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THE Scots séeking meanes to rid themselues from subiection of the bishop of Yorke, who was the metropolitane of Scotland, did in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thréescore and fouretéene obteine of the pope that they might haue a metropolitane sée within themselues, by reason of the continuall wars which was betwéene the two nations; during which they could neither vse appellations to their metropolitane, nor haue other bishops consecrated. Wherevpon the pope erected the church of S. Andrews into an archbishoprike in the time of king lames the third, touching which, thus writeth Lesleus, lib. 8. pag. 517. "Hoc anno (which was the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thréescore and fouretéene) Patricius Grahamus sedis Andreapolitanæ ecclesæ episcopus, crebris litteris ac nuntijs a papa efflagitauit, vt metropolitana potestas in diui Andreaæ ciuitate figeretur: iniquū esse enim contendit, vt Scoti ab Eboracensi episcopo tanquam primate pēderent, cùm propter crebra bella (quibus se Scoti & Angli mutuò lacessunt) Scotis ad illum non pateretur tutus accessus, nec liberum ius, præsertim in appellationibus. Annuit summus pontifex, vt Andreapolitano deinceps episcopo potestas metropolitana incumbat. Dies indulto pontifici promulgandi mense Septembri dicta est, atque maxima populi nobiliùmque lætitia celebrata. Episcopi reliqui Grahami odio flagrantes, illius authoritatem repudiant, regisque animum ingenti pecunia (which was as other authors saie, eleuen thousand marks) occupant, ne Grahami partibus studeret. Interea præsules Romā mittunt qui sui defensionem contra Grahamum suscipiunt." But in the end they did not preuaile. Graham was made archbishop.

Patrike Graham being bishop of saint Andrews and the first archbishop of that sée, was after his aduancement to that title depriued in this sort. In the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thrée score and seuentéene, pope Xistus the fourth of that name sent a legat Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 3. 18. called Husman into Scotland, which should displace this Patrike the archbishop of saint Andrews, condemned by the sentence of the pope and the cardinals for an heretike, schismatike, simoniake, wherevpon he was depriued of all ecclesiasticall dignitie, and commanded to perpetuall prison; in whose place was William Schewes chosen, to whose custodie and disposition this Patrike was committed, after which Graham being remooued for his safe imprisonment first to saint Colms Ile, then to Dumfermeling, and lastlie to Locheleuine, there in the end he died, and was buried in saint Sarffis or Seruinianus Ile in Locheleuine after that he had béene thrée yeares archbishop.

William Schewes being created archbishop of saint Andrews in the yeare of Christ one William Schewes. thousand foure hundred thréescore and eighteene as some haue, or one thousand foure hundred thréescore and nineteene as others haue, in the Holie rood house in Edenburgh, in the presence of king Iames and manie of the nobilitie receiued the pall, as the ensigne of his metropolitane power, being declared legat and primat of Scotland, at what time he was not withstood by anie of the other bishops, who being estranged from shewing anie fauor to Graham, did often infringe his authoritie, and in the end expelled the same Graham from his archiepiscopall sée. After which in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fourescore & two, this archbishop Schewes fled into his owne countrie, and after at the request of the king resigned his archbishoprike, contenting himselfe with the bishoprike of Murrie.

Andrew Steward vncle to king Iames the third was vpon the resignation of William Andrew Steward. Lesleus. 1483. Schewes made archbishop of saint Andrews, after which in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred foure score and foure the king sent this archbishop ambassador to Rome for the obteining of certeine priuileges, which he brought to effect. In the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fourescore and eleuen, in the time of king lames the fourth, about the third yeare of his reigne was great contention betwéene the archbishops of saint Andrews and Glascow, touching both their authorities: which when it had drawen manie of the nobilitie into diuers factions, it was ceased by the king for a certeine time, vntill all doubt thereof might be taken awaie, by deciding the same by the canon law before ecclesiasticall iudges. Then in the yeare of Christ one thousand flue hundred and seuen, being about the ninetéenth yeare of lames the fourth, the bishop of sant Andrews with the earle of Arrane were sent ambassadors into France.

Alexander Steward bastard sonne to king lames the fourth, was made archbishop of saint Alexander Steward. Andrews in the yeare of Christ one thousand flue hundred and ten, about the two and twentith of the reigne of the same lames the fourth: this man hauing long studied with Erasmus in Germanie, and in the low countries was aduanced to this sée of the Lesleus lib. 8. pag. 353. archbishoprike when he was yet in Flanders; who hauing intelligence thereof by his freends, came foorthwith into Scotland, where he was ioifullie receiued by the king, the nobilitie, & his kindred. He was slaine togither with his father king Iames the fourth at Floden field, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and thirtéene. After which, Iohn Hepburne prior of saint Andrews stronglie besieging the castle of saint Andrews, forced the same to be yéelded vnto him. The cause of which besiege grew, that Hepburne being chosen bishop of saint Andrews by his canons of that church (wherevnto the whole nobilitie were helpers) was hindered to possesse that archbishoprike, by such stipendarie people of Gawine Lesl. pag. 373. Dowglasse as kept the castle; wherevpon the queene and the earle of Angus, after that they vnderstood how the castle was by force come into the hands of Hepburne, did take in euill part that he who was so troublesome vnto them, should ascend to so high a dignitie, and that Gawine Dowglasse so déerelie to them beloued, and to whom they had giuen that bishoprike should be helplesse of the recouerie therof. Wherevpon the queene and the duke of Albanie diligentlie labored by ambassadors sent to Rome, that a third person (sith Gawine Dowglasse could not obteine it) might be aduanced therevnto, which third man was Andrew Forman bishop of Murrie: further requiring therewithall that he might be abbat of Dumfermling, & Aberbroth, which in the end with much intreatie they obteined of the pope.

Andrew Forman bishop of Murrie was at Edenburgh by the popes buls on the eighth Andrew Forman. kalends of Ianuarie in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and fiftéene (being about the second yeare of the reigne of Iames the fift) declared archbishop of S. Andrews, and abbat of Dumfermeling and Aberbroth. Wherevpon the prior of saint Andrews before named, still contending that he was archbishop, both in respect of the election of the couent, and the consent of the nobilitie, did labor all he could against Forman, appealing him to Rome, for which cause he with the lord Hales and other his freends came to Edenburgh to defend the matter, at what time the lord Hume chamberlaine of Scotland and such others as openlie assisted Forman, did oppose themselues against the prior, which nobilitie (because they were great in the court) did the more molest and hinder Hepburne, shortlie after by publike edict (and proclamation of the king) banishing the prior & his followers. Hepburne being striken with the sharpnes of that precept, did priuilie depart the towne, and the prior went to Rome, hoping by the popes authoritie to wrest from Forman the archbishoprike, which he could not obteine by violence. But how he sped at Rome I doo not know, for I onelie find this, that in the yeare following, being the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and sixtéene, about the third yeare of the same Iames the fift, that the gouernor perceiuing that all these contentions, hatreds, and diuisions of the nobilitie did arise by these bralles, which were betweene Forman and Hepburne for the see of saint Andrewes, desired to cure this gréeuous wound made in the commonwealth. Wherefore he persuaded Andrew Forman that he should resigne all his ecclesiasticall benefices into his hands in an open assemblie at Edenburgh, for by that meanes the gouernour thought that he might pacifie the minds of the nobilitie, and vtterlie root out those breaches of dissention. Wherevpon there was a daie appointed to the nobilitie to assemble: at what time Andrew Forman fréelie resigned to the gouernor the duke of Albanie all his ecclesiasticall promotion, to be disposed at the dukes pleasure. In consideration thereof, the duke bestowed the archbishoprike of saint Andrews and the abbeie of Dumfermling vpon the same Andrew Forman, and gaue the bishoprike of Murrie to Iames Hepburne (greatlie fauored of the earle Bothwell and the competitor of Forman) being therevnto substitute by Iohn Hepburne prior of saint Andrews in place of the said Iohn, to whom moreouer the duke appointed a yerelie pension of a thousand marks, to be paied by the same Forman out of the abbeie of Dumfermling. After which, about six yeares or somewhat lesse, this Forman departed his life, being in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and two, and the ninth yeare of king Iames the fift, to whom succéeded Iames Beton.

Iames Beton archbishop of Glascow and chancellor of Scotland, was made archbishop of Iames Beton. saint Andrews (as is before touched) after the death of Andrew Forman, hauing therewith the abbeie of Dumfermling, as his predecessor before had possessed it, of whom sée more in my discourse of the chancellors of Scotland.

Dauid Beton brother to the same Iames Beton was after the death of the last archbishop Dauid Beton. of saint Andrews named to that sée by his brother before his death, which place he possessed accordinglie, after the death of the same Iames Beton. Of this man being a cardinall I haue spoken more liberallie in my discourse of the chancellors of Scotland.

Iohn Hamilton (brother to the gouernour) being abbat of Paslaie, was by the same Iohn Hamilton. gouernour in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fortie and six, being about the fourth yeare of Marie quéene of Scots made archbishop of S. Andrews, after that he had returned out of France (where he applied his studie) in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fortie & thrée, being the first or second of quéene Marie of Scotland. This man comming out of France, passed through England, and hauing other learned men in his companie, did visit the king of England, of whome he was most honourablie and courteouslie receiued. From whense going into Scotland he was made treasuror, which office he kept as long as his brother was gouernour, whome he did further in all good counsels at home, and saue & defend in the wars abroad. Then in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and nine, being the seauentéenth of quéene Marie, he was with the queene besieged in Leith. After still following the quéenes part, he with others méeteth hir in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred sixtie and six, at Muskelborow, and so attendeth on hir, who not long after in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred seuentie & one, being about the fourth yeare of Iames the sixt, was taken in the castell of Dunbritaine and sent prisoner into Sterling, where being examined by the regent Matthew earle of Leneux, about the murther of Henrie king of Scots, sonne to the said Matthew, he was there drawne, hanged, and quartered, being the first archbishop that I haue yet heard of that suffered so ignominious a death.

Patrike Adamson aliàs Constance succéeded Iohn Hamilton in the archbishoprike of saint Patrike Ademston. Andrews, who possessing this place at this daie, and hauing occasioned me to speake of him in seuerall places in this my continuance of the annales of Scotland, is héere to be ouerpassed, and therefore I referre thée to the same annales, if thou desire to know what I haue said of him. ¶ Thus knitting vp the catalog of the archbishops of S. Andrews, we saie that as you haue heard before, that in Februarie last Thomas Randolph esquier was sent ambassador from the quéene of England into Scotland, so he still remaining there a long time in that countrie dispatcht his ambassage to good effect. During whose aboade there, there was an assemblie holden at Edenborough in Maie, wherein these things which follow were concluded vpon for the establishing and order of the same commonwealth.


  1. "FIRST, the whole realme was diuided into 52 presbyteries, & the number of ministers and churches appointed to euerie presbyterie.
  2. "2 That there shall be two prouinciall assemblies in the yeare in euerie prouince, the first tuesdaie of October and Aprill.
  3. "3 There shall be one generall assemblie in the yeare, the first of October next insuing.
  4. "4 All assemblies doo consist of these persons, the pastor, doctor, and elders, & all the three to haue votes, as well in the presbyteries prouinciall as generall assemblies: and that all such as haue anie sutes in the assemblies may sée and here, but giue no vote except they be of the number of the thrée afore specified.
  5. "5 That there was onelie foure offices in the church, the pastor, doctor, elder and deacon, and that the name of bishop was onlie proper to the pastor or minister, and that he had especiall charge and function in the church, but no greater than a common pastor.
  6. "6 Item, that visitation in the church was lawfull, and at this time necessarie, in respect of the eldership as yet is not lawfullie planted, and that this visitation did apperteine onelie to a pastor or pastors sent from the assemblie, and not else.
  7. "7 That when euer the assemblie maketh mention of a bishop, they meane onelie S. Paules bishop and none other.
  8. "8 That the receiuing of presentations, giuing of collations, triall of ministers deposing them for iust causes, shall be in the power of the most learned and soundest judgement of two presbyteries, and this to stand vntill the presbyteries be better erected.
  9. "9 That a commissioner appointed by the generall assemblie, being a pastor, as pastor shall be tried and censured in life and doctrine by the presbyterie, or prouinciall assemblie, but in respect of his commission, he shall be tried by the generall assemblie, of whome he receiued the same.
  10. "10 If he admit or doo any thing without consent of his assemblie, it shall be of no effect, and a iust cause of his deposition.
  11. "11 The power which he shall receiue shall be Ordinis causa non iurisdictionis.
  12. "12 Commission appointed by the prouinciall or generall assemblies to visit, shall visit presbyteries or particular churches, alwaies not preiudging the power of the presbyterie within the bounds of their visitation.
  13. "13 The visitors appointed by the generall assemblie for this present to stand for one yeare, and thereafter as the assemblie shall appoint.
  14. "14 That no commission giuen by anie in times past before the date of this assemblie shall be vaileable, but such onlie as the said assemblie shall appoint. In which assemblie also it séemeth that the kings maiestie made certeine requests, to haue somewhat established concerning the bishop of saint Andrews, wherevpon these things were concluded against him, and he brought to subscribe the same, to the preiudice of his metropolitane iurisdiction ouer the rest of the clergie of his crowne."

These things being demanded at the archbishops hands, he was contented to yéeld to them by subscribing his name with his owne hand therevnto, which doone, the said assemblie at Edenburgh did for their part in like sort publish their dutifull mind & obedience to his maiestie, in adnulling the processe of excommunication against the said bishop of saint Andrews, and to continue him in his former estate, as followeth.

This doone the earle of Rutland (hauing a commission directed to him, to William lord Euers, and to the same Thomas Randolph) went to Berwike as hir maiesties ambassadours, to confirme that league betwéene the two nations of England and Scotland, which the said Randolph had before concluded. Wherevpon the commissioners of England, the earle of Rutland, and the lord Euers, from out of England, and Thomas Randolph from out of Scotland, came to Berwike the place appointed where this league should be fullie stablished. For the meeting of whome at the same place, were commissioners of like number, and equall honor and authoritie, appointed to come to Berwike for Scotland. But some delaie being made of their appearance, and manie excuses wherewith to interteine time by messengers vsed, at the length commeth to Berwike Francis earle Bothwell, Robert lord Boid, and sir Iames Hume of Colden Knowles knight and baron, commissioners for the king of Scots, who there meeting with the foresaid commissioners of England, did conclude a league defensiue and offensiue betweene these two nations: which doone, the earle of Rutland returned home, and maister Randolph departed againe into Scotland to take his leaue of the king, whome when he had saluted he left, and returning into England came to London about the fiftéenth of August, where I will now leaue him. But before I turne my pen to any of the persons of Scotland, I determine to set downe certeine verses which Buchanan dedicated vnto him. For although they be matter impertinent to this historie of Scotland, yet bicause they were written to him (here mentioned) by a Scot, and are méet for the instructions of the yoong Scotish king, I will not refuse to set them downe in this sort as followeth: “ "Sæpe tibi Randolphe iubes me pingere regem,
Qualem optem, tribuat sic mihi vota Deus.
Accipe: sit primùm veræ pietatis amator,
Effigiem summi se putet esse Dei,
Pacem amet: & si res poscat, sit ad arma paratus.
Exuat in victos arma, odiúmque simul,
Nolo nimis parcus, nimiùm sit nolo benignus,
Vtráque regno æqua est exitiosa lues,
Non sibi sed populo sese putet esse creatum,
Et se communem ciuibus esse patrem:
Puniat inuitus, cúm res iubet esse seuerum,
Publica cúm poscent commoda lenis erit.
Viuat, vt exemplar populo sit recta sequendi,
Sit vultus prauis terror, amórque bonis,
Excolat impense ingenium, corpúsque modestè,
Luxuriem frænet cum ratione pudor:
am tacitus tecum, tentas me fallere, tanquam
In tabula nostram qui mihi pingit heram."

During the time of the abode of this Randolph in Scotland, there was an ambassador sent from the king of France to the king of Scots, which ambassador being called monsieur D'annauall had at this time small interteinment in Scotland; where not staieng long after that Randolph was come into England, he also came hither out of Scotland, to the end to passe through this countrie into France. This summer Montgomerie erle of Eglinton, whose father died not manie yeares before, hauing married the daughter of the lord Boid was slaine in this sort. The earle being a goodlie yoong gentleman, and like to prooue a good member of his countrie, as manie of his ancestors had doone before, did for his delight ride foorth on hunting (a warlike exercise, & much vsed by the Scots) about fiue or six miles frō his owne castell, where hauing satisfied his pleasure, he returned home. But hauing wait laid for him by an ambush of his enimies, he was in his iorneie towards his castell intercepted by the lord of Glencarns brother, with the lards of Hacket and Robertslands, and some of the surnames of the Muirs; at what time he was most miserablie slaine by them to their great dishonor, and his countries discommoditie. After which, in September Archibald Dowglasse (who as you heard before departing this realme in Aprill last, was admitted to come into his owne countrie) was sent ambassador from the king of Scots to the quéene of England; in whose companie were attendant on him William Murro one of the kings chamber, and Richard Dowglasse nephue vnto the same Archibald. Which ambassador after his comming into England, had full audience at the court then remaining at Windsore, on the sixt of the same moneth of September, with whome remaining still here in England, at the writing hereof, expecting the end of his ambassage; I will set end to this slender discourse. Thus hauing patched vp a Rapsodie of some few things doone in Scotland since the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred seuentie and one, in which I began my annals of that countrie so nakedlie deliuered by me, I determine to knit vp all whatsoeuer is set downe before, with a catalog of such writers of Scotland, as either by mine owne search in histories, or by others intelligence by conference haue come vnto my hand. The which I haue beene the willinger to doo, because I would obserue that course in Scotland which I haue doone in my additions to the historie of England, first written by Raphaell Holinshed. For hauing there closed vp that historie with a generall catalog of all such as haue written anie thing concerning England, so will I wrap vp these annals of Scotland, much after that manner, with a generall discourse of the writers of that countrie. In dooing whereof I haue not refused to follow the order of Lesleus and other historiographers of Scotland, obseruing the like course in the repetition of the names of a few persons at the end of most of their kings.

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