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ROBERT.

AFTER the decesse of king Robert the second, his son Iohn Steward earle of Carrike
Iohn Steward earle of Carrike admitted to the crowne. 1390. Fr. Thin. Buchanan. was admitted to the crowne, which he receiued at Scone on the Assumption of our ladie. And forsomuch as Iohn was thought to be an vnfortunate name for kings, they changed the same, and called him Robert after his father, being now the third of that name. * But whether the same was so altered, either for the calamities which happened to the two Iohns, the king of England and the king of France, or for the good successe of the two former Roberts (Bruse and Steward) had in the victories and gouernement of the realme: for their vertue in peace and warres: for their vniuersall happinesse in what they attempted: I will leaue vncerteine, hauing no certeintie deliuered thereof vnto me. This Robert the third rather lacked vices, than was beautified with anie extraordinarie vertues, for which cause he being king in name, his brother Robert was king in deed, as one, vpon whome the whole gouernement did depend. The king Robert did marrie Annabell (the daughter of Iohn Ma. lib. 6. cap. 6. Iohn Drummond) whome he receiued into his bed, rather for hir singular beautie, than the honor of hir parents, or for anie benefit that might grow to the common wealth by hir or hir aliance. In the begining of his reigne, a truce was taken betwene England and Buchanan. Scotland, for the space of three yéeres, which shortlie after was proroged to the terme of foure yéeres.)

About the same time William Dowglasse of Niddisdale was chosen by the lords of Prutzen, William Dowglas of Niddesdale chosen admerall by the lords of Prutzen. to be admerall of a nauie, conteining two hundred and fortie ships, which they had rigged, and purposed to set foorth against the miscreant people of the northeast parts. But being appealed by the lord Clifford an Englishman (who was there likewise to serue with the foresaid lords in that iournie) to fight with him in a singular combat: before the day came appointed for them to make triall of the battell, the lord Clifford lay in wait for the Dowglasse, He is slaine by the lord Clifford. Duncan Steward inuadeth Angus. Fr. Thin. and vpon the bridge of Danzke, met with him, and there slue him, to the great disturbance and stay of the whole iournie. Moreouer, shortlie after the coronation of king Robert the third, tidings came that Duncane [whom some call Daiech Steward] sonne to Alexander Steward the kings brother afore rehearsed, was entred into Angus with a great number of men, and slue Walter Ogiluie shiriffe of the countrie, that came foorth with a power to resist him from spoiling the people, whom he miserablie afflicted; howbeit these his insolent dooings were not long vnpunished. For the earle of Crawford being sent against him with an armie, caused him to disperse his companie, and to flée his waies; but being apprehended with the most part of his said companie, they were punished according to their demerits.

At this time also the most part of the north countrie of Scotland, was sore disquieted by The north parts of Scotland sore disquieted by two clans. Wild Scots called Katerans. A battell of thirtie against thirtie. two clans of those Irish Scots, called Katerans, which inhabit the hie.-land countries, the one named Clankaies and the other Clanquhattans. These two being at deadlie fude, robbed and wasted the countrie with continuall slaughter and reife. At length it was accorded betwixt the parties, by the aduise of the earls of Murrey and Crawford, that thirtie persons of the one clan, should fight before the king at Perth, against thirtie of the other clans men, with sharpe swords to the vtterance, without anie kind of armor or harnesse, in triall and decision of the quarell, for the which the variance betwixt them first arose. Both these clans right ioifull of this appointment, came to Perth with their number, where, in a place called the North inch, a litle beside the towne, in presence of the king and other iudges assigned thereto, they fought according as it was agréed, and that with such rage and desperate furie, that all those of Clankaies part were slaine (one onelie excepted) who to saue his life, after he saw all his fellowes slaine, lept into the water of Taie, and swam ouer, and A desperate fight. so escaped. There were 11 of Clanquhattans side that escaped with life, but not one of them vnwounded and that verie sore. At their entring into the field or lists where they should fight the battell, one of the clans wanted one of his number, by reason that he which shuld haue supplied it, was priuilie stolen awaie, not willing to be partaker of so deare a bargaine. But there was a countrie-felow among the beholders, who being sorie that so notable a fight should be passed ouer, offered himselfe for a small summe of monie to fill vp the number, though the matter apperteined nothing to him, nor to anie of his friends. [This man (as saith Buchanan) séemed to be a saddle-maker, who for halfe a Fr. Thin. Frenchcrowne, and his diet during his life (if he were victor) tooke the matter in hand, in which none behaued himselfe more valiantlie than he, on whose part the said eleuen did suruiue, himselfe making vp the number.] This battell was fought thus betwéene the two clans, in 1396. maner as is before remembred, in the yeere 1396.

In the third, or (as saith Buchanan) the second yéere after, a parlement was holden at Perth, wherin, besides diuerse constitutions and ordinances enacted for the aduancement of 1398. the common-wealth, the king made his eldest sonne named Dauid (that was then about eightéene yéeres of age) duke of Rothsaie, and his brother Robert (that was earle of Fife The first dukes that were created in Scotland. Fr. Thin. and gouernor of the realme, as before ye haue heard) he created duke of Albanie. These were the first dukes that had béene heard of in Scotland, for till those daies there was neuer anie within the realme that bare that title of honor. [Which virgin title (saith Buchanan of that honor) gaue neuer good successe to the maisters.] During the time that the peace continued betwixt the two realmes of England and Scotland, there were sundrie iustes and combats put in vre, and exercised betwixt Scots and Englishmen, for proofe of Iustes and combats betwixt Scots and Englishmen. The earle of Crawford of Scotland, & the lord Wels of England iusted for life and death. their valiant actiuitie in feats of armes, to win thereby fame and honor. But amongst the residue, that was most notable, which chanced betwixt Dauid earle of Crawford Scotish, and the lord Welles English.

It was agréed betwixt these two noble men, to run certeine courses on horssebacke, with speares sharpe groond for life and death. The place appointed for these iusts was London bridge, and the day the thrée and twentith of Aprill, being the feast of saint George. At the place & day thus prefixed, they came redie to furnish their enterprise, and being mounted on their mightie coursers, they ran togither right egerlie. At the first course, though they atteinted, yet kept they their saddles without anie perill of falling. The people beholding how stiffelie earle Dauid sat without moouing, cried that the Scotishman was locked in his saddle. He hearing this, leapt beside his horsse, and verie nimblie mounted vp againe into the saddle, armed as he was, to the great woonder of the beholders. This doone, he tooke another staffe, & so togither they ran againe right fiercelie the second time, and yet without anie great hurt on either part: but the third time, the lord Welles was The lord Wels borne out of his saddle. borne out of the saddle, and sore hurt with the grieuous fall.

And for bicause the earle of Crawford thus vanquished his aduersarie on saint Georges day, hée founded a chanterie of seuen priests to sing in our ladies church of Dundée, in memorie of S. George, which they did vnto our time, not without singular commendation of the said earle. After this, he remained thrée moneths in England, in sporting and feasting amongst the nobles, before he returned into Scotland, highlie praised of all estates Praise of the erle of Crawford. Sir Robert Morlaie. for his noble port and great liberalitie there shewed amongst them. Not long after, one sir Robert Morlaie an Englishman, came into Scotland to trie his manhood in singular battell, with whome soeuer would come against him: he vanquished one Archembald Edmounston, and Hugh Wallase: but at length he was ouercome by one Hugh Traill at Berwike, and died shortlie after vpon displeasure thereof conceiued.

In the same yéere, Richard king of England, maried Isabell daughter to the French king, K. Richard of England goeth into Ireland. K. Richard is deposed. and soone after went into Ireland, to subdue such Irish rebels, as troubled the quiet state of the countrie. But in the meane time, his lords at home rebelled against him, and determined to depose him from the crowne, so that vpon his returne into England, he was apprehended, put in ward, and shortlie after constreined to renounce all his right to the crowne, and adiudged therewith to perpetuall prison: yet at length (as the Scotish chronicle He is adiudged to perpetuall prison. He escapeth foorth of prison. K. Richard dieth at Sterling and lieth buried there. Henrie the fourth king of England is crowned. 1399. I.Ma. 1400. telleth) he got foorth of prison disguised in womans apparell, and came into Galloway, where he fell in seruice with a Scotish man named Makdonald. But at the last, being bewraied and knowen what he was, and therevpon brought to king Robert, he was right honorablie by him interteined: neuerthelesse, knowing himselfe deposed from his roiall estate, he gaue himselfe wholie to contemplation, till finallie he departed this world at Sterling, and was buried in the blacke friers there within the same towne, as the same Scotish chronicles vntrulie doo report. But to the matter, Henrie the sonne of Iohn of Gaunt, sometime duke of Lancaster, after that king Richard was deposed, was crowned king of England at Westminster, the thirtéenth day of October, in the yéere 1399.

In the yéere next insuing, that is to say, 1400, king Robert, in consideration of a summe of monie to him aforehand paid, contracted couenants of mariage to be had and made betwixt his sonne the duke of Rothsaie, and the earle of Marches daughter. But Archembald earle of Dowglas, hauing indignation that the earle of March The occasion of the falling out betwixt king Robert and the earle of March. should be preferred before him, by support of the duke of Albanie, procured a councell to be called, in the which he found meanes to assure his daughter the ladie Margerie, or Marie (as saith Buchanan) vnto the said duke of Rothsaie, & with all spéed went about to consummate the mariage betwixt them, to put the matter out of all doubt. The earle of March perceiuing this dealing, came to the king, and required to know his pleasure, if he minded to performe the couenants concluded, concerning the mariage betwixt the prince and his daughter, or not; making as it were a great complaint of that which was alreadie doone to the breach thereof; and receiuing answer nothing agreeable to his mind, he departed in a great fume, not sticking to say, he would be reuenged on such vntruth yer it were long. Shortlie after he fled into England, leauing The earle of March flieth into England. his castell of Dunbar well stuffed of all things necessarie for defense, in the keeping of his sisters sonne named Robert Maitland. But when Archembald Dowglasse came thither in the kings name, and required to haue the castell rendered into his hands, this Robert Maitland obeied the kings commandement, and deliuered the house to the The castell of Dunbar seized to the kings vse. said Dowglasse.

George earle of March informed héereof, procured all his friends to conueie themselues into England, and determined with himselfe to doo all the displeasure and mischiefe he might inuent against his owne natiue countrie. King Robert sore dreading, least by this earles procurement some trouble might hap to follow amongest his subiects [did (first confiscating his goods) send] an herald at armes into England with letters Fr. Thin. vnto him, promising by the tenure of the same, not onelie to pardon him of all King Robert writeth vnto the earle of March. offenses committed, but also to redresse all wrongs or iniuries which he had anie waies foorth receiued, if he would returne into Scotland. And forsomuch as the earle of March refused this offer, the same herald according to instructions giuen him at his departure from king Robert, went immediatlie to Henrie king of England with other Sent letters also vnto the king of England. letters, earnestlie desiring him to cause the earle of March to depart out of his realme, & not to receiue anie rebels out of Scotland into his bounds, whereby the peace might be violated, which as yet remained betwixt the two kingdomes.

King Henrie vpon reasonable allegations (as he pretended) refused to satisfie king Roberts petitions in this behalfe, by reason whereof the peace brake betwixt them and their subiects, without anie further tracting of time. For shortlie after, Henrie Henrie Hotspur and the earle of March enter into Scotland. Fr. Thin. Persie, surnamed (as is said) Henrie Hotspur, and the earle of March entered into Scotland, and got togither a great bootie of goods and cattell [in Louthian about Hadington, at what time they did in vaine besiege the castell of Hais or Halis, who being at Lintone were come vpon by the Scots, for (to haue returne of the booties taken) Archembald earle of Dowglasse] hauing assembled a power of men, came with the same towards the enimies, immediatlie wherevpon they fled to Berwike, and left all their bootie behind them, which being recouered by the said earle of Dowglasse and his companie, he returned backe vnto Edenburgh, where he shortlie after being taken with an hot feuer departed out of this life, leauing behind him an honorable memorie of his name, The deceasse of Archembald earle of Dowglasse. for his high prowesse and noble valiancie shewed in manie and sundrie enterprises, by him luckilie atchiued for the wealth of his countrie. He was named of his terrible countenance and dreadfull looke, the grim Dowglasse.

After his deceasse, his second sonne that was called likewise Archembald, was made earle of Dowglasse; for his eldest sonne William Dowglasse died in the yéere before his father. Shortlie after, Henrie king of England came into Scotland with an armie, Henrie king of England inuadeth Scotland. without dooing anie great damage to the people; for he required no more of them that kept anie castels or strengths, but onelie to put foorth a banner of his armes as he passed by. At his comming to Hadington, he was lodged in the nunrie there, & shewed much bounteous humanitie toward the nuns, and all other of that house, not suffering anie manner of thing to be doone preiudiciall to the same. The like gentlenesse he vsed towards them of the Holie rood house, at his comming to Edenburgh, wherein he likewise lodged. It is thought, that in memorie of the friendlie interteinement, which his father the duke of Lancaster found in these abbeies, at the time of his being in Scotland, when the rebellion chanced in England, through Iacke Straw and his complices, he shewed such fauour towards them at this present. To be briefe, it should appéere, that king Henrie came into Scotland, as it were inforced, more thorough counsell of his nobles, than for anie hatred he bare towards the Scots, as he well shewed in returning backe againe, without dooing them anie further iniurie.

[In the yéere after, or thereabout, died Walter Trailie bishop of saint Andrewes, and Fr. Thin. The death of quéene Annabell. The insolent outrage of the duke of Rothsaie. the] Scotish quéene Annabell Drommond, after whose deceasse hir sonne Dauid the duke of Rothsaie, that vnder hir gouernment had beene well and vertuouslie brought vp, hauing now got once the reine at libertie, fell to all kind of insolent outrage, séeking to defile wiues, virgins, nuns, and all other kind of women, in all places where he came. At length, his father perceiuing his sonnes youthfull nature to rage after that manner in vnbrideled lust, beyond the bounds of all measure, to the great reproch of them both, wrote to his brother the duke of Albanie, requiring him to take his sonne, the said duke of Rothsaie into his custodie, and to sée him so chastised for his wanton behauiour, as he might learne to amend the same. ¶ Here is to be noted, that the duke of Albanie had of long time before, desired to sée the duke of Rothsaie dispatched out of the way, as the person whome he most doubted; & therefore hauing commission thus from the king to take him, he reioised not a little, trusting thereby to compasse his purpose without danger. And héerevpon taking the duke of Rothsaie betwixt Dundée & saint Andrewes, he brought him to Falkeland, where he shut him vp in streict The duke of Rothsaie committed to prison. prison, and kept him without all manner of meat or drinke, so to famish him to death.

It is said, that a woman vnderstanding the duke of Albanies intention, and taking ruth of the others pitifull case, found meanes to let meale fall downe thorough a rift of the loft of that tower wherein he was inclosed, by meanes whereof his life was certeine dales susteined; but after this was once knowen, incontinentlie was the woman made awaie. On the same manner, an other woman through a long reed fed with milke of hir owne brests, and was likewise dispatched as soone as hir dooings were perceiued. Then after this, the duke destitute of all worldlie sustenance, thorough very famine was The duke of Rothsaie famished to death. constreined to eat not onelie all such filth as he could find within the tower, but also in the end he gnawed off his owne fingers, and so finallie in this miserable state of martyrdome (as I may call it) ended his wretched life, and was buried in Lundoris, where (as the fame went) manie faire miracles were doone néere to his graue, till time that Miracles. Iames the first began to punish the murtherers, for since that time such miracles ceassed.

About the same time, George earle of March did manie displeasures to the Scots, The displeasures doone by George earle of March. The earle of Dowglas gouernour of Louthian. Thomas Holiburton. making sundrie rodes into their countrie, greatlie to his profit. The earle of Dowglasse that had the gouernement of Louthian in those daies, tooke order, that certeine capteins of that countrie should euerie one of them for his turne, with a competent number for the time, make a rode into England, to reuenge such displeasures. The first that went, was Thomas Haliburton of Dirlington, who returned in safetie with a great preie taken of Englishmens goods. Next vnto him was Patrike Hepborne of the Halis the yoonger, appointed to go foorth as capteine generall with a certeine number, who entering into England, got a great bootie togither; but the Englishmen following therevpon to recour it, incountered with him at Nesbet in the Mers, and there not onelie slue him, but also Patrike Hepborne slaine at Nesbet. distressed his people. Besides them that were slaine with their capteine, there were also manie that were taken, as Iohn and William Cockborne, Robert Lawder of the Bas, Iohn and Thomas Haliburton, with manie other. Almost all the floure of Louthian (as Iohn Maior writeth) perished in this battell which was fought the 22 of Iune, in the yeere 1402.

1402. Archembald Dowglas inuadeth England. Archembald earle of Dowglasse sore displeased, and woonderfullie wroth in his mind for this ouerthrow, got commission to inuade England with an armie of ten thousand men, and hauing the same once readie with all things necessarie for his voiage, he set forward, and entering into England, burnt and harried the countrie, not staieng till he came as farre as Newcastell. In this armie there was with the Dowglasse, Murdocke eldest The nobles of Scotland in this armie. sonne to duke Robert earle of Fife, Thomas erle of Murrey, George earle of Angus, with manie other lords and nobles of Scotland. At the last, when they were returning homewards with a preie of infinit goods and riches, Henrie Hotspur, and George earle of Henrie Hotspur and the earle of March assaile the Scots at Homildon. The Scots through force of the Englishmens shot, descend the hill. The Scots are put to the woorsse. March, with a great power of men met them, and assailed them so with such incessant shot of arrowes, that where the earle of Dowglas with his armie had the aduantage of an hill, called Homildon, he was constreined to forsake the same; and comming downe vpon the Englishmen, was neuerthelesse put to the woorsse, the most part of his people being either taken or slaine. It is said, that after the Scots were once put to flight, they gathered againe, and renewed the battell by the exhortation of Adham Gordon, & sir Iohn Swinton, but that did little auaile them, for they were still beaten downe and slaine. Among other of those that were slaine, were the same sir Iohn Swinton, and Adham Gordon: also Iohn Leuinston of Kalender, Alexander Ramsaie of Dalhousie, Adham Gordon. Men of name slaine. Prisoners taken. with sundrie other gentlemen & nobles of Scotland.

Archembald earle of Dowglas, Murdocke Steward eldest sonne to duke Robert the gouernour, George erle of Angus, Robert Erskin of Galloway, the lord Saulton, Iames Dowglas maister of Dalkeith, and his two brethren Iohn and William, with the most part of all the barons of Fife and Louthian, were taken prisoners. This battell was fought on the Buch. 1401. 1402. H.B. The castell of Cockclauis besieged. A composition. Fr. Thin. Rood day in haruest, in the yéere 1403, vpon a Tuesday. Henrie Persie verie proud of this victorie, came with the earle of March vnto the castell of Cockclauis in Teuidale, and laied siege to the same, but Iohn Greinelow capteine thereof defended it so manfullie, that they got no great aduantage; yet at length he fell to this composition with them, that if he had no rescue within the space of thrée moneths [or (as Buchanan saith) fiftie daies] the castell should be then rendered into their hands. When the gouernour of Scotland was informed what agreement the capteine of Cockclauis had made, he assembled the lords in counsell to haue their aduise for the leauieng of an armie against the time appointed. There were manie of this opinion, that it was better to lose the castell, than to ieopard the liues of so manie men as were necessarie to furnish that enterprise for the sauing of it. But the gouernour shewed, that he weied the losse of it so much, that if none of the nobles would passe with him to the rescue thereof, yet he would go himselfe to doo what in him might lie to saue it. But in the meane time, such trouble rose in England, that there néeded no power to be leauied for the defense of Cockclauis. For A conspiracie against king Henrie by the Persies and other. by a conspiracie practised against king Henrie, certeine of the English nobilitie were alied togither to haue destroied him, but amongest the residue, the Persies were as chiefe.

They fought togither at Shrewesburie a verie bloudie battell, where the king got the Shrewesburie field. The earle of Dowglasse at Shrewesburie field in aid of the Persies. victorie, and slue the lord Persie, surnamed (as before ye haue heard) Henrie Hotspur. At this battell was also the earle of Dowglas, with a great companie of Scotishmen on the Persies side, for being taken prisoner at the battell of Homildon (as before is said) it was accorded betwixt him and the said Henrie Hotspur, that aiding him & other his complices against king Henrie, if it chanced the said king Henrie to be vanquished and put from the crowne, according to their intent and purpose, then should the said earle Dowglas be released of his ransome, and haue the towne of Berwike rendered vnto him in reward of his aid and assistance. He fought (as is reported) with singular manhood, He led the fore ward there. He is taken prisoner. and had the fore ward on the Persies side. He slue that day with his owne hands, thrée gentlemen arraied in the kings cote armour; and finallie when the battell was lost, he was taken in the chase, and saued aliue, where not one more of all his retinue of Scots escaped with life, but were all slaine out of hand. Neither was this victorie gotten by king Henrie, without great slaughter of those that were on his part, for he lost foure verie valiancie knights, as Staluart, Blunt, Massie, and Pottoke, with seuen hundred other souldiers and men of war (as the Scotish writers haue) but the English authors name a farre greater number, as sixtéene hundred at the least.

King Henrie (as the same Scotish writers doo record) vsed the counsell & aduise of the earle of March, in the obteining of this victorie, being fled latelie before from the rebels side to him. The earle of Dowglas, in respect of his noble parentage and high valiancie, was verie tenderlie cherished by king Henrie, who for that he had séene him doo so valiantlie in the day of that battell, reputed him woorthie of all honor. The earle of The earle of Dowglas infortunat in battell. His surname Tinneman. Dowglas yet was verie infortunat in most of his enterprises, so farre foorth, that he neuer wan battell wherein he chanced to be, and was therefore named Archembald Tinneman; though there were no default to be found at anie time in his owne person, for he euer fought with great manhood. At the battell of Hommildon he lost one of his eies, and at this battell of Shrewesburie he lost one of his stones. The old earle of Northumberland, hearing The earle of Northumberland fled into Scotland. what euill successe his sonne and other his kinsmen had found in their rebellious enterprise at Shrewesburie, with one of his nephues (that was his sonnes sonne) and other of his friends and kinsmen, withdrew into Scotland, where he was receiued by Henrie Wardlow bishop of saint Andrewes, and lodged with him at his ease and in good suertie within his castell of saint Andrews aforesaid.

About the same time, king Robert was aduertised, that his sonne the duke of Rothsaie was The death of the duke of Rothsaie commeth to the knowledge of his father. The duke of Albanie excuseth himselfe. pined to death in Falkland (in manner as before is expressed) which newes were so gréeuous vnto him, that he grew each day more and more in sorow and melancholie. The duke of Albanie kept it so long as was possible from the kings knowledge, and being now sent for by the king to answer him for such treasonable slaughter of his sonne, he came, and so excused the matter with a faire painted tale, as though he had béene nothing guiltie in the cause, and for further declaration of his innocencie, he promised (if it might please the king to come vnto Edenburgh) he would bring in the offendors which were culpable of the murther. The king as then remaining in Bute (where for the most part he euer soiourned) though he were not well able to trauell by reason of long sicknesse, yet in a chariot he came vnto Edenburgh, vpon the earnest desire he had to see his sons death punished. And at The king commeth to Edenburgh. his comming thither, the duke of Albanie deliuered vnto him certeine naughtie persons, & such in déed, as for their heinous acts and vngratious conditions deserued well to die (though not for this matter) which neuerthelesse by vntrue suggestions and forged accusements, being brought before corrupt iudges (and such as the duke of Albanie had Giltlesse persons condemned. prouided for his purpose) were condemned as giltie of his death, whome in all their life time they neuer saw.

Though this matter was handled as finelie as was possible, and made so sound and cleare as could be deuised; yet was not the king so satisfied in his mind, but that he had a great suspicion in the duke of Albanie as author of his sonnes death: but for somuch as the duke The suspicion of the king towards the duke of Albanie. had all the realme vnder his obeisance, partlie by policie, and partlie by authoritie of his office, being gouernor thereof, the king durst not attempt anie thing against him, but rather doubted, least he hauing an ambitious desire to the crowne, would compasse also to haue the life of his second sonne (named Iames) as then prince of Scotland; and therefore by the faithfull helpe & good aduise of Walter Wardlaw the bishop of saint Andrews, he prouided a ship, and sent the said prince foorth in the same to passe into France to K. Charls The king sendeth away his sonne the prince. the sixt, deliuering him also a letter written and directed vnto the king of England in his fauour, if he chanced at vnwares by anie fortune to fali into the Englishmens hands.

Henrie lord Sinclare, the second earle of Orkeneie, was appointed to haue the conueie of him, who hauing all his purueiance readie, tooke the ship that was appointed for them at the Basse, where he laie at anchor, and loosing from thence, they sailed forward till they came to Flamburgh head, where (as some say) they were taken on the sea by Englishmen, the which hearing how the prince of Scotland should passe that waies, laie in wait for him. Others write, that his desire was to be set on land there, because he might not awaie with the aire of the sea, being brought far out of quiet in his head & stomach therewith. But Iames prince of Scotland taken by the Englishmen. H.B. 1404. how soeuer it was, the truth is, taken he was in the ninth yeare of his age, the 33 day of March, in the yeare of our incarnation 1406, and was kept in captiuitie of the Englishmen by the space of eightéene yeares. At his comming to the presence of king Henrie, he deliuered to him the letter directed from his father king Robert, the tenor whereof here insueth, as in the Scotish toong they be written.

THE TENOR OF THE SAID LETTER AS IT IS WRITTEN IN THE SCOTISH TOONG.

"ROBERT king of Scots to Henrie king of England greeting. Thy great magnificence, humilitee, and iustice, are right patent to vs, by gouernance of thy last armie in Scotland; howbeit sike things had beene vncerteine to vs afore. For though thou seemed as enemie with most awfull incursions in our realme: Yit we found mair humanities and plaisures than damage (by thy cumming) to our subdittes. Speciallie to þame that receiuit thy noble fader the duke of Longcastell the time of his exiil in Scotland. We may not ceis þairfore, wuhile wee are on life, but aye luyf and loif thee as maist noble and woorthie prince, to ioys thy realme. For þocht realmes and nations contend amang themselfe for conquests of glorie & launds, Yit na occasioun is amang vs to inuade athir realmes or lieges with iniuries, bot erar to contend amang our selfe, quhay sall persew othir with maist humanitee and kindnesse. As to vs we will meis all occasion of battell, quare any occurres at thy pleasure. Forther bycause we haue na lesse sollicitude in preseruing our children fra certeine deidlie enimies, than had sometime thy noble fader, we are constreined to seeke support at vncowth princes hands. Howbeit, the inuasioun of enimies is sa great, that small defense occurres against þame without they by perserued by amitie of nobill men. For the warld is sa full of peruersit malice, that na crueltie nor offense may be deuisit in erd, bot the samine may be wroucht be motion of gold or siluer. Heirfore, because we knaw thy hynesse full of monie noble vertues, with sike puissance and riches, that na prinse in our daies may be compared thairto: we desire thy humanitee and support at this time.

"We traist it is not vnknowen to thy maiestie, how our eldest sonne Dauid is slaine miserablie in prisoun be our brothir the duke of Albanie, quhome wee chesit to be gouernour (quan we were fallen in decrepit age) to our subdittes and realme, beseekaund thy hienes thairfore to be sa fauorable, that this bearer Iames our second and allanerlie sonne may haue targe to liefe vnder thy faith, and iustice, to be some memorie of our posteritie, knawaund the vnstable condition of mans life sa sodanlie altered: now flurisaund, and sudenlie falling to vtter consumptioun. Forthir beliefe well, quhan kings and princes hes na other beild bot in thair awin folks, thair empire is caduke and fragill. For the minds of common people, ar euir flowaund and mair inconstant than wind. Yit quen princes ar roborat be amitee of othir vncowth kings thair brethir and nighbouris, na aduersitie may occurre to eiect thaim fra thair dignitie riall. Forthir gif thy hienes thinke nocht expedient (as God forbeid) to obtemper to thir owr desires; Yit we request ane thing quhilk was ratifijt in our last trewes & conditioun of peace, that the supplicatioun made be ony of the two kings of Ingland and Scotland sall staund in manner of saufe conduct to the bearer. And thus we desire to be obseruat to this our allanerlie sonne, and the gratious God conserue thee maist noble prince."

After that king Henrie had caused these letters to be opened and read, he aduised himselfe thereon with great deliberation; but in the end, he determined to staie this Iames prince of Iames the prince of Scotland staied as prisoner in England. His bringing vp. An happie captiuitie. His instructors in the toongs. His training in warlike exercises. His knowledge in musike. Scotland as his lawfull prisoner, for that he was thus taken in time of warres, and that moreouer, there were diuers rebels of England succored within the bounds of his fathers dominion, to the high displeasure of the said king Henrie. But such was the fauour shewed in his bringing vp, that his captiuitie turned more to his honor, profit, and commoditie, than anie other worldlie hap that might by anie means haue otherwise chanced vnto him. He had such perfect instructors to teach him, aswell the vnderstanding of toongs as the sciences, that he became right expert and cunning in euerie of them. He was taught also to ride, to run at the tilt, and handle all kind of weapons conuenientlie to be vsed of such a personage, wherevnto he was so apt and readie, that few in anie point of actiuitie might ouermatch him. He had good knowledge in musike, and could plaie on sundrie instruments right perfectlie. To be briefe, it appeered in all his behauiour and maners, in what companie so euer he came, that his bringing vp had béene according to his nature, neither of them differing from his birth, and the qualitie of a noble and most vertuous prince.

After it was signified vnto his father king Robert, as he sat at supper, that his sonne was thus arrested in England, he made full great and dolorous mone, sore lamenting that euer The griefe of his father K. Robert. he matched himselfe in mariae with a woman of so meane degrée (to the disparagement of his bloud) as was quéene Annabell, on whome he begat his sonnes, which (as he tooke it) was the onelie cause why aswell forraine princes as his owne subiects had him thus in contempt. He tooke this matter so sore to hart, that within thrée daies after the newes The death of king Robert the third. 1406, Buch. 1408. His buriall. came vnto him, he departed this world through force of sicknesse, now increased by melancholie, which had vexed him a long time before. He died at Rothsaie in the sixtéenth yeere of his reigne complet, and from the incarnation 1408. His bodie was buried at Pasleie, with his wife queene Annabell before rehearsed. He was a man of a mightie stature, verie His stature and qualities. liberall and gentle, so that if he had not béene maimed with a horsse, and thereby grew lame, that he might trauell about the affaires of the realme himselfe, it was thought the common-wealth should haue prospered vnder his gouernement, as much as euer it did vnder anie of his predecessors.

The gouernor Robert duke of Albanie, after the deceasse of his brother king Robert, was The duke of Albanie confirmed gouernor of the realme. Fr. Thin. by new election chosen, or rather confirmed in his office of gouernor, which he exercised more vprightlie, & with better iustice now after his brothers death, than before. [For (as saith Buchanan) take away from him, that he was ouermuch blinded with desire to gouerne (wherevnto he cared not by anie means to aspire) there were in him manie other good parts woorthie to haue such gouernement: for he was valiant in battell, wise in counsell, he did decide matters of controuersie with great equitie, he wan the nobilitie with his liberalitie, and did not sucke the commons drie by exactions.] In the meane time, the castell of Jedworth (which the Englishmen had held euer since the battell of Durham) was Jedworth castell taken. The earle of Dowglasse is released and returneth into Scotland. taken by Tiuidalemen, and raced downe to the earth. Archembald earle of Dowglasse, as yet remaining captiue in England, after he had knowledge of king Roberts death, made shift to agrée for his ransome, and so being set at libertie, returned with all spéed now at length into Scotland.

Shortlie after, there was a councell called, wherein was a motion made for the restoring of A motion made for the restoring of the earle of March to his countrie. The earle of March restored home. George earle of March to his countrie, lands, and bloud. After long debating of the matter, and hard hold to and fro both with him and against him, it was in the end concluded, that he should returne into Scotland, and be receiued as a true Scotishman; but vnder this condition, that he should forgo his lands of Annerdale, and Lochmaben, which should for euer remaine to the Dowglasse, and to his heires. All his other lands and possessions, it was accorded, that he should inioy as in his former right & estate. And thus was the earle of March pardoned of all passed offenses committed against the crowne of Scotland, and returned home, to the great comfort of his friends. * Persie that before Fr. Thin. Buchanan. 1409. was fled into Scotland to the erle of March his old friend, was courteouslie receiued, interteined, & nourished according to his estate, by the said earle of March: during which time, he sollicited his friends in England to find means for returne into his countrie. And amongst other of his friends, with whom he dealt by secret messengers; he directed letters concerning the same, to an old (and as he déemed a most faithfull) friend of his, called Rafe Roksbie, declaring vnto him that he should not want friends, both Scotish & English (through whose helpe he did not despaire to recouer his patrimonie) if he might haue his aid also therein, for this Rafe was shiriffe of Yorkshire. This man, after he had intised Persie (vnder the assurance of false hope and trust in him) to come into England, he opened the conspiracie to the king, and secretlie laid wait to intercept the said earle, by which meanes, (getting him into his possession) he cut off his head, and sent it to the king to London. At which time also, there was an Englishman in Scotland, which called himselfe Richard the second: but falslie (as I suppose) saith Buchanan; for when the elder Persie did often and importunatlie require to talke with him, he could neuer be persuaded by anie mens words to come, or enter spéech to, or with the said earle of Northumberland, fearing (belike) least his deceipt would be vnderstood by him, which knew his owne and true king verie well. This counterfeit king yet boasting him to be of the princelie bloud, was honored accordinglie; after certeine yeares, and at length (feining himselfe to be far from all desire of gouernement, to the end he might woorke his effect the more safelie) he died and was baried in the church of the frier Dominicks in Sterling, with a title of the king of England grauen vpon him.)

About the same time, there rose great trouble in Scotland, by the rebellion of Donald of Rebellion moued by Donald of the Iles. the Iles, who claming by right of his wife, a title to the earldome of Rosse, was defeated of the same, by the practise of the gouernor, hauing by subtill conueiance, assured the said earldome vnto his second son the earle of Buchquhane named Iohn. The foresaid Donald, by way of supplication, besought the gouernor to doo him reason; but he receiued nought, except it were froward spéech, wharewith he tooke such displeasure, that raising all the Donald subdued Rosse. Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 7. cap. 268. power of the Iles he came into Rosse, and subdued the same at his pleasure. *The which to make the matter more plaine, and to deduce his title out of Lesleus (which he forgetteth not to report for the honor of his owne house) I will set the same downe in this maner. Walter Lesle a noble man, after singular prowesse shewed by him (in externall battell) vnder the Romans, returned with honor into Scotland, where he maried the daughter of William earle of Rosse, (slaine at the battell of Halidon) and with hir obteined the earldome of that prouince, of which wife he raised one sonne called Alexander, after earle of Rosse; and one daughter giuen in mariage to Donald of the Iles. This Alexander ioined himselfe The earldome of Rosse transferred from the line of Walter Rosse to the Stewards. in mariage with Eufemie the daughter of Robert the gouernor, and had by hir one onelie daughter and heire christened after the name of hir mother, who (after the death of hir father, being yet a tender maid and vnpractised in the course of things) was partlie by the flatteries, and partlie by the threats of the gouernor, induced to giue the earldome of Rosse vnto him, by whose helpe, as it was reported, she shortlie after died. Wherevpon, Donald that had to wife the sister of Alexander Lesle (aunt to this Eufemie which sold hir inheritance) demanding the erldome of Rosse by right of inheritance (as is said) by his wife, entered Rosse, and brought it to his subiection.) But not being satisfied with this, he passed through Murrey, Boghtuall, and other bounds thereabouts, till he came vnto Garioch, purposing to burne Aberden.

But Alexander Steward earle of Mar, hauing gathered a power with all diligence to resist The earle of Mar. The battell of Harlow. this Donald, met with him at a village called Harlow, & incontinentlie not staieng for more aid that was comming towards him, set on the enimies more rashlie than orderlie, and more fiercelie than discréetlie, not passing for keeping anie accustomed arraie of battell, as had béene requisit. By reason whereof, great slaughter was made on either part, the victorie in the end being so doubtfull, that both parts were faine to withdraw out of the field, and Doubtfull victorie. The number slaine. flée to the next mounteins, as glad to be seuered the one from the other. There was slaine on Donalds part nine hundred men, with Makclane, and Makinthos. On the earle of Marres side, there died Alexander Ogiluie shiriffe of Angus, with seuen knights of name, and diuers other gentlemen, with commons, to the number of six hundred. This battell was striken on saint Iames euen, in the yeare 1411. Donald of the Iles, after this bickering 1411. Donald of the Iles fléeth. wholie granted the victorie to his enimies, in fléeing all the night long after the battell towards Rosse, and from thence with like spéed he passed ouer into the Iles.

In the yéere next following, the gouernor prepared to make a iournie into the Iles, to 1412. Donald of the Iles submitteth himselfe. chastise the foresaid Donald; but he through feare of further damage, submitted himselfe, and was sworne neuer to procure anie trouble to the realme in time to come. Not long after the battell of Harlow, Patrike Dunbar, second sonne to the earle of March, with one hundred of hardie persons, came earlie one morning somewhat before the breake of the day to Fast castell, and wan the same, taking the capteine prisoner, whose name was Thomas Fast castell woone. 1410. Buc. The bridge of Roxburgh broken downe. 1411. The first beginning of the vniuersitie of S. Andrews. Doctors of diuinitie, and of the canon law. Fr. Thin. Holdon. At the same time was the bridge of Roxburgh broken downe, and the towne burnt by William Dowglasse of Drumlanerik, Gawan Dunbar another of the erle of Marches sonnes, and diuerse others. In the same yéere (or rather in the yéere before) the vniuersitie of saint Andrews was first founded, which afterwards was furnished with diuerse notable learned men brought in and placed there by Iames the first, to the end that by their instructions his people might increase in learning, to the further aduancement of vertue, laudable maners, and all sorts of ciuill customes. Amongest sundrie other expert men in all sciences which he brought into Scotland, there were 18 doctors of diuinitie, & 8 doctors of the canon law.

*From this time by the space of ten yeeres (saith Buchanan) there was almost nothing doone woorthie of memorie, betwéene the Scots and the English, either bicause the truce occasioned it (which yet I find not mentioned of anie man) either for that Henrie the fourth, king of England, being dead, and his sonne Henrie the fift reigning in his place, and being all the time of his gouernement busied in the warres of France, the English ceassed to offer iniuries to the Scots: or for that the gouernor of the Scots durst not mooue anie thing against the English, fearing least the K. of England would then retume home the right and true heire of Scotland, who (he was most assured should find fauour against him) in the hearts of his owne people, that would tenderlie pitie the misfortune of his imprisonment, and seeke to establish him in the kingdome. Wherefore if there were anie thing doone in that meane time, they were but some few and small excursions within the realme, which more aptlie might be called robberies & spoiles, than anie right wars. For as Pennure in England was burned by Archembald Dowglas, so (to answer the same) Dunfreis in Scotland was in the like order destroied by the English. Besides which there was a certeine exchange of prisoners of the one nation with the other: for Mordac the sonne of the gouernor (taken at Halidon) was returned into Scotland, and Persie (who was brought out of England by his grandfather into Scotland, and left vnder the protection of the gouernor) was deliuered to the English, and after by the new king of England was restored to the title & lands of his ancestors earles of Northumberland.

This man (though by the lawes of armes he was no captiue) yet the vniust deteining of lames the sonne of the king of Scots stopped the mouths of the English, that they could not complaine of anie iniurie doone in deteining him. The dooing whereof so litle offended this Persie, that while he liued, he did (with all kind of courtesie) giue witnes of the humanitie shewed vnto him by the Scots. Not much different from this time, came two ambassadors into Scotland, the one from the councell of Constance (wherof the chiefe was the abbat of Pontineac) and the other was from Peter de Luna, who did stiflie reteine and defend the papasie, whereof he had once gotten possession, which Peter by the trauell and persuasion of Henrie Hardine (an English man, and a Franciscane frier) had drawne the gouernor of Scotland to follow his faction, which yet succéeded to none effect: bicause the vniuersall companie of the cleargie stiffelie labored against it, and did subscribe to the deposition of Peter, and to the councell of Constance for the election of Martine the fift to the papasie.

Much what about the same time, Iohn Drummond slue Patrike Graham earle of The earle of Stratherne slaine. Stratheme, by traitorous meanes, and therevpon fled into Ireland: but as he was about to haue passed from thence ouer into England, the vessell wherein he sailed, was driuen on the coast of Scotland, where hée was taken, and afterwards lost his head for the said offense. Shortlie after also, there rose great warres betwixt England and France, as in the histories of Warres betwixt England and France. Rebellion in Wales. those realmes may more plainlie appeare. There was also a great rebellion raised in Wales, against Henrie the fift king of England, which was the son of Henrie the fourth latelie deceassed. ¶ We find in the Scotish chronicles, that this Henrie the fift, at his returning foorth of France, after his first iournie thither (hauing in the same woone the towne of Harfléet, & discomfited the whole power of France at Agincourt) was constreined to go against the Welshmen, and incountering with the prince of Wales, was discomfited, and Henrie the fift discomfited by the Welshmen. He subdueth them. lost ten thousand of his men: but after this, he reinforced his power, and came againe into Wales, not ceassing till he had brought the Welshmen subiect at his pleasure: but the English writers make no mention of anie such matter.

Whilest things passed thus in England, William Haliburton wan the castell of Warke, and The castell of Warke woone. slue all such as he found within it, howbeit small while indured the ioy of this fortunate successe to the Scots: for sundrie Englishmen that knew all the secrets of the house, found means to enter through a gutter, that serued in maner of a sinke, to auoid all the filth of the kitchen into the riuer of Twéed, breaking downe a pane of an old wall, and so made entrie for the residue of their fellowes; by reason whereof they easilie recouered the castell, It is againe recouered. and in reuenge of them that were slaine there when the Scots wan it, they likewise slue all those which were then within it, without anie respect of one or other. After this, in the yéere 1419, the third day of September, Robert duke of Albanie, that had béene 1419. gouernor of Scotland for the space of fiftéene yéeres, after the death of king Robert the third, parted out of this life, hauing borne himselfe in all his time as a right valiant and noble The deceasse of Robert duke of Albanie. Fr. Thin. prince. [This dooth Buchanan attribute to the yéere 1420, being the fiftéenth yeere after the death of Robert the third.]

A little before his deceasse, there came from Charles the French king, the earle of Ambassadors from the French king. Vandosme, and chancellor of France, both to renew the ancient league betwixt the two realmes of Scotland and France, & also to get some power of Scots to passe into France, to support the said Charles against the Englishmen, which as then sore inuaded his realme. Wherevpon shortlie after by decrée of councell, it was ordeined, that Iohn Steward earle of An armie of Scots sent into France. The king of England menaceth the Scots. Buchquhane, second sonne to duke Robert, and Archembaid Dowglas earle of Wigton, should passe into France with seuen thousand armed men. The king of England informed hereof, to cause the Scots to kéepe their men at home, menaced to inuade Scotland with a puissant armie, & that in all hast. Which rumor being spred ouer all the bounds of his realme, caused the Scots for doubt thereof to lie all the next summer on the borders: but in the meane time, king Henrie passed into Normandie, to pursue his wars against France with all diligence.

At length, through the procurement of the duke of Burgognie, vnder certeine conditions The king of England marieth the daughter of ye French king. The articles of agréement. and couenants of agréement, king Henrie tooke to wife the ladie Katharine daughter to the French king. And among other articles of the same agréement, it was concluded, that after the deceasse of Charles the French king, the crowne of France should immediatlie descend vnto king Henrie, as lawfull inheritor vnto that realme, without all contradiction; by reason whereof, Charles the Dolphin, and sonne to the said king Charles, was clearelie excluded from all claime to the same: but this notwithstanding, the Dolphin did not onelie The Dolphin of France mainteineth warre against the Englishmen. Scotish soldiers arriued in France. refuse to surrender his title, but also sought to mainteine the war against king Henrie as his aduersarie, and open enimie to the realme. In the meane while also, the earles of Buchquhane and Wigton, with Alexander Lindseie brother to the earle of Crawford, and Thomas Swinton knights, accompanied with seuen thousand well armed men, arriued in France, to the great reioising of the Dolphin, as he well declared in the thankfull receiuing, and most heartie welcomming of them. Finallie, the towne and castell of Chatelon in Touraine was Chatelon in Touraine deliuered to the Scotishmen. deliuered to them, that they might haue a place at all times to resort vnto, at their owne will and pleasure.

* Shortlie after they were imploied in the battell of Bauge. For the duke of Clarence Fr. Thin. Buchan. li. 10. 1420. Buc. brother to the king of England (in whose place he was deputie and generall of the armies in France) after that he had spoiled and ouerrun the countrie of Aniou (which hitherto 1421. N.G. had remained most stedfast in the obedience of the French) was comming (as it was supposed) to the towne of Bauge, about two daies before Easter: for which cause the Scots The battell of Bauge. (thinking that the duke in that holie feast would, as the maner was, cease from all violence of warre, and attend the church ceremonies appointed for those times; or else as some write, by reason of the truce which was taken for eight daies) did more negligentlie looke vnto their estate than wisdome would they shuld haue doone. The which when Clarence vnderstood (either by Andrew Fregose an Italian, or by the Scotish forragers intercepted by his horssemen) he reioised that he had so good occasion offered woorthilie to performe something. Wherefore rising foorthwith from dinner, he commanded his horssemen to arme themselues, with whome he went directlie towards his enimies, at what time he was (besides the beautie of his other furniture) richlie adorned with goodlie diadems of gold (set with manie pretious stones) and placed vpon a chaplet of iron. At whose sudden approch, Nic. Gil. those few French which were néere vnto them in a village called little Bauge (amongst whom was Iohn de la Croix) being feared, made their defense in flight; and for safegard entered the stéeple of the next church adioining, in the which they were hardlie after besieged.

Whilest these were thus inuironed, the clamor and cries which was now come to the next armie (wherein the Scots were assembled) suddenlie caused them with great feare to flée to their weapons. At that time the erle of Buchquhane (whilest the others prepared themselues) sent thirtie archers to possesse the bridge vnder which the next riuer had his course, and through which they might passe ouer, where (incountering with the English enimie) Hugh Kennedie came vnto them out of the next church (in which he soiorned) with a hundred of his companie halfe armed, as it often falleth out in such sudden exploits. These with their arrowes so streictlie kept this streict, that the horssemen could not haue anie passage there, for which cause the duke of Clarence did first forsake horsse (as the rest of the companie did after him) began the battell on foot, and with a strong assault made way for his men, beating from them the Scots, who were for the most part vnarmed, and the others not verie well armed.

After this, in the meane time whilest Clarence taketh his horsse againe, and some of the rest scatteringlie doo passe the bridge, the earle of Buchquhane commeth vpon them, & foorthwith (desirous to make triall of his people egerlie séeking after it) there was a bitter battell committed, with like minds of hatred the one against the other: for the Scots did. reioise, that they had now obteined cause, time, and place, where they might (after their first arriuall in France) shew some token of their valure, and refute those tawnts which the Frenchmen laid vpon them, obiecting that the gréedinesse of wine & vittels had brought them ouer into that countrie. With which reproch the Frenchmen are woont to vpbraid the English, the Spaniard the French, and the Affrican the Spaniard. But as the Scots were eger in a strange countrie to win honor, so was the English no lesse desirous of conquest, greatlie disdeining both at home and abroad, to be so infested with that implacable nature of the Scots. In which battell none did fight more valiantlie or egerlie than did the duke of Clarence himselfe. Against whome (so noted for the richnesse of his armor) came Iohn Swinton, which greeuouslie wounded him in the face, and whome the earle of Buchquhane (striking on the head with his mace) quite ouerthrew to the ground. Which doone, the English fled, and were greeuouslie slaine, because the same continued till the night ended the quarrell; which battell was fought on Easter eue, a little after the equinoctiall. spring. In this battell were slaine of the English about 20000, amongst whome were 26 Hector Boetius. of noble calling, whereof were the duke before said, the earle of Riddesdale, otherwise called the earle of Angus, & the lord Greie were part: but of the Scots and Frenchmen, there were few missing, and they of the meaner sort. All which, as we haue héere set it downe, is the common report of the death of the duke of Clarence. But the booke of Buchan. lib. 10. Pluscart reporteth, that the duke was slaine by Alexander Macelsell, a knight of Lenox, which tooke from him the coronet (whereof we spake before) and sold the same to Iohn Steward of Dernill, for a thousand angels, which he after laied to pawne to Robert Hustone, to whom he owght fiue thousand angels; & this saith that booke was the most common report at those daies. The chiefe praise of which victorie remained with the Scots, euen by the testimonie of the enuious aduersaries, as the writer of this storie saith vpon his credit.) At this battell also were a great companie of prisoners taken, amongest whome (as Prisoners taken. principall) were these, the earle of Huntington, & the earle of Summerset, with his brother, both of them being brethren to the ladie Iane, that was after maried to king Iames the first, king of Scotland. For the high valiancie of the Scotishmen shewed in this battell, the Dolphin created the earle of Buchquhane high constable of France, and gaue him sundrie The earle of Buchquhane is created constable of France. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 10. townes, castels, and lands, therewith the better to mainteine his estate.

* King Henrie hearing of the death of his brother the duke of Clarence, did substitute for his deputie his other brother the duke of Bedford, promising that he would shortlie after come thither himselfe with an armie of foure thousand horsse, and a thousand footmen (which he performed accordinglie.) For with all spéed he after came into France with a mightie host, and had with him Iames the Scotish king, or rather prince of Scotland, for all The king of England taketh the prince of Scotland ouer with him into France. this while the Scots reputed him not as king, for that he was not as yet crowned: nor set at libertie out of the Englishmens hands, into the which (as before ye haue heard) he chanced to fall by his fathers life time.

The cause why king Henrie did take this Iames ouer with him at that present into France, was, for that he hoped by his meanes to procure all the Scotishmen that were in seruice with the Dolphin to forsake him, and to returne home into their owne countrie: but when he had broken this matter vnto the said Iames, and promised, that if he could bring it to passe, he would not onelie remit his ransome, but also send him into Scotland highlie rewarded with great riches: Iames answered héerevnto, that he maruelled much, why he did The answer of Iames the king, or rather prince of Scotland. not consider how he had no authoritie ouer the Scots so long as he was holden in captiuitie, and as yet had not receiued the crowne, "but (saith he) if it were so that I might be set at libertie, and had receiued the crowne according to the accustomed manner, togither with the othes and homages of my subiects, I could then in this matter doo as should be thought to stand with reason; but in the meane time I shall desire your grace to hold me excused, and not to will me to doo that which I may in no wise performe."

King Henrie maruelling at the high wisedome which appeered to be planted in the head of King Henrie tooke it for a sufficient answer. that yoong prince, left off to trauell with him anie further in this matter. In the meane time, the warres continuing betwixt the king of England and the Dolphin of France, manie townes were beséeged, woone, and sacked, and sundrie light bickerings and skirmishes chanced betwixt the parties, as occasion serued. But the Englishmen shewed themselues to beare such hatred toward the Scots, that so manie as fell into their hands neuer The cruell dealing of the Englishmen towards the Scots. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 10. néeded to streine their friends for their ransomes, which crueltie they put not in practise against their enimies, being of an other nation. [For king Henrie, when he had taken the towne of Meldens, hanged twentie Scots which he found therein, laieng to their charge that they had fought against their owne king.] At length, king Henrie fell into a gréeuous disease, which in short time made an end of his life, notwithstanding all the helpe that either The death of Henrie king of England. 1422. by physicke or other waies might be ministred vnto him. The same yeere, that is to say, 1422, the French king Charles, the sixt of that name, deceassed; after whome succeeded his sonne Charles the seuenth, before named the Dolphin, as the custome there is. By the The death of Charles the French king. death of these kings, the wars were not altogither so earnestlie followed as before, whervpon the earles of Buchquhane and Wigton returned into Scotland, and shortlie after was an armie leuied, and siege laied both to Rocksburgh, and to Berwike, but for that they lay long Rocksburgh and Berwike besieged. The dirtin raid. abroad and did no good, returning home without gaine, this iournie in derision was called The durtie rode, or (as the Scots terme it) The dirtin raid.

But now to speake somewhat concerning the order of the common-wealth in Scotland, ye shall vnderstand, that after the death of Robert duke of Albanie, his sonne Mordo Mordo Steward earle of Fife elected gouernour of Scotland. The repugnant vices reigning in Mordo Steward. Steward earle of Fife and Menteith was made gouernour, continuing in that office for the space of foure yéeres, though (to confesse the truth) he was farre vnméet thereto, differing much from the wisedome and manhood of his father, for in him remained sundrie vices, greatlie variable and contrarie one to another. In time of anie aduersitie, he shewed himselfe as a man despairing of all comfort or helpe: in prosperitie so lift vp in carelesse insolencie, that he had no staie of himselfe, by reason whereof, sometimes he suffered heinous offendors through dread of their puissant friends (a thing not to be suffered in Scotland) to escape vnpunished; and at other times againe, he shewed himselfe more seuere & cruell in executing of iustice, than the matter required.

Thus was he still in extremities, kéeping no temperance nor laudable meane in anie of his dooings. Héereto was he so negligent in chastising his sons Walter, Iames, & Alexander His negligence in chastising his sonnes. (whether through softnesse & lacke of wit, or by reason he bare such a fond & tender fatherlie loue toward them) that they hauing him in small regard, plaied manie outragious parts, to the sore offending of a number. At length, one of them taking displeasure with his father, for that he would not giue him a falcon, the which he had long before greatlie desired, stepped to him, and plucking hir beside his fist, wroong hir necke from hir bodie An insolent part of one of his sonnes. The woords of duke Mordo to his son. euen presentlie before his face. Wherevpon the father somewhat kindeled with this presumptuous déed of the sonne: Walter (said he, for so was his name that had thus misused him) sith it is so that thou and thy brother will not be ruled by my soft and gentle gouernement, I shall bring him home yer it be long, that shall chastise both you and me after an other manner. And after this, he rested not to trauell still for the redéeming of Duke Mordo trauelleth for the redéeming of Iames the first. Fr. Thin. Buchan. lib. 10. Iames the first out of captiuitie, till at length he brought him home in déed, to the great wealth, ioy, and good hap of all the Scotish nation. * For calling togither a parlement (of the nobilitie) at Perth, they consulted of receiuing home their Iames imprisoned in England, and at length willinglie agréed (either for fauour they bare to the lawfull heire, or being wearied with the lothsomnes of the present gouernement) to send an ambassage to the king of England; to demand the restitution of king Iames. Wherevpon they dispatched into England (to execute their deuise) Henrie Lichton bishop of Aberden, Archembald Dowglasse (the third earle of that name, and fift of that familie) the sonne of Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 272. Archembald Dowglasse, duke of Touraine, William Heie constable of Scotland, Richard Coruall archdeacon of Londane, and Alexander Iarraine a Drum, knight.)

In the meane time, the French king, Charles the seuenth, being sore vexed with wars by the Englishmen, sent to the earle of Buchquhane his constable, requiring him to returne againe with all speed into France, and to bring so manie Scotishmen with him, as he conuenientlie might. This earle therefore found meanes to persuade Archembald earle of The earle of Buchquhane returneth into France. Dowglas, father to the foresaid earle of Wigton, to passe with him into France, which two earles with an armie of fiue thousand men, or (after some writers) ten thousand, tooke the seas, and arriued with prosperous wind and weather at Rochell, and comming to the French king, were receiued of him with all ioy and gladnes. * With this companie also was sent Fr. Thin. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 270. ambassador, Gilbert Grenlaw bishop of Aberden, a man of great authoritie amongest the nobilitie of Scotland, for his singular wisedome, and such a person as with great dexteritie executed the office of the chancellorship of the realme. The effect of whose message was, to comfort Charles the seuenth, then king of France, and to asserteine him, that not onelie they which were now allanded in France, but also all the inhabitants of Scotland would remaine so firmie in his faith & friendship, that they would spend both liues and goods in the defense of the crowne of France, as the following experience should well trie. Wherevpon the earle of Dowglasse was by the king for his further aduancement, honored with The earle of Dowglasse made duke of Touraine. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 270. 1424. N.Gi. the title of the dukedome of Touraine. But that glorie of the Scots was soone diminished (as saith Lesleus) by the infortunat successe which they had through the English at the battell of Vernoile. In which (besides all the hired or common souldiers which were also most slaine at that time) there perished of the nobilitie, the two brethren of the gouernour, the earle of Buchquhane constable of France, Archembald Dowglas duke of Touraine, with Iames his sonne and heire, Alexander Lindseie, Thomas Swinton, Robert Steward, and manie other, as in the French and English histories more largelie may appéere.

And héere a little to step out of the way, because in this place Buchanan girdeth at the A digression against Buchanan. English (as he dooth in all the parts of his booke, with most bitter tawnts) I will a little shew that he hath forgotten himselfe in the same: as well against vs generallie (as appéereth in manie places) as against Grafton, Humfrie Lhoid, and Hall, especiallie in manie other places thereof. And therefore (readers) giue me leaue in milder sort to speake of him (being dead) than he dooth of others. For although (against all humanitie) he doo most bitterlie with woords of heat inflame his pen against Humfrie Lhoid, departed the world manie yeeres (as it appéereth) before he tooke the later penne in hand (after the ouerseeing of his old fragments) as himselfe in his epistle confesseth, to write an historie: yet I will spare him in better sort. And therefore I much muse, that he a man so learned and graue, would now in his later age, when reason should most rule him, so dip his pen in gall, as forgetting himselfe, he should be of these rough conditions (contrarie to all learning, which Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros) he would call men impudent, immodest, vnlearned, liers, vnbrideled, malicious, backbiters, euill toonged; and that he can rather prooue the Britains to be made of dogs and brute beasts, better than to be descended of Brutus. All which speeches are to be found in his booke: for (if there were a fault in Lhoid) as there was none, because it séemes he did not well conceiue his mind: could not he either reprehend error, or disprooue men, but with such bitter tawnts, when they but onelie shew their opinion, dissenting in orderlie sort from others, as it is lawfull for all learned men to doo? Where learned he that rhetorike, to reiect the opinion of men with dogs eloquence, and sooner to deduce that creature (formed to the image of God, and lord of all beasts) to be rather made of dogs than of men, and for one or two priuat persons to inueie against a whole state?

But Humfrie Lhoid imputeth a note of infamie to his nation (as he supposed) in disproouing Hector Boetius, who arrogantlie (beside all truth) bath transferred to his Scots, both places, persons, and déeds, which heuer belonged to them. And is this so great a fault in Lhoid, when himselfe and Lesleus bishop of Rosse (secretlie misliking Boetius) haue in silence passed ouer a great manie imperfections in the historie of Boetius, and placed manie other things after an other sort, referring them to other times than Boetius dooth? And why should he maligne Lhoid for reprehending him, whome himselfe condemneth, & of whome he saith that In descriptione Scotiœ quœdam parùm verè prodidit, & alios in errorem induxit, and whome for manie faults (by Boetius escaped) he further saith in the later end of his second booke, that he will not defend him in such errors, as no reason there is why he should? But if from the abundance of the hart the toong and hand doo speake and write, I can not see but that by his distemperat spéeches, I must condemne him of secret grudge, not so much to the person of Lhoid, as to the whole nation, against which the chiefest part of his booke séemeth to be a stomaching inuectiue. And yet such as it is, they must of necessitie follow that intreat of the historie of his nation, or else he will exclame against them (as he dooth in this place of the battell of Vernoile) that they maliciouslie obscure the glorie of the Scots, following the authoritie of the aduersarie, and not the truth of the historie written by him, or the French nation.

And in this place of his booke, rather than he will want occasion to tawnt and disgrace vs by his cholerike pen, he will séeke a knot in a rush, and make a mounteine of a molehill, in so vehement inuaieng against the English, that say that the Scots were not able to mainteine such titles of honor as were giuen them by the French: a simple matter to make such discourse vpon, and to step so much awrie out of the course of the storie. But thinke you Buchanan hath committed no such (nay greater) faults against vs? Yes trulie, and that I suppose will be well prooued at an other time, in an other treatise vpon his booke now iustlie forbidden in England, and (as I heare) more iustlie in Scotland. And heere remember I praie thée gentle reader, that in one place of his booke he saith that he ment to haue obserued this course from the beginning, that he would not séeke to digresse by bypaths out of the course of the historie. And hath he so soone forgotten that in the first forehead of his booke, almost thrée leaues togither, & also in manie other parts of the same (as well as in this place of the battell of Vernoile) he hath lept manie miles out of the way, with bitter woords to tawnt Humfrie Lhoid, Grafton, Hall, & all the English histories, and by manie whole pages (in manie parts of his woorke) with much spence of powder and shot, to batter the credit of the English writers. These trulie were not parts of such a person, as the place (which he had about the prince whilest he liued) required. But inough of this by me (who am not Honorarius arbiter, and will be no seuere censurer of other mens writings at this time (wherevnto I was occasioned by Buchanans digression in this place) since the same will be more substantiallie touched by others in other woork (wherevnto I refer my selfe) and so returne to the order of the historie.)

The Scotish chronicles declare, that the losse of this field chanced speciallie through enuie Enuie and discord. and discord, which reigned amongest the chiefteins. For the duke of Alanson enuieng that the Scots should dailie rise in honor within France, kept himselfe backe, till time the Scots were ouerthrowen and brought to vtter destruction. Againe, euen vpon the ioining, there rose great strife and contention betwixt the constable & the duke of Touraine, who should haue the supreme rule of the Scotish legher, the one disdaining to giue place to the other. Thus ye may perceiue, how the Scots with losse of manie of their liues, and much bloudshed, supported the side of Charles king of France, against the Englishmen. And though there came dailie newes of diuerse great ouerthrowes giuen by the Englishmen to such Scotishmen and other, as serued the said king Charles, yet did not the Scots therefore staie at home, but at sundrie times, and vnder sundrie capteins repaired into France: as amongest other, one Robert Patillocke of Dundée with a new power of Scots went ouer to king Robert Patillocke capteine of a power of Scotishmen sent into France. Charles the seuenth aforesaid, shewing such proofe of his singular manhood and valiancie in those wars, as in recouerie of the realme of France out of the Englishmens hands, his seruice stood king Charles in notable stéed. Chieflie his diligence and prowesse well appéered, in reducing the parties of Gascoigne vnto the French subiection, which had remained a great number of yéeres vnder the dominion of the English kings. And heerevpon was Robert Patillocke called Le petit roy de Gascoigne. Fr. Thin. Lesleus. lib. 7. pag. 274. he called by the inhabitants euer after, Le petit roy de Gascoigne.

* But to returne to the businesse of Scotland and of the Scots, as they passed in the meane time. We say, that the French reioising of this conquest of Gascoigne, would not séeme to be vnthankfull to the Scots therefore: for which cause they erected a statue or image of this Patillocke, in the hall of the king of France, as a perpetuall memorie of this conquest, and as a singular testimonie of their good will towards the Scots, which they placed there to remaine a monument to all posteritie. Beside which, he confirmed and increased the number of the gard of Scotish archers (which they were woont to vse in peace and warre) first instituted by Charles the king of France, ouer all which he made this Patillocke chiefe capteine, which office the Scots did then and since so well discharge, that the same continueth yet in our memorie. Besides which (a little before this) Charles the sixt appointed Lesleus. lib. 7. pag. 274. an other companie of Scotish horssemen to be in wages with him, being commonlie called the trap of the Scotishmen at armes. Of whome the chiefe gouernour was Robert Steward (borne of the familie of the earle of Lennox) who was honored by the king with the title of the lord de Aubignie, with other lands and great possessions bestowed vpon him. All which (being of long time possessed of the Scots of the same surname, by continuall order of bloud & descent, that is, by Bernard the famous capteine of warre, then by Robert, and to conclude, by Iohn Steward, brother of the earle of Lennox) is at this day also in possession of the woorthie yoong gentleman (the sonne of the said Iohn) who giueth foorth a rare hope that he will not degenerat from the nobilitie of his ancestors. The ambassadors Pag. 260. e numb. 30, 40. sent (as before is shewed) into England for K. Iames, behaued themselues so sagelie therein, that in the end, they brought it to good conclusion: as thus. First it was agréed, that king Iames should be set at libertie, and also pay for his ransome the sum of 100000 marks The ransome of K. Iames. sterling, the one halfe to be paid in hand, and for the other halfe to leaue sufficient pledges behind him, till it were paid. Albeit some writers alledge, that leauing pledges for the paiment of the one halfe, he was discharged of the other, in consideration that he tooke to wife the ladie Iane, daughter to the earle of Summerset. The said earle and the cardinall Iane daughter to the earle of Summerset maried to king Iames the first. Gifts giuen to K. Iames by his wiues friends. of England his brother, conueied him with his quéene their néece, vnto the borders of both the realmes. And at their taking leaue each of other, there was presented vnto king Iames and to the quéene his wife, besides a cupbord of massie plate, sundrie faire cloths of rich and costlie arras by his wiues friends, with manie other iewels and things of great price & valure.

King Iames then departed on this wise from his wiues brethren, and other such his déere King Iames commeth to Edenburgh. friends, as his vertue and princelie behåuiour had procured him during his abode here by the space of sixtéene or eightéene yeares in England, entered into Scotland, and came to Edenburgh on Care sundaie, otherwise called Passion sunday in Lent, where he was receiued with all honor, ioy, and triumph that might be deuised. * At what time as the Fr. Thin. Buchanan. lib. 10. nobles came to giue him their dutifull welcome into his natiue sòile and inheritance, there began to be manie complaints by them, who since the death of their last king (partlie by negligence, and partlie by the default of the gouernors) had béene molested with diuers kinds of iniuries; wherevpon, Walter the son of Mordac, Malcolme Fleming, and Thomas Boid being gréeuouslie accused, were (to pacifie the exclamation of the common people) committed to diuers prisons till the next parlement, which was appointed the sixt kalends of Iune following, where is more intreated of this matter, as after shall appeare, Buchana hauing thus placed it before the kings coronation.]

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