetime slaine one Iohn Dowglasse, brother to the said sir William, and father to sir Iames Dowglasse of Dalkéeth.

In the yéere following, was the same sir William Dowglasse, being latelie before ransomed 1353. I. Ma. Sir William Dowglasse slaine. out of England, slaine, as he was hunting in Etrike forest, by his coosine and godsonne William earle of Dowglasse, in reuenge of the slaughter of Alexander Ramsey, and other old grudges. Thus was the house of the Dowglasses diuided amongest themselues, pursuing ech other manie yéeres togither with great vnkindnesse, vnnaturall enimitie and slaughter. 1354. 1355. Sir Eugenie de Garenteris a Frenchman, arriued in Scotland. Fortie thousand crownes. In the yeere next following, which was 1355, shortlie after Easter, there arriued in Scotland a noble knight named sir Eugenie de Garenteris, with a companie of Frenchmen, though few in number, yet valiant and verie skilfull warriors, which were sent thither by Iohn king of France, that succéeded his father king Philip of Valois, latelie before deceassed, and deliuered vnto the gouernor and other nobles of the realme of Scotland, fortie thousand crownes of the sunne, to be imploied about the leuieng of an armie against the Englishmen, that they might be constreined the sooner to withdraw their powers out of France.

This monie was receiued, though a small part thereof came to the hands of the souldiers or men of warre of Scotland, for the lords and nobles kept it safe inough to their owne vse. Yet neuerthelesse, the earle of March, and William Dowglasse, gather their people, and The earle of March and William Dowglasse enter into England with an army. William Ramsey of the Dalehouse. passe foorth with the same to the borders, and entering into England, appoint William Ramsey of the Dalehouse, to ride before with a number of light horssemen, to the end, that if the Englishmen did assemble and come foorth too strong against him, he might retire backe to the maine battell, where they lay in couert, at a place called Nisbet noore. This Ramsey dooing as he was commanded, made a great forraie thorough the countrie, and hauing got togither a great bootie of cattell, withdrew with the same homewards: but being sharpelie pursued by the Englishmen, in hope to recouer their goods, he fled amaine, and they following egerlie in the chase, were vpon the Scotish armie before they were aware. The Englishmen intrapped. Put to flight. The Scotishmen, and those few Frenchmen that were there, set vpon the Englishmen fiercelie, and finallie put them to flight, though not without some slaughter on their part: for there were slaine of Scots sir Iohn Holieburton, and sir lames Turnebull knights. These were taken prisoners of Englishmen, sir Thomas Greie, and his sonne, with Iohn Darcas, Prisoners taken. and manie other Englishmen.

* The taking of which Greie is reported by others to haue béene after this manner. The Fr. Thin. Scala chron. 1355. lords Persie and Neuill, gardians of the English marches, tooke truce with the lord William Dowglasse, at the time that he conquered the lands which the Englishmen had woone of the Scots. But Patrike earle of March (being in confederacie with Garanteris) would not by anie persuasion consent to that leage: whervpon (with a number of others) he made a road to the castle of Norham, ambushing themselues vpon the Scotish side of the riuer of Twéed, sending ouer a banneret with his ensigne, and 400 men to forage & spoile the countrie, who gathering the preies, draue them in despite alongst the castle: wherevpon Thomas Greie, capteine of Norham (sonne to Thomas Greie, that had béene thrée times by the Scots besieged in the said castle of Norham, in the reigne of king Edward the second) séeing the commons of England thus robbed (and déeming it his part to defend his countrie, friends, and their substance) issued foorth of Norham with few men more than fiftie of the garrison of the castle, and a few of the common people vnexpert in matters of war; who (not knowing of the secret ambush of the band which Patrike had laied in wait behind Twéed) issued foorth to follow and recouer the preie: but being so farre gone in chase of the enimie, as that he could not returne in safetie (because he was beset before and behind with the 400 on the one side, & the ambush laied by Twéed on the other side) the said Greie and his companie (finding none other remedie but to hazard the successe) forsooke their horsses, and on foot (standing to the extremitie) with a woonderfull courage set vpon the Scots, whereof more were killed than of the English, but the Scots comming so sore on the English (not able to resist) they began to flie, at what time Thomas Greie (as before is declared) was taken prisoner.)

The earles of March, and Dowglasse, after the obteining of this victorie, came suddenlie in the night season vnto the towne of Berwike, and raising vp ladders to the wals, wan the Berwike woone. towne, but not without losse of diuerse Scotish gentlemen, as Thomas Vaus, Andrew Scot of Balwerie, Iohn Gordon, William Sinclare, Thomas Preston, and Alexander Mowbraie knights. Of English were slaine Alexander Ogill capteine of the towne, Thomas Persie brother to the earle of Northumberland, and Edward Greie, with others. Eugenie de Garenteris with his Frenchmen did verie valiantlie beare himselfe in this enterprise, whome Robert Steward the gouernour rewarding with great gifts, sent backe into France, commending him by letters vnto the French king, as he that had doone his dutie in euerie behalfe verie throughlie. The castle of Bérwike, notwithstanding that the towne was thus woone, held foorth the Scots and Frenchmen, by reason whereof when an armie of Englishmen came to the succours thereof, they raced the wals, and burnt the houses of the towne, Berwike wals raced. Fr. Thin. Scala chron. and so departed.

* The tidings wherof were brought to king Edward at the verie instant of his landing from Calis into England, for which cause he taried at his parlement appointed at London but thrée daies, and with all speed came to Berwike, where he entered the castle; wherat the burgesses amazed, treated with him, and therevpon the towne of Berwike was redeliuered (against the minds of the Scots) to king Edward.) K. Edward himselfe being come to the rescue and recouerie of Berwike, and hauing receiued the towne, and finding it so defaced, tooke order for the reparing thereof againe, went to Roxburgh, and there Berwike is repared againe by king Edward. The Balioll resigneth his right. Fr. Thin. Scala chron. Lesteus episcop. Rossc. lib. cap. 257. receiued of the Balioll a full resignation of all his pretended right to the crowne of Scotland. [For there the 26 of lanuarie, the said Balioll hauing resigned (as before) all his title to king Edward, alledged these causes: first, in consideration that the Scots were full of rebellion; also, because he had no heire, nor anie verie néere of his linage: and for that he was of K. Edwards blood of England, he knew not where to bestow it better than vpon him. This Balioll is by no author (as Lesleus saith) placed in the catalog of the kings, as well for that he bound himselfe (by homage) to the gouernement of England with an oth, against the gouernement & maiestie of Scotland: as for that being a tyrant, & by force inuading the crowne, he continued not long in the same. In truth, I suppose he held it not verie long, and that in continuall warre. But yet for that which I can see, he was crowned king at Scone, 1332, as Lesleus himselfe, Buchanan, and all other authors doo agrée. Beside, he gouerned by him & his agents vntill the yéere of 1342, at what time he yéelded his crowne to king Edward of England; which was the full part of ten yeares, after which againe he recouered a good part of England. Wherefore it séemeth strange to me, that Rosse will not allow him a place in the catalog of kings, since Buchan maketh him the nintie fourth king, and so placeth him vnder that title, and maketh Dauid Bruse (who was crowned before Balioll, and gouerned after Baliols departing Scotland) the 98 king, naming also Robert (who succéeded after Bruse) the hundred king in order of gouerne. ment; in such sort, that both these writing at one time (but with diuers affections) cannot agrée on the number of their kings: one receiuing, & the other reiecting him to be placed in the catalog of their kings.] After this, king Edward passing foorth to Hadington, spoiled and wasted the countrie by the way on each hand as he marched forward; and for displeasure that his nauie on the sea (after the souldiers and mariners had béene on land, and burned the church of our ladie in those parts called Whitekirke) had with force of a Whitekirke burnt. rigorous tempest beene sore shaken, and manie of the ships lost and drowned togither with men and all, he fell into such a rage, that he caused all the buildings in those parts to be burnt and spoiled, as well abbeis as all other churches and religious houses, as though he minded (say the Scotish writers) to make warre both against God and all his saints. These things chanced in the yeare 1355, after our common account, about the feast of the 1355. The burnt Candlemas. Purification of our ladie, & by reason the Englishmen did so much hurt at that time in those parts by fire, they called it euer after; The burnt Candlemas.

Shortlie after that king Edward was returned into England, William Dowglas of Niddesdale recouered out of the English mens possession the lands of Galloway, & the lands of Galloway recouered. The battell of Poitiers. Drisdale were in like maner recouered by one Kirpatrike. In the same yéere on the 20 day of October, was the battell of Poitiers fought, where Edward prince of Wales, otherwise named the Blacke prince, ouerthrew the armie of France, and tooke king Iohn The French king Iohn taken prisoner. prisoner, with his yoongest sonne Philip, and a great number of other of the French nobilitie besides. There was at this battell with king Iohn, the earle William Dowglas, & to the number of thrée thousand Scots, hauing diuers knights and gentlemen to their capteins, of whome there died in the same battell Andrew Steward, Robert Gordon, Andrew Holieburton, and Andrew Vaus, knights. The earle of Dowglas escaped with life and vntaken, but Archembald Dowglas, son to sir Iames Dowglas slaine in Spaine, was taken prisoner; Archembald Dowglasse taken prisoner. albeit his taker suffered him to depart for a small ransome, by reason that William Ramsey of Colluthie, who was also taken with him, made semblance as though the same Archembald Dowglas had béen some poore slaue, causing him to pull off his boots, and to doo A subtill policie. other such drudging seruice, as fell not for the estate of a man of any estimation or honestie, to the end it should not be knowne what he was.

Thus the king of England at one time hauing two kings vnder his captiuitie, sat crowned Two kings prisoners in England at one time. betwixt them at meate in the feast of Christmasse, making (as the vse is amongst the Englishmen in that season) a great banket. And this he did (as is reported) to the intent that the maner thereof might be bruted abroad to his high praise & glorious fame. King Dauid within certeine yeares after was conueied by the earle of Northampton vnto Berwike, where the most part of all the nobles of Scotland assembled togither to consult with him tuching some agréement to be had for his ransome: but because they could grow to no certeine point therein, he was brought backe againe to London, and there remained in prison as before. In the meane time, Roger Kirpatrike was slaine by lames Lindseie, in a Roger Kirkpatrike slaine. castell where the said Iames dwelled, and receiued the said Roger as his ghest. This Lindseie fled vpon the fact committed; but yet being apprehended and brought to the gouernor Robert Steward, he suffered death for that offense.

Shortlie after, that is to wit at Michaelmasse next insuing, after king Dauid had béene at Berwike there was an agréement made for his ransome, wherevpon being deliuered, he returned into Scotland, in the eleuenth yeare after his taking at Durham field. It was agreed King Dauid is deliuered. 1357. that there should be paied for his ransome one hundred thousand marks sterling, at sundrie daies of paiment, as was accorded betwixt them. * After he had béene 11 yeares in Fr. Thin. Scala chron. England, in which place also Froissard setteth downe that he paied but 50000 marks English. And Scala Chron. saith, that at the feast of S. Michaell, Dauid king of Scots was deliuered for 100000 marks of siluer: for which, his hostages came to Berwike, being the countie of Southerland, and his sonne that was borne of the sister of king Dauid; Thomas Senescall that was named in Scotland earle of Angus; Thomas Demurrife baron of Bothuill, and other twentie sons of noble men in Scotland.]

Truce also was taken for the space of fourtéene yeares betwixt both realmes, and qiuers Truce for 14 yéeres. nobles of Scotland were appointed to lie as hostages in England, till the monie were paied, as is before mentioned [of which pledges (as saith Lesleus) most died in England, by Fr. Thin. means wherof, the king was deliuered of a great part of his ransome.] K. Dauid was also bound by couenant of agréement to race certeine castels within Scotland, which seemed most noisome to the English borders: which couenant he performed. For vpon his returne into Scotland, he cast downe the castels of Dalswinton, Dunfreis, Mortowne, and Durisdere. He also called a parlement, wherein he enacted sundrie things for the Castels raced. A parlement. punishment of them that fled from him at Durham field: and first for that his coosine Robert Steward was one of them, being through means thereof a great cause of the ouerthrow, he procured that the act (by which the crowne was appointed for want of issue of his bodie lawfullie begotten, to descend vnto the said Robert Steward) was vtterlie reuoked and Robert Steward disherited of the crowne. Iohn Southerland made heire apparant. disanulled, and Iohn Southerland the sonne of lane his yoongest sister, appointed heire apparant in place of the said Robert. And all the lords of Scotland were sworne to obserue and keepe this ordinance.

The earle of Southerland, father to the said Iohn, in hope that his sonne should inioy the crowne, gaue away the most part of his lands, diuiding the same amongst his friends, as to the Haies, the Sinclares, the Ogilbies, and Gordons: but he was neuerthelesse deceiued of his hope. For shortlie after his son, being one of them that was giuen in pledge to remaine The death of Iohn Southerland. in England, till the monie for the kings ransome was paid, died there of the pestilence, in such sort as the most part of the other pledges likewise did. And shortlie after his deceasse, Robert Steward was reconciled to the kings fauor, and ordeined heire apparant to Robert Steward againe ordeined heire apparant. The contribution of the cleargie. 1363. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. A demand proponed to the lords of Scotland. Fr. Thin. 1357. Their answer. the crowne in semblable maner as he was before. The cleargie of Scotland condescended to giue the tenth pennie of all their fruits & reuenues towards the paiment of the kings ransome [which the pope caused the clergie to giue.] Not long after, king Dauid called an other councell, wherein (according to his promise made to the king of England before his deliuerance) he mooued the lords and barons of Scotland in a matter whereof he wished not to haue of them anie towardlie answer, and that was this: Whether they could be contented, that after his deceasse, the crowne of Scotland should be transferred vnto the king of Englands sonne, and to his lawfull heires? [Which thing Iohn Maior assigneth to the yeare 1363, who also saith, that it was this parlement (as he hath red) and doone by the persuasion of Iane the quéene, forgetting that he said before, that she died in the yeare 1357.]

The lords hearing what was proponed vnto them, answered without anie long studie, that so long as anie of them were able to beare armour or weapon, they would neuer consent thereto. King Dauid right ioifull to heare them at this point, thought himselfe discharged, for that he was not bound to labor further in this sute, because his promise made to the king of England touching this point, onelie was, that if the Scotish lords would agrée, then he should intaile the crowne to his sonne. In the yeare next following, which was from the incarnation 1357, queene Iane the wife of K. Dauid went into England to sée hir brother 1357. Quéene Ianes death. Fr. Thin. Iohn Maior Ii. 5. cap. 22. king Edward, & died there before she returned (leauing no issue behind hir) [at Hertford in the yeare of our redemption (as saith Io. Maior) 1362, and was buried (as saith Sca. chro.) in the greie friers in London beside hir mother. This woman dooth the said Maior commend for a most rare person, in that she neuer forsooke hir husband in his banishment into France, & in the time of his imprisonment in England; for which cause she deserueth as great praise as Penelope, although in hir life she inioyed small worldlie pleasure, hauing had hir bodie dedicated to the mariage bed. For

Si nihil infausti durus tulisset Vlysses,
Penelope felix, sed sine laude foret,

According to which, it might haue beene said of this woman, that she might haue beene counted happie, if hir husband had neuer beene oppressed with these manie disgraces of fortune; but then she should neuer haue béene extolled with that commendation, which now to the worlds end she hath amongest the wisest.]

K. Dauid, after hir deceasse, maried a yoong lustie gentlewoman named Margaret Logie, King Dauid marieth Margaret Logie. He repenteth his mariage. He banisheth hir. She complaineth to the pope. Sentence giuen on hir part. daughter to sir Iohn Logie knight, but within thrée moneths after he repented him, for that he had matched himselfe with one of so meane parentage, to the disparagement of his bloud. Herevpon he banished both hir, and all other that had counselled him to marie hir, confining them for euer out of all the parts of his dominions. Shée hir selfe went vnto Auignon, where as then the pope with all his consistorie remained, and entering hir plaint there in the court, followed the same with such diligence, that in the end sentence was giuen on hir side (that is to say) that king Dauid should receiue hir againe into his companie, and to accept and vse hir as his iust and lawfull wife. Thus should the realme of Scotland haue She departeth this world. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 256. run in trouble and danger of interdiction, had she not departed out of this life by the way in returning homewards. * Charles the fift surnamed the wise, being king of France (supported by the aids of Scots) prepared an expedition into the holie land, in which iornie, when a gréeuous contention fell among the French and English, the last were ouercome by the first through the singular manhood of the Scots. Which benefit Charles not forgetting, erected an order of an hundred archers to be about his person, and by office to kéepe watch and ward for him (in the night) within his court gates: which (vpon this originall, is obserued with great solemnitie, euen in this our age.] K. Dauid in the meane time repared sundrie places and strengths of his realme, & built a tower in Edenburgh castell, Dauids tower built. Fr. Thin. Scala chron. Of this man Dowglasse and his déeds in France, the English chronicles doo also report. bearing the name after him euen vnto this day, called Dauids tower. * About this time (or rather more trulie as others haue before this written in the yeare of Christ 1356, or shortlie after the deliuerie of Dauid Bruse from captiuitie as the third sort doo say) William Dowglasse being about to go on pilgrimage beyond the seas (at such time as king Iohn was preparing his host against the Blacke prince) went with K. Iohn vnto the foresaid battell, being honored by his hands with the title of knighthood: but after, hauing manie of his men slaine, and being inforced to forsake the field, he returned home into Scotland. William Dowglasse shortlie after, vpon the deliuerie of Dauid Bruse from the captiuitie of William Dowglasse made earle. Scala chron. William Ramseie made earle of Fife. England, was created earle of Dowglasse. Much about which or at the selfe same time, the said king of Scots aduanced William Ramseie to the earldome of Fife, by the means of the wife of the said Ramseie, whom the king intirelie loued (as the report went.) The right of which countie king Dauid affirmed to be iustlie in him (so that he might liberallie giue it) as truelie vested in his possession by the forfeiture which Duncan sometime countie of Fife had doone in K. Robert Bruses daies; in murthering of an esquier called Michaell Beton, whome he miserablie slue in a riuer for extreame displeasure. Wherefore this William Ramseie surmized that Duncan (to obteine pardon for his offense) did by indenture make Robert Bruse K. of Scots his heire in reuersion, if he died without issue male. Yet had this Duncan a daughter (by his wife the countesse of Glocester, and daughter to the king of England) which was enterteined in England, and should haue béene sold to Robert the seneschall of Scotland. But she (rather respecting the satisfieng of hir loue, than the honor of hir estate, rather choosing to be a kings wife, than an earles ladie) tooke to husband one William Felton, a knight in Northumberland, which (at the said time when William Ramseie was made earle of Fife) challenged that earldome in the right of his wife, daughter and heire to the said Duncan earle of Fife. But for anie thing that I can yet sée, the said Ramseie went away with the honor thereof.] After this appeasing of certeine rebels that sought to trouble the quiet state of the realme, he purposed to haue gone to Ierusalem: but hauing prouided all things necessarie for such a iournie, he fell sicke of a burning The death of king Dauid. 1370. feauer, and died within the castell of Edenburgh in the thirtie ninth yeare of his reigne, and fortie seuenth of his age, which was from the incarnation 1370, his bodie lieth in Holie rood house, where it was buried in the yeare aforesaid.

* During the time that this Dauid Bruse was prisoner in England, he did so earnestlie Fr. Thin. Scala chron. set his louing affection vpon Katharine Mortimer, a damsell of London (by reason of familiar acquaintance with hir) that he could not forbeare hir companie, but (as it séemeth) brought hir also into Scotland with him; whereat the lords disdeining, and highlie offended with the king therefore, procured one Richard de Hull, a vallect of Scotland (in feining some matter vnto hir from the king, as being sent in message by him) to find meanes to rid hir out of life, which he did so couertlie, and handeled the matter so cunninglie, that he suddenlie murthered hir riding from Melros to Seltrée. Wherevpon, the king conceiuing great dolor (not daring to seeke reuenge thereof, for doubt of the nobilitie) caused hir to be honorablie buried at Newbotle, not ceassing (as farre as in him lay) after hir death, to manifest the singular loue he bare vnto hir in hir life.)

Sundrie maruellous things were séene in the daies of this king Dauid, within the bounds of Strange woonders. Albion. In the 16 yéere of his reigne, crowes, rauens, and pies, in the winter season brought foorth their brood, and ceassed in the summer and springtime, contrarie to their kind. All the yewes in the countrie the same yéere were barren, and brought no lambes. There Yewes barren. was such plentie of mice and rats both in houses, and abroad in the fields, that they might not be destroied. In the 27 yéere of his reigne, the riuers and other waters rose on such Great raine. heigth through abundance of raine that fell in the latter end of haruest, that breaking foorth of their common chanels, with their violent streame manie houses & townes were borne downe and destroied. About this time liued diuerse clerks, in that age counted notable, as Iohn Duns, of the order of saint Francis, Richard Midleton, and William Ocham, Iohn Duns. with others.

King Dauid being thus dead and buried, the nobles assembled at Lithquo, about the The assemblie of the lords for the election of a new king. William earle of Dowglasse clameth the crowne. election of him that should succéed in his place. The greater part of the nobilitie, and such as were of the sounder iudgement, agréed vpon Robert Steward; but William earle of Dowglas being come thither with a great power, clamed to be preferred by right of Edward Balioll, and of the Cumin, which right he pretended to haue receiued of them both, and there ought to be no doubt (as he alledged) but that the crowne apperteined by iust title vnto them, as all the world knew, and therefore sith he had both their rights, he mainteined that he was true and vndoubted inheritor to the crowne. It appéered that Buchanan. the said earle Dowglas purposed to vsurpe the crowne by force, if he might not haue it by friendlie and quiet meanes: but neuerthelesse he was disappointed of his purpose, by reason that George earle of March, and Iohn Dunbar earle of Murrey, with the lord Fr. Thin. Erskine [which three were capteins of Dunbreton, Sterling, and Edenburgh] and others (of whose friendlie furtherance he thought himselfe assured) gaue their voices with the Steward, assisting his side to their vttermost powers. The Dowglas perceiuing héereby that he should He resigneth his right to the Steward. not be able to mainteine his quarell, resigned therevpon his pretensed title, which in effect was of no importance, nor woorth the discussing.

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