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As it is honorable to anie man to be aduanced vnto anie title of honour in his owne countrie, either for desert or fauor; whereof yet parcialitie maie most commonlie be the furtherer: so is it far more honorable and remooued from all suspicion of vndeserued fauor, to be inuested with anie title of dignitie for anie cause in a forren countrie; because princes (whose hands are mostlie opened to inrich their subiects, in whose faithfull hearts their safetie is principallie inclosed) do not commonlie without singular desert aduance strangers to them by birth in an other nation, & not their natiue subiects, for that they are people, to whom without an especiall triall anie prince is not to commit anie portion of his kingdome, and much lesse anie part of his person. Wherefore the same being an argument of worthie desert, either for assured fidelitie to the person of such prince, or for the valour of seruice of the aduanced, when anie one is adorned with anie such title of honor, I thinke it not vnfit in this place to obscure the glorie of the Scots (who might impute the same to be maliciouslie doone by me) and to omit such of their nation as haue inioied the title of dukes in a forren countrie, especiallie being now in hand with all the dukes of Scotland.

And although the number of such dukes be small, as not exceeding the figure of foure, and therefore in some mens minds might well enough be passed ouer in silence: yet carrieng a contrarie mind, in that I would not anie waie pretermit what they iustlie deserue, I will faithfullie set downe what I find recorded touching the same after this maner.

Archibald Dowglasse was created duke of Touraine in France in this sort. In the yeare Archibald Dowglasse duke of Touraine. of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and thrée as some saie, or one thousand foure hundred and six as other haue (whereof I maie not determine anie thing by reason I cannot reconcile these defaults of numbers which haue happened through the contrarietie of bookes) Charles the seuenth of that name king of France, sending ambassadors into Scotland, to renew the old league betwéene the two nations of France and Scotland, and to craue aid against the English, there were ambassadors and other noble men sent likewise into France out of Scotland; with whose comming the French king being greatlie comforted, and hoping of good successe against the English by reason of the Scotish aid, he did vpon the comming of the Scots to the court creat this Archibald Dowglasse (then erle of Wighton) duke of Touraine. But that honor continued not long with him, for in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and foure, at the battell of Vernoile in Perth the English obteined the victorie, and this new duke with his sonne and heire Iames Dowglasse earle of Wighton was amongst others most vnfortunatlie slaine.

Archibald earle Dowglasse was duke of Touraine, as I gather by the words of Lesleus Archibald Dowglasse duke of Touraine. touching this Archibalds sonne, of whom we will speake hereafter, and then set downe the same words of Lesleus to proue Archibald duke of Touraine, who married the earle of Crawfords daughter, by whom he had issue William earle Dowglasse, a child of foureteene yeares old which succéeded him, & one Dauid Dowglasse. After which this Archibald died at Lestelrig in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie and nine, being about the third yeare of king Iames the first.

William earle Dowglasse a child of fouretéene yeares of age succéeded his father in his inheritances, and was after made duke of Touraine or Tourone, who being now earle Dowglasse, deliuered foorth such buds of vertue, as he lent great hope to all men of his worthinesse and good successe, to his further honor and his countries benefit. But in the end their expectations were deceiued after that he was made duke of Touraine: for being puft vp in pride with those great honors, he forgot himselfe, and wrought his owne and his countries harme, whereof we will not now speake; but onelie set downe Lesleus words Lesleus. lib. 8. pag. 292. touching his admittance to the dukedome of Touraine. Gulielmus (which was this earle Dowglasse) "Malcolmum Flemingum dominum Cummirnald & Alanū Lowder ad Carolum septimū Francorum regem misit, oratū, vt ducatu Toronensi eius patrimonia & dignitates amplificarentur: æquum enim esse contendit, vt quo ducatu Archibaldus Dowglassius (qui pro libertate Franciæ bello Vernolensi mortem oppetiuit) fruebatur * & pater illius nuper This prooueth Archibald Dowglasse father to this William to be duke of Touraine. mortuus potiebatur, idem ad se quoque perueniret. Carolus non inuitus concessit, quo dono quantum illi ad honorem dignitatémque cumuli, tantum profectò ad superbiam, insolentiámque materiæ accessit." Thus much Lesle, placing the same to be doone as other authors also doo, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred thirtie and nine, being about the third yeare of the reigne of Iames the first of that name king of Scotland. Which honor he did not long inioie, for in the yeare following being the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and fortie, and the fourth yeare of the same king Iames; he was, for that he would neither obeie the gouernment of the gouernor or chancellor, bidden to a banket at Edenburgh castle, whereas when he and his brother Dauid were set at dinner, the meat was suddenlie remooued, and a buls head presented to the erle of Dowglasse, being in those daies a token that he should shortlie be executed. Immediatlie wherevpon, the said earle with his brother Dauid, & Malcolme Fleming lord of Cummirnald were beheaded before the castle gate: so that this great honor séemed to those Scots which possessed the same, not much vnlike to the Seiane horse, or to the honor of the dukedome of Glocester.

Iames earle of Arrane being made gouernor to Marie quéene of Scots, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred fortie and two (in which being about seuen daies old, she began the first yeare of hir vnfortunate gouernement, which I maie so rightlie terme, because she was after deposed in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thréescore and seuen, in the fiue and twentith yeare of hir reigne) was made duke of Chatelerault by the French king in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and foure, being the twelfe yeare of the reigne of the same quéene Marie, of whom I haue intreated more liberallie in my discourse of the protectors of Scotland, and therefore meane not to speake anie thing of that here: wherfore leauing these dukes, we will returne our pen to other matters doone in Scotland.

This yeare there was a practise by forren persons of great state in Europe, to make some inuasion, or at the least some disturbance vpon or amongst such realmes as professed the gospell, and were enimies to the Romane religion, by meanes whereof as it was supposed, manie princes inclining their heads to the popes obedience, embrasing his doctrine and resting at his disposition, expected the performance of some actions then to be doone by them in the territories of the aduerse part, and in the realmes of such princes, as not onelie opposed themselues against the popes doctrine, but had also drawne their necks from the yoke of his subiection, in matters both of ciuill gouernement and of religion. Amongst which princes, being commonlie termed catholiks, the duke of Guise a person of great account in France, tied néerelie in bloud to the imprisoned quéene, and to the yoong king of Scots, and supported with other princes pursses, purposed to haue set full foot in Scotland, and to haue obteined the whole disposition and rule of that king and kingdome. But God, in whose hands resteth the ordering of princes harts, not permitting such determinations to sort to the purposed effect, did for that time frustrate the execution thereof.

For whereas the duke of Guise should with martiall power haue inuaded, entered and possessed Scotland, there arose troubles and turmoiles of warres in his owne countrie of France, about the parts of Picardie and Dalphinée, which called him from the dispatch of that his former deuise, for the staieng to appease the same new insurrection, emploieng all his gathered forces therevnto, and encountring with those persons: the rigor of the same warres so weakened his strength, that he was not able (without some new supplie of men and monie, which could not be had vpon the sudden) to produce his former intent to anie effect. But yet, least that the same intention might not seeme altogither to haue quailed, or that he should be noted to haue made shew to enterprise a thing which he neither could nor would prosecute to the vttermost; there was somewhat by his meanes and furtherance attempted in Scotland, which yet in the end fell not foorth in all respects to answer the expected hope of good successe therin. For partlie by the policie of the Scots, and partlie by the support of the alies and friends to the king, but altogither by the vnited strength of both sorts, the Scots rid themselues of the same deuise, and since remained safe from the danger of the Guise and of his partakers.

After this the earle of Morton, sometime regent of Scotland, being condemned to die, and readie to suffer that execution which was appointed vnto him, some persons had conference with him about matters of great importance, on the same daie wherein he was to suffer, which persons so conferring with him, were Iohn Durie, and master Walter Bancanquell. In which discourse betwéene the earle and them these matters in substance amongst manie others fell foorth, in questions propounded by them, and in answers made by him in this sort almost word for word, drawne into some seuerall heads and articles, as they were deliuered vnto me.


FIRST he was exhorted by them that he should not be discouraged by his ouerthrow, in considering the estate whervnto he had béene once called in this world, but rather remembring the glorie to come, he should reioise and be of good comfort. Wherevnto he answered, that as concerning all the glorie which he had in this world, he respected it not, bicause he was persuaded that all worldlie honor is but vanitie, and the broken réed of Egypt. And as concerning the estate wherevnto he was brought, he thanked God for it, and was at that point, that he was rather content to render his life than to liue, bicause he knew, that as God had appointed the time for his death, so had he also appointed the manner thereof, séeing that now was the time, and this was the manner which best pleased his God to take him in, and therefore was content. And as for his life in this world, he cared not for it, in respect of that immortalitie, & the euerlasting ioy which he looked for, and whereof he was assured.

Secondlie, being required what was his part or knowledge in the kings * death or murther; Which was Henrie king of Scots, slain in the yeare of Christ 1566, beginning the yeare at the annuntiation of the virgin. he answered with this attestation, that as he should answer to his Lord God, so he would Dauid Richio the Italian, secretarie to the quéene, slaine in the yeare 1566. declare all his knowledge therein: the sum wherof was, that after his returne out of England, whither he was banished for * Dauids slaughter, he came out of Whetherbone to Whethingham, where the erle Bothwell was at the same time, with whome there was communication about the kings murther, but he would not consent therto. After which, opening a large discourse thereof, laieng the cause, the contriuing, and the execution of the same in great persons now liuing, and confessing that they vnderstood thereof, and durst not for manie causes reueale the same, neither to the king nor the kings father the earle of Leneux; he added, how that in the end he was by the law now of late conuicted of knowledge and concealing the kings murther, when as he should answer to God he had no part or knowledge in that matter. Furthermore, shewing that after the earle of Bothwell was cléered of that murther by assise, that he and sundrie of the nobilitie subscribed a bond with the earle of Bothwell, that if anie should laie the kings murther to his charge, he would assist him to the contrarie, and that therefore he subscribed to the queenes mariage with the earle Bothwell as sundrie other of the nobilitie did, being charged therevnto by the quéenes owne writing and commandement.

Then being required in the name of the liuing God, that séeing this murther of the king was one of the most filthiest acts that euer was doone in Scotland, and that the secrets thereof hath not hitherto beene opened, neither who was the chéefe dooer therein, or whether the king was then strangled or blowne vp into the aire; that he should declare if he knew anie further secret therein: he answered, that as he should make answer to God, he knew no more secrets in that matter than he had alreadie declared and heard, by the depositions of such as had alreadie suffered for it, which depositions are yet extant. Againe, being demanded if he knew anie presentlie about the king, which were dooers of that worke, by whose companie the king and common-wealth might be hurt: he answered that he knew none, neither would he accuse anie, &c.

Thirdlie, being examined of the poisoning of the earle of Althiults, if he had anie act or part therein: he answered with good attestation, saieng; Let God neuer be mercifull vnto me, if euer I knew anie thing of that matter, or heard of it before it came to my eares by the common brute of the countrie. And being further demanded if he knew that maister Iohn Prouandt brought him anie poison; he replied that he knew no such thing, and that he knew nothing by maister Prouandt but honestie, to which he more added these speeches; Fie, fie, there is ouermuch filthinesse in Scotland alreadie, God forbid that vile practising of poisoning should enter among vs: I would not for all the earledome of Athuile, haue neither ministred poison to him, or caused it to haue béene ministred, yea if there had béen one hundred on my part, and but he alone, I would not haue stirred one heare of his head.

Fourthlie, being demanded if he made anie conspiracie against the earle of Leneux: he answered with like attestation as before, that he neuer thought in his heart, or once purposed anie conspiracie against the earle of Leneux, neither minded to him anie hurt in bodie or otherwise. But it greeued him that the earle of Leneux knew not the estate of their countrie, nor yet perceiued the danger of the kings person. For being therevnto requested by others, sundrie were brought home who were the kings enimies, ouerthrowers of the kingdome, and enimies to religion; whereby there was apparant danger to his person and the relme: all which he hoped to haue helped by counsell, when the earle of Leneux familiaritie and his should haue béene greater.

Fiftlie, being demanded whether he had anie league or dealing with England for the conueieng of the king or otherwise, or if he had anie pension of the quéene of England for that purpose, he answered in these words: As I shall answer to God vnder paine of condemnation or saluation, I neuer had anie dealings with England that waie: there was neuer one in Scotland or England, neither the quéene nor anie in hir name, that euer mooued anie such thing to me, so indirectlie as to conueie the king into England; it neuer entred into my hart, I would not for all the realme of England haue put him into England, except that it had béene for his profit and honor, &c. And for the more cléere purgation of my selfe in this matter I will saie, if euer I meant but directlie his wealth, let God neuer be mercifull vnto me; and I shall neuer aske God mercie for anie thing that entred in my hart against the king: yea there was nothing more that I regarded in this life, than that he should be brought vp in vertue and godlinesse. And I will saie more. If I had beene as carefull to serue God & walke in his feare, as I was to séeke the kings wealth, I had not béene brought to the point I am at this daie. And where they allege I was the quéene of Englands pensionarie, as I shall answer to God, I had neuer pension of the quéene of England in all my life. And although they caused the brute to go, that I should haue furnished the quéene of Englands souldiors now last vpon the borders, I neuer knew of it. And last of all, where they allege that I should haue bene a great dealer with England, I praise God I neuer had dealing with them, but for the weale publike of the king, his countrie, and subiects, &c.

Sixtlie, being demanded what was his part of the enterprise of the castell of Sterling, he answered, that he knew nothing of it till it was doone; but being in Lochleuen, he receiued aduertisement out of the castell of Sterling, and a writing from the king, that he should come thither. And whereas they said, that he minded to kéepe the king in captiuitie there, the truth was, that he neuer meant to keepe him in captiuitie there or in anie other place. But he vnderstood by the kings owne speaking, that he was as frée at that time as euer he was before, or desired to be, for the present. And if he had knowen that his grace would haue gone to anie other place, where greater libertie had bin, he would gladlie haue gone with him.

Seuenthlie, being laid to his charge, that he was a great hinderance of the matters and authortie of the bishops, &c: when he might haue doone much good for the furtherance of Gods glorie & aduancement of his gospell, both in the time of his gouernement, and since: his answer was, that concerning the religion and doctrine as then it was preached and professed in Scotland, he alwaies meant well in his hart to it, and acknowledged it to be the verie truth of God; insomuch that rather than anie hurt should haue come vnto the religion, he would haue spent his life and goods in the defense, like as now he was contented to die in the constant profession thereof. But indéed as concerning some things in policie of the church, as the state of the bishops, and such like, which were in question betwéene him and the church, he did therein according to his knowledge, and follow the opinion which he thought to be best at that time, in consideration of the estate of all things as they were. Howbeit he would not stand in defense of those things which he then did, but yet he would make this protestation, that as he should answer to God, he did nothing in those matters either of contempt, malice, or enuie; but if there were anie things doone amisse, it was of ignorance, and for lacke of better knowledge; and if he had knowen better, he would haue doone otherwise, being now purposed at the last to haue holpen them so farre as he might.

Eightlie, he was desired in the name of God, not to stand in his owne innocencie, but plainelie to confesse his sinnes to Gods glorie, and to thinke, that howsoeuer it be that men haue doone in this life, yet God had alwaies before him whereof he might be worthie of this and more: wherevnto he yéelded this speech; Howsoeuer it be that men haue doone, I commit them to God and their owne consciences. But I acknowledge indéed, that God hath alwaies doone iustlie to me, and not onlie iustlie but mercifullie also, because amongst all the other sinners I confesse my selfe to be one of the greatest and filthiest abusers of my bodie in the pleasures of the flesh; and also to haue giuen my selfe so ouermuch to the world, to the pleasures thereof, and to other sinnes, that God might iustlie laie it to my charge, in that I expressed not the fruits of my profession in my life and conuersation as I ought to haue doone, for which I beséech God to be mercifull vnto me. And indéed now I acknowledge the great mercie of God in this, that amongst all the benefits which he hath bestowed vpon me, one of the chiefest is, that he hath in this my last trouble giuen me space and leasure to repent me of my sinnes, and to be at a point with God. In which trouble also I haue found farre greater comfort than euer I could find before, because I haue thereby concluded thus with my selfe, that if God should haue spared my life, and deliuered me out of this trouble, I should then haue cast awaie all the cares of the world, the pleasures of the flesh, the delights of earthlie things, and declared my selfe to serue my God in all kind of quietnesse and simplicitie. And if it shall please God to take me in this trouble, I am concluded also to be content therewith, being alwaies assured of the mercies of God. And for that cause I doo now thanke God that I find my selfe at this point, that I am rather content to die than to liue, and that I shall not sée the miseries to come : for I will assure you that I think this to be the most acceptable time that euer God could haue taken me in, because I perceiue and sée such miseries and confusions to insue, that I thanke God that I shall not sée them. And you who doo feare God, and liue after me, when you shall sée these things, you will wish to be where I shall be, that is, with him.

Ninethlie, being demanded what he thought of the forme of iudgement vsed against him, what his opinion therof was, whether he thought anie wrong doone vnto him or no, &c: he answered, I would be verie loth to find fault or blame the noble men which haue taken themselues vpon their consciences to condemne me, but I will remit them to God and their owne consciences; yet I am mooued to speake somewhat fréelie in this matter which is this. I saw such parciall dealing against me, that it hath béene all one to me, if I had beene as innocent as saint Stephan, or that I had béene as giltie as Iudas was: for I perceiued there was nothing sought but my life, howsoeuer things had béene, which appeareth in this, that no exception of anie person which was to passe vpon my assise could be admitted: for I required the earle of Argile to purge himselfe of parciall counsell giuen to the pursuer my accuser; he purged himselfe indeed, but I knew the contrarie, that he gaue parciall counsell to him. Likewise the lord of Wanthon, the lord of Seiton, and such others, who were knowen to be my enimies, (notwithstanding lawfull exception) were put vpon my quest. In consideration wherof I can not but be persuaded of one thing, which it behooueth me to communicat vnto you, and it is thus. I perceiue it is not my life that they séeke onelie, but they who are authors of my death haue some other purpose in hand, which they per– ceiue will not be doone, except I and such other which doo fauor the good cause, were taken out of the waie. Wherefore I can not but suspect that I haue béene so handled, and that such as héereafter shall be put therevnto, may haue a more plaine waie to doo their turne or intent: and I praie God that they which are to liue behind me sée not the practise thereof, but I feare it sore. And therefore in respect of this apparant danger of the common cause, I will giue my counsell to the king my maister, and wish you in the name of God to beare it to him, the summe whereof is this. I perceiue that they which haue béene the kings foes and enimies, are brought into credit & court, and they who haue béene the mainteiners of his crowne & good friends, are discredited and misliked of. And likewise such as are knowen to be papists, and suspected to be enimies to the religion, are ouer familiar and great in credit with his maiestie, which surelie can not be without great danger to the religion, and hurt to his estat. For which cause I admonish him in the name of God to beware of them, and to seeke a remedie thereof. And as he hath bene brought vp in the feare of God, and companie of good men, so to continue therein, and not to go backe, or else he hath doone with it for euer. For I tell you what mooueth me to speake thus, which is, that the state of religion in this countrie appeared neuer to be in such danger, and that for this cause. I beere saie there is a dealing put in practise betwéene France and England, and Monsieurs marriage with the quéene is like to be feared; if France and England bind togither, and that marriage go forward, you may easilie vnderstand, that the one of them will persuade the other to their religion, &c.

Tenthlie, being required to giue his counsell to the earle of Angus, and to shew him what was meetest to be doone, seeing presentlie he was in great trouble, he answered : I dare giue him no counsell, and I will tell you whie; to bid him come in, partlie I dare not, all men may sée in what danger he is although he now come in : and to counsell him to abide foorth I dare not, for then he shall loose the kings fauour for euer, himselfe and his he. ritage, friends and all; and therefore the best counsell that I can giue him in this matter is, that he make all meanes possible to purchase the kings fauor againe, and to see if he may haue anie assurance of his life, and that he may serue his God and his king trulle, and submit himselfe, and all that he hath to his maiesties goodwill: he hath doone nothing yet, but it may be amended. I saie no more, the Lord giue him his spirit to follow that which is best.

Elenenthlie being required to declare what was the summe of that admonition, which Iohn Knokes gaue him before he accepted the regiment, when he came vnto him a little before his departure, he answered: I shall tell you as far as I can remember. First, he asked of me if I knew anie thing of the kings murder, I answered in deed I knew nothing of it. Then he said vnto me, Well God hath beautified you with manie benefits which he hath not giuen to euerie man, for he hath giuen to you riches, wisedome and friends, and now he is to prefer you to the gouernement of this realme : and therefore in the name of God I charge you, to vse these benefits aright, and better in time to come than you haue doone in times past; first to Gods glorie, to the furtherance of the gospell, to the mainteinance of the church of God & of his ministers, next for the weale of the king, his realme and true subiects : which if you shall not doo, God shall spoile you of these benefits, and your end shall be ignominie & shame. Then being inquired if he said true or no, he answered : I haue found it true, and yet I doubt not but the Lord will be mercifull vnto me.

Twelfelie, being demanded for what cause he held some of the neighbours of Edenburgh in ward, he answered: Surelie I meant no euill to those men, but it was doone in this respect: we had the matter of Bulzoine then in hand, and I was informed that they were hinderers therof, for which cause I thought it best at that time to put them in ward for a while vntill the turne had béene doone. And if I did them anie wrong, I craue forgiuenesse of them as I forgiue all men.

Thirteenthlie, being required to declare if hée knew before hand that he should be accused of this matter or no, he answered: I was aduertised in déed, and might haue escaped, but I would not, trusting alwaie vnto mine innocencie, and therefore supposed that they would not condemne me vpon such a thing. After this, the said earle with the foresaid Iohn Durie and Walter Balcanquall did togither call to God by earnest praier, which being ended the earle said vnto vs (meaning the said Durie and Balcanquall who as I gather were the penners of this matter) I thanke you hartilie for your comfort which you haue offered to me, for now in déed is greatest need of comfort, and therefore as you haue begun, I praie you to continue with me: for now that I am come to the knowledge of mine owne sinnes, there resteth onlie two things which I craue of you, that is first that you will shew vnto me some kind of argument, whereby I maie be comforted against naturall death, because the flesh is fearefull and weake; whose desire we trauelled to satisfie by long conference, which is too long to reherse in euerie point, yet the summe of that was thus. It was said vnto him that there were thrée things chéefelie which might make him assured of the mercie of God in Christ: first the innumerable and comfortable promises of God conteined in his word, wherevnto it behooued him alwaies to leane. Secondlie the example of Gods mercie practised towards his owne seruants, albeit they haue beene great sinners; as appeared in Dauid, Magdalen, Peter, and the théefe, &c. Thirdlie the often experiences of Gods mercies from time to time, which he had found in his owne person, being a light to assure him of his mercie. In the end he answered to this, saieng: I know it to be true, for since I past to Dunbarton I haue read the fiue bookes of Moses, Iosue, the Iudges, and now I am in Samuell, and will tell you what I haue found there. I sée that the mercie of God is woonderfull, and alwaies inclined to haue pittie vpon his owne people: for there it appeareth that although he punished them so oft as they sinned; yet as soone as they turned againe to him, he was mercfull vnto them, and when they sinned againe he punished them, and as often as they repented he was mercifull againe, and therefore Iam assured, that albeit that I haue offended against my God, yet he will be mercifull vnto me. Also further in this point it was said vnto him, that in case sathan should trauell to discourage him in consideration of the iustice of God on the one part, and of his sinnes on the other part, we exhorted him to the contrarie, to be of good courage, and that in respect of the verie selfe same iustice of God, which will not suffer him twise to take paiment for one thing, as we know in the common dealing of men: for he that is a iust man will not twise demand paiment of that whereof he was alredie paid, for sith Christ died for our sinnes, and paid the vttermost farthing that God could craue, he cannot laie our sinnes vnto our charge being satisfied in Christ, because his iustice will not suffer him twise to take paiment for one thing. Vnto this the earle answered, Truelie it is verie good.

And concerning the naturall feare of death, we exhorted him to be alwaies exercised in the consideration of the glorie, ioie, and felicitie of the life to come, which would be the onlie waie to swallow vp the feare of this naturall death. Wherevnto he answered, I praise. God I doo so. This being thus doone, and he hauing in his hand a pretie treatise of the meditation of death, written by Bradford (which he said that he had gotten from the ladie Ormeston before he went into ward, and for that cause before he came foorth of prison againe gaue it to maister Lawson, desiring him to deliuer it to the said ladie againe) he willed maister Walter to read him a péece thereof, which he did, in which reading (hauing sundrie conferences vpon the thing read) both he and we found great comfort, in so much that he said; I protest now that I heare with other eares than I did before. Wherewith being called to breakefast, he earnestlie desired vs to take part with him (as we did) at what time he eat his meat with great chéerefulnesse, as all the companie saw, and as appeared by these his words: I sée there is great difference (said he) betwéene a man which is troubled with the cares of the world, and him which is frée from them, the which I haue found by these two former nights: for before mine accusation, I could not in things find anie rest by reason of cares which I had, because I was to be accused vpon the morrow; and therefore being carefull to answer euerie point that should be laid vnto my charge I could not sleepe: but this night, after that I was condemned, and knew that I should die, I was at a point with my selfe, and nothing of this world, nor care of this life, but cast my onelie care vpon. God, and I praise God I neuer slept better in my life than I did this night. Then he said vnto the steward, William you can beare me record of this; who answred, It is true my lord.Then master Walter said vnto him, My lord I will drinke to you vpon a condition. vpon this condition my lord, that you and I shall drinke together in the kingdome of heauen, of that immortall drinke which shall neuer suffer vs to thirst againe. Wherevnto the earle answered, Truelie I will pledge you master Walter on the same condition. After which he said, Iohn Durie, now Iohn I will drinke to you vpon the same condition. This thus ended for that time, and thanks being giuen to God, the earle passed againe to his chamber, at what time master lames Lawson came to him, with whom he considered the substance of all other things againe. After this we departed from him.

Then at afternoone we came to him againe, with sundrie of the brethren of the ministerie, as master lames Lawson, master Robert Poinct, Dauid Fargasone, master Dauid Hensa, Iohn Brand, master lames Garmichiel, and master Iohn Dauison, whom the earle receiued verie louinglie in his arms, and said to him; Master Iohn you wrote a little booke in deed, but trulie I meant neuer euill towards you in my mind, forgiue me, and I forgiue you: vpon which words master Iohn was mooued with teares. Then all the brethren being present, the earle reported againe the chéefe substance of all the things whereof before he spake, being demanded thereof point by point, as their testification of this matter subscribed by them at more length will declare. After which the earle was called to his dinner about two of the clocke in the after noone, who being thus at his dinner, the brethren of the ministerie were informed that there was iniust report made of his profession to the king, & that he should haue confessed much otherwise than he did, whereby the king might haue a worse opinion of him. Wherefore they thought good to send down some before his suffering to informe his maiestie of the truth of his confession; which persons so sent were Dauid Fargasone, Iohn Durie, and Iohn Brand, who before his death did largelie tell the simple truth of his confession (as it was made) vnto the kings maiestie. At their returning the earls kéeper required him that he would come foorth to the scaffold, wherevnto the earle answered; Sith they haue thus troubled me ouermuch this daie with worldlie things, I supposed that they should haue giuen me one nights leisure to haue aduised my selfe with my God. Then the kéeper said, All things are redie now my lord, and I thinke they will not staie. The earle replied, I am redie also I praise God: and so comfortable praier being made, the earle passed downe to the gate, minding to go directlie to the scaffold; but the earle of Arrane staled him, brought him backe againe to the chamber, and willed him to staie vntill his confession should be put in writing & subscribed with his owne hand. Wherevnto the ministers which were present answered, and the earle also answered: Naie my lord, I praie you trouble me no more with these things, for now I haue another thing to muse vpon, which is to prepare me for my God. And sith I am at a point to go to my death, I can not write in the estate wherein I now am; and all these honest men can testifie what I haue spoken in that matter. With which answer the earle of Arrane being satisfied, he said to him, My lord you will be reconciled with me, for I haue doone nothing vpon anie particular quarell against you. The earle of Morton replied, It is no time now to remember quarels, I haue no quarell to you nor to anie other, I forgiue you and all others as I would you forgaue me. And so after with a good courage he passed to the scaffold, who being vpon the scaffold, repeated in few words the substance of the things before confessed, &c: adding some exhortation to the people which he spake not before, in this sort.

Sure I am the king shall loose a good seruant this daie, and so he exhorted the people, saieing: I testifie before God, that as I professe the gospell which this daie is taught and professed in Scotland: so also now I willinglie laie downe my life in the persecution thereof. And albeit I haue not walked according therevnto as I ought, yet I am assured that God will be mercifull vnto me: and I charge you all in God which are professors of the gospell, that you continue the true professing and mainteining thereof to your power, as I would haue done, God willing with my life, lands and goods as long as I had liued: which if you doo, I assure you God shall be mercifull vnto you; but if you doo it not, be sure the vengeance of God shall fall vpon you, both in bodie and soule. As concerning all the rest of the words which he had vpon the scaffold, he spake them in effect and more amplie before. When all these speaches were ended vpon the scaffold, a comfortable praier was made by maister Iohn Lawson, during the time of which praier, the erle Morton laie groueling vpon his face before the place of execution, his bodie making great reboundings with sighes and sobs, being euident signes of the inward and mightie working of the spirit of God, as all they which were present and knew what it was to be earnestlie moued in praier, might easilie perceine.

The praier being ended, and sundrie comming to him before his death, he did most louinglie receiue them; who after he had taken vs all by the hand that were about him, & bidden vs farewell in the Lord, he passed both constantlie, patientlie, and humblie (without feare of death) to the place of execution, and laid his necke vnder the axe being vnbound. And there maister Walter putting him alwaies in mind to call vpon God; the earle continuallie cried vntill his head was striken off, Lord lesus receiue my spirit, Lord Iesus receiue my spirit: which words he spake euen while the axe fell on his necke. Now whatsoeuer he had béene before, he constantlie died the seruant of God. And howsoeuer it be that his foes alleged, that as he liued proudlie, so he died proudlie; the charitable seruants of God could perceiue nothing in him but all kind of humilitie in his death: insomuch that we are assured, that his soule is receiued into the ioies and glories of the heauens; and we praie God, that they which are behind, may learne by his example to die in the true feare of God our Lord.

¶ Thus far the confession and death of the earle Morton, penned by such of the presbyterie as were present thereat, and fauored him in all respects, séeking to cléere him of anie euill imposed against him. In setting downe whereof, I haue not varied from the verie words of my copie in manner of penning it; but onelie in some few places of some part of the matter, the which I haue purposelie omitted, because it conteined the affaires of state, and the accusation of diuerse persons now liuing; both which are neither néedful to be knowne to the common people, nor méete to be opened to others, thereby to bring those in question vpon a report, whereof there is no further hold to be had, than there was hate or loue betwéene the accuser & the accused. Wherefore leauing the same discourse of the death of the earle (which The time when earle Morton was beheadded. fell vpon the second daie of fune in the towne of Edenburgh) in that sort, penned by those of the presbyterie, to stand vpon the support of it selfe, I will descend to other matters.

This earle Morton maried the old earle of Mortons yoongest daughter, who being halfe an idiot brought foorth no issue to this earle: but he notwithstanding, least he should die issulesse, left behind him two sonnes, vnlawfullie begotten. Shortlie after the death of which erle, Thomas Randulph esquier being sent ambassador from the quéene of England, entered into Thomas Randulph sent ambassador into Scotland. Scotland, whom (being honorablie interteined) I will leaue there to dispatch the effect of his commission, and fall to that which happened. After the death of this earle Morton, in the winter following there was a parlement called, at what time manie noblemen were created, as Ruthwen was made earle of Gowrie, Robert Steward base brother to Marie the imprisoned quéene of Scots was aduanced to the honor and title of the earldome of Orkneie, the lord Maxwell was made erle Morton, and Iames Steward was created earle of Arrane, the manner of obteing which earldome of Arrane by the said Steward being extraordinarilie procured, séemeth to me not to be forgotten: and therefore I will set it downe as I haue had intelligence thereof, in this sort following. The old earle of Arrane (the duke of Chateleraults eldest sonne Iames Steward created earle of Arrane. being lunatike, and first committed to the custodie of his said brother the lord of Arbroth)was after taken from that his tutor, and set ouer to lames Steward to haue the ouersight of his person, and the ordering of his liuing. Which lames Steward being by nature and experience subtill witted, and by authoritie and the kings fauor in great credit; found meanes partlie by policie, partlie by persuasion, and partlie by flatterie, to wring from the lunatike earle of Arrane, a grant and departure of all his right, title, and honor, to the lands and earledome of Arrane. Which when he had obteined of the said lunatike earle (who knew not what he did) he foorthwith came to the said parlement or councell house, or place of the assemblie of the nobilitie, bringing with him the grant of the earle of Arrane: wherby he had infested this Steward with the lands and countrie of Arrane. Which matter being fullie vnderstood there by the nobilitie, supposing vpright dealing to haue furthered the purchase of this earldome by Steward, did then by the decrée and the kings consent, establish, and also inuest him in the lands, & with the title of the earledome of Arrane; which he obteined by such meanes as are before touched. Not vnlike vnto the course which Mordacke (made gouernor of Scotland, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and six) sometime vsed for the obteining of the earledome of Rosse, from the daughter and heire of Alexander Lesle, intituled to the same earldome: the maner whereof I will here set downe Verbatim taken out of Lesleus historie of Scotland, which deliuered he same in these words.

"Breui post tempore Donaldus insularis Rossæ comitatum vendicans, Hebridianos ad suas partes allicit: quo autem iure id fecerit hinc facillimè liquebit. Walterus Lesleus vir nobilissimus, post insignem operam Romanis imperatoribus in extremo bello nauatam, in Scotiam rediens, filiam Gulielmi comitis Rossensis (in prælia apud Holidonum occubuit) vna cum comitatu, dotis loco in coniugem accepit: ex qua vnum filium sustulit Alexandrum inde comitem Rossensem, filiamque, quæ postea Donaldo Hebridiano nuptui data est. Alexander hic, filia Roberti gubernatoris in vxorem accepta, Euphemiam solam suscepit. Quæ adhuc virgo & rerum imperita, gubernatoris partim blanditijs, partim minis inducta, translato in ipsum comitatu Rossensi, subitò non sine gubernatoris opera (vt ferebatur) moritur: ac Donaldus qui amitam Euphemiæ Alexandri Leslei sororem vxorē habebat hæreditario iure Rossiæ comitatum petens, collecta ex Hebridibus ingenti manu in Rossiam venit: quam paruo negotio in ditionem suam redegit, Rossiams verum recipere hæredē non recusantibus." Thus much Lesle. Moreouer at the same parlement wherein this lames Steward was aduanced to the earledome of Arrane, the king gaue vnto the duke of Leneux the lands that were The duke of Leneux obteineth the earle Mortons lands. belonging to the foresaid beheaded erle of Morton, which lands this duke not long reteining, made ouer his part to the earle of Angus, in recompense whereof, the duke obteined of the king the lordship of Methuen, which came to the kings possession by the death of Henrie Steward lord of Methuen, touching whom Buchanan composed these verses following calling him Regulum Methueniæ, in this sort: “ "Hîc Henrice iaces primæuo in flore, dederunt
Indole cuinullum sæcula nostra parem.
Nemo fuit spes iudicijs cui credula certis,
Sponderet tantum Marte togáque decus.
Nunc pro spe, votis, expectatisque triumphis,
Cura, dolor, lachrymæ, mestitiésque subit:
At tu, mors annis quantum detraxit acerba,
Adjice de gazis posthuma fama tuis."

During these creations of the nobilitie, in a parlement holden in Edenburgh the eight and twentith of lanuarie, in this yere one thousand fiue hundred fourescore and one, being the fouretéenth of the kings reigne, were matters established, touching the ecclesiasticall A declaration of the Scotish faith, published and confirmed by the king. gouernement, whereof I meane not fullie to set downe the same, sith my pen and purpose is bent to treat of politicall and not spirituall causes. Wherefore onelie determining but slenderlic. and by the waie to touch that matter, set foorth in print at Cambridge, vnder the stampe of Thomas Thomas, printer for that vniuersitie, in this yere of Christ one thousand flue hundred foure score and six, we saie that the same booke, published by the Scots (and intituled, A generall confession of the true christian faith and religion, according to Gods word and our acts of parlement subscribed by the kings maiestie and his houshold, with diuers others, &c.) hath further, after the preface thereof this title giuen vnto it. The estates of Scotland with the inhabitants of the same, professing Christ lesus & his holie gospell, to their naturall countriemen and to all other realms and nations, professing the same Iesus Christ with them, wish grace, mercie, and peace from God the father of our Lord Iesus Christ, with the spirit of righteous iudgement of saluation.

After which title and saluation, the substance of the same booke, being declared in the forehead of the chapters following, conteineth these heads: First of God, then of the creation of man, next of originall sinne, fourthlie of the reuelation of the promise of the continuance, increase and preseruation of the church, of the incarnation of Christ Iesus, why it becommeth the mediator to be verie God and man, of election, of Christes death, passion, and buriall, of his resurrection, of his ascension, of faith in the Holie-ghost, of the cause of good works, what works are reputed good before God, of the perfection of the law and the imperfection of man, of the church, of the immortalitie of soules, of the notes by which the true church is discerned from the false, and who shall be iudge of the doctrine, of the authoritie of the scriptures, of generall councells, of their power, authoritie and cause of their conuention, of the sacraments, of the right administration of the sacraments, to whom sacraments apperteine, and of the ciuill magistrat, of the gifts fréelie giuen to the church.

The discourse of all which matters, being in that bouke largelie and iudiciallie handled, both for the declaration of the faith of those people, and for the further instruction of others, were shortlie after the agréement therevnto in that parlement confirmed by the king, and commanded to be published and vsed through his realme, as appeareth by this following precept, concerning the same.

Religion thus setled in Scotland, it fell hervpon, that Amies duke of Leneux, to which 1582. The duke of Leneux banished. honor he was not long before aduanced, as is alreadie set downe in the yeare of Christ one thousand flue hundred threescore and ninetéen, was now in this yeare vpon displeasure, conceiued against him by others of the nobilitie, banished Scotland, & inforced to returne into France, there to passe the rest of his life as he had doone before. In whose exile was performed an old prophesie, which I haue heard, that a nag of flue shillings should beare all the dukes of England and Scotland. For when this duke was out of the Scotish kingdome, there was neither duke in that countrie or England. But as I grealie fauor not these things, so yet finding manie of them to sort to vnhappie successe; I cannot altogether A digression touching the duke of Sumerset. condemne them, especiallie, sith I find two other which concerning the last duke of England, being the duke of Summerset, did prognosticat both the adnancement of religion by him, and that he should not long kéepe his head vpon his shoulders, after that he began to make his statelie buildings. Of which propheticall verses, declaring the same, the first verse expressing his name, was as followeth: “ The mare of the sea, which backeward is seamare. "Cessabit missa cùm regnat equa marina."

The other prophesie mentioning his name of honor was in this sort, as also the time of his fall: “ Summers seat, or Summerset. "bÆstatis sedes cùm scandis ad alta per ædes,
Pro certo credes quòd caput perdere debes."

And to proue that Summerset was manie yeares past called in Latine Aestatis sedes, I find this matter in Roger Wall sometime an herald lining in the time of Henrie the fift, who named him accordinglie, when the said author excusing himself of all eloquence, and complaining of his owne rudenesse, sent his booke to D. Iohn Summerset to correct; which doctor being the kings schoolemaister and physician, a great learned man well séene in the mathematikes, one that had written much therein, & verie eloquent also, was as this Roger Roger Wall submitteth his worke to the censure of doctor Iohn Summerset. Wall thought, most méet to haue the ouersight of his workes: which matter, as it is set downe in the latter end of the same worke of the acts of Henrie the fift, written by this Roger Wall, I shall not gréeue (although they belong not, and be vtterlie impertinent to the matters of Scotland) to set downe, both because I would not maime the author in telling his owne tale, and would a little recreat the reader by the obscuritie of the stile of Roger Wall, with some varietie of other than Scotish matter: for "Nihil tam dulce, quod varietas non reficit." These therefore be the words of that writer.

"Vecors, inculta, pauper & pannosa pagina, video quia nuditatem, pauperiem, ac ruditatem tuam expauescens patefeci: ad hoc immensæ verecundiæ terrore ducta in lustralibus latebris, & abditis desertis, & inuijs latitare decreuisti, fortassis tamen, si quenquam reperies qui nuditatem tuam operire, pauperiem tuam locupletare, & ruditatem tuam reformare dignaretur, indutura fores animositatis spiritum processura in lucem. Eia igitur consilijs meis adquiescere non deseras: & meis monitis edocta, doctorē gloriosum inuenies, qui * Aestatis sedes *Summerset. gloriosum cognomen sortitus est. Hic Tulliani testamenti executor, purpura abisso quibus te vestiat, bonorum Oratij ministrator, thesauris innumeris qui te ditet ac ipsius opulentissimæ The commendation of doctor Iohn Summerset. imperatricis Rhetoricæ custos, gazarum, & ærarij gemmis pretiosis, quibus ruditatis tuæ tenebras excutiens, ipsum syderea politura perornare poterit, præ cæteris copia pleniori floret & abundat, hic est qui cœli empeirei sitū & mobilitatem, ac vacui, si quid extra ipsum reperiri possit: Chaos & confusionem primi mobilis, motus ac ornamenta syderea, & actam per ipsum inferiorun rapinam planetarum, cursus erraticos in suis epicyclis & retrogradationibus intellectui multùm difficiles, elementorum miranda coniugia, qualitates & actiuitates mutuás, omnium impressionum causas & effectus, & quicquid Aristotelicæ demonstrationes seu Hippocratici aphorismi suadere sufficiunt, nouit, rimatur & intelligit. Hic est quod plurimùm ponderandum existimo, qui regalis pectoris sacrarium tantarum virtutum, tantæque literaturæ imbalsamauit aromatibus, & corpus regium ab ægritudinum incommodis seruauit incolume, qui semper reipublicæ promotor, & pauperum procurator extitit. En pagina vecors & misera tibi iutumæ consolationis ministraui materiam. Esto igitur fortis animi, & vt virum tantum attingas, quem me docente reperies ad iter accingere. Verum quia dum regis assistit lateri, aut pauperum procurando negotia, aut reipublicæ bonum promouendo, vel regiam celsitudinem salutaribus exhortando artis salutigeræ consilijs sic solicitus redditur, vt vix ei quietis indulgeatur horula infra domum regiam, reuerentiam suam solicitare nolito præsumere, sed vsque ad mansionem suam propriam, quam per signa quæ tibi monstrabo inuenies omni expeditione ne pigriteris currere. Quum igitur iter tuum arripueris strata regia, qua per aliquot miliaria gradieris ad quandam semitam versus dextram, protensam non procul à quadam capella pulcherrima fundationis regiæ in honorem sanctorum archangelorú Rapahelis, Gabraelis, & Michaelis, atque omnium angelorum sanctorum Dei, quam nuper procuratio sua construxerat, tritura multiplici se ipsum manifestantem ducet. In qua cùm pauperū nudipedum ad suam domum confluentium impressa vestigia perceperis: & eorundem redeuntium pedum calciatorū quos eleemosyna sua iam pecuali pelle vestijt inueneris: & cùm per eandem semitam nudos, esurientes & tristes ad habitaculum suum concurrentes prospexeris, & eosdem per suæ charitatis liberalitatem vestitos, saturatos & gaudentes obuios habueris, scito quoniam hæc est via in tabernaculum ipsius, quem quæris ductrix infallibilis & directissitna. Supplica igitur pauperrima pagina pauperibus illis, vt tibi Æstatis sedē velint ostendere, &c."” After which this Wall setteth downe the supplication, which his booke should dedicate to this doctor (when he hath found him) in these verses, beginning also with the same name of Aestatis sedes, in English Summerseat: “ "Fertilis Aestatis florida sedes,
Morum multiplici luce refulgens.
Gloria doctorum gemma scientum,
Eloquij pelagus, lux medicinæ,
Pectore cœlesti cœlica condens,
Præradians alijs lumine mentis,
Cui patet astrorum candida turba,
Et motus primi mobilis orbis,
Nec latet eiusdem mira rapina,
Quid flammiuomus ignis in orbe
Aereique sinus abdyta nosti ?
Quæ fluit & refluit (piscis opimum)
Oceanum pelagus, quæ pia terram
Numina proficiunt prole feracem
Naturæ probitas, norma, potestas,
Consilium, virtus, quicquid agatur,
Clara luce tua mente coruscant.
Hæc cumulata tua lucida virtus,
Musarum sedem pectore regis,
Et morum solium fausta parauit,
Nec minus à regis corpore morbos,
Funebreásque minas cauta fugauit,
Seruans illæsa gaudia regni,
Et fotrix inopum dextera larga.
Corporibus nudis frigore pellis,
Esuriem furiat & famis iram,
Cogit in exilium prodiga mensa.
Doctor qui tanta dote refulges,
Me miseram miserans intuearis
Turpem complectere respice nudam,
Incultam polias, rejice mendas,
Vestes dilaceras consue clemens,
Sint medicina sitis pocula Cirre,
Quæ tibi plus reliquis copia præstat,
Et tua si pietas sordida purgans,
Si tergat maculas horrida limans,
Vt me fortuno fata fœcundans,
Inter plebeos forte remotos,
Angelicum regis cernere vultum,
Præstet me fausta sorte beatam,
Et bene fatatam læta putarem,
Nobilis hæc doctor suscipe vota,
Cuius virtutes, inclyta gesta,
Aeternis titulis fama perennet."

Thus hauing expressed the words and verses of Roger Wall, which in Latine termed some hundred yeares passed (as you haue heard before) the name of Summerset by the words of Aesiatis sedes, I haue trulie béene the willinger to set downe the same by waie of digression (besides the former declared causes which mooued me thereto) for that I would not suffer so worthie a man as that Iohn Summerset was to be buried in obliuion. And for that I would in some part (as anie occasion may serue therefore) make this worke of Roger Wall more common to the world, being onelie now in the hands of one painefull antiquarie. Wherefore in that sort, leauing our Englishmen, let vs returne to the affaires of Scots and Scotland: intreating first of some thing doone by them in the low countries, where one Steward Surius in comende reb. in orbe histor. pa. 1062. a Scot, hauing had charge of men in some part of the low countries of Flanders, Zeland, and Holland, vnder William of Nassaw earle of Aurange, did now fall from the states of that countrie, emploie all his force on the king of Spaines side, and went to assist the prince of Parma (the deputie of king Philip in those parts) because the states did not paie to him and his soldiors their due stipend and wages for the wars. At what time also the garison of Bruxels were for the like cause in an vprore. But some portion of monie being offered vnto them, they were for that time somewhat pacified. All which notwithstanding, one certeine Scot, called Lichféeld, & surnamed Semple, being capteine of the garison of Lire, and long vnpaied his sallarie, for those warres did in vaine manie times demand that monie The Spaniards obteine Lire by a stratagem deuised by the Scots. due vnto him. Wherevpon, imagining with himselfe how he might deceiue Hietfield the gouernour of the citie, as they had beguiled him in deteining of his due, he deuised with a new stratagem to bring this towne into the subiection of Philip king of Spaine. Wherefore, feining himselfe that he would in the middest of the night with his people go foorth to bring home some great bootie for his and the townes benefit, he departed the towne, & late in the night gathered togither a great preie of catell, horsses, oxen, kine, sheepe, and such like, with some prisoners of the kings part. All which he brought to the towne gate of Lire, and then commanded the gates to be opened vnto him, whereby they with their bootie might enter all at once. But the porter fearing at such time of night to set the gates full abroad, onelie opened a little wicket or doore, thereby to receiue Semple into the towne. Which thing Semple then perceiuing (& not finding all things to answer his expectation) feined that the enimies were hard at their backs, would kill them all, and recouer their bootie, vnlesse he did spéedilie open the great gate, through the same to receiue them into the towne all at once. Then the porter beléeuing all this to be true, foorthwith set open the great gates of the citie; which doone, the Scot entereth thereat, slue those which kept the watch, possessed the towne, & into the same receiued the kings souldiors, which were not farre behind, but secretlie laie in wait expectiug the successe of this deuise. By which meanes the Spaniards and their followers first woone the market place, and the next date after the calends of August reduced the whole towne of Lire vnder their owne subiection: the same Lire being a place well fensed, and set in such a conuenient soile, that it would prohibit all passage and cariage to come to Antwerpe, Mecheline and Bruxels.

After this, much about the beginning of September, monsieur de la Mot was sent from Ambassador from the French into Scotland. Henrie the third the French king ambassador into Scotland, the outward effect of whose commission was to renew and conclude the old league of amitie betwixt those two nations, as it had béene long continued betwéene them in times past, which doone, he returned, well accepted by his French master. After which in like sort the king of Scots sent the lord 1583. Ambassador from the Scot to the French. Seton ambassador into France to the same king Henrie, which lord came to Paris in the beginning of March, and there remained about six wéekes or more before he could find conuenient passage for him to returne into his countrie, because there was wait laid (as was supposed) to the end that he might haue béene intercepted by some of his enimies, before he should haue atteined the presence of the king his maister.

But now, as a litle before I haue set downe the exploits doone by the Scots in the low countries of their owne nation, so I thinke it not amisse to adde to the same somewhat doone by a Scot héere in England, the summe whereof is after this manner. One William Creicton Lesleus lib. 6. pag. 210. a Scot by birth, and a Iesuit by profession, which name of Creicton first came into Scotland in the yeare of Christ one thousand threescore and six out of Hungarie amongst others with Agatha, the Mother of Maud the wife to Malcoime king of Scots, hauing trauelled the most part of Europe, had conference with one William Parrie an Englishman, by wafe of discourse and argument touching such matter of treason as concerned the death of the quéene of England. After which (Parrie being returned into England in lanuarie following) this Creicton also, not tarrieng long behind him, did come from the parts of beyond the seas to take his iornie towards Scotland, who determining to passe through England, arriued here, was apprehended, & committed prisoner to the Tower of London, in such sort as before you haue Creicton a Scot committed to prison in England. heard that lohn Lesle bishop of Rosse was staied by the duke of Bauier vpon suspicion, that the same bishop had dealt with the enimies of that prince against the state of his countrie. The cause wherefore the said Creicton was so committed, was for that he had about him diuers plots for inuasions of this our realme of England. When he was thus prisoner in the Tower, William Parrie was after for the same treason apprehended, examined, committed also to the Tower, and finallie executed on the second daie of March in the yere of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred foure score & foure. In the Februarie before which execution, sir Francis Walsingham knight, principall secretarie to hir maiestie of England, came to the Tower, examined the said Creicton and dealt with him, to vnderstand if the said Parrie had euer had conference with him in the parts beyond the seas touching that question, whether it were lawfull to kill hir maiestie of England or not, the which at that time the said Creicton called not to his remembrance; yet afterwards vpon better consideration thereof it fell into his mind, where, when, & on what occasion such spéech had passed betweene the said Parrie and him. Wherevpon the twentith daie of Februarie, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred foure score and foure, during the time that Parrie also was a prisoner in the Tower, this Creicton wrote to maister secretarie Walsingham a voluntarle letter penned all with his owne hand, which being alreadie set downe in the historie of England is needlesse here to be repeated. Wherefore hauing thus said somewhat of this prisoner, we will leaue him still remaining in the same state, expecting some folowing successe of libertie to come to him, and returne our pen to the countrie of Scotland, thereof to set downe such occurrents as happened from this time.

In March was renewed a great & old contention betwéene the lord Maxwell earle Morton A contention betweene the earle Morton and the lard Iohnstane. warden of the west marches of Scotland, and the lard of Iohnstane; the occasion of which new dissention procéeded of an old enmitie begun in the time of Dowglasse earle Morton beheaded, as before in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred eightie and one, touching the receiuing of the same wardenship. In which hurlie burlie the lard of Iohnstane behaued himselfe verie rigorouslie against the lord Maxwell, in blowing vp with gunpouder the lockes of the castell of Lochmaben. Which dissention secretlie after the death of Dowglasse earle Morton, continuing betwéene the lord Maxwell and Iohnstane, with further increase of malice, they in this yeare sought a fresh reuenge thereof, sith the lord Iohnstane had not (before this) either power or meanes to incounter with the lord Maxwell. But now the ladie Iohnstane (being verie familiar and fauored with and of Iames Steward earle of Arrane) obteined of the king some succors of men of warre against the lord Ladie Iohnstane hath aid of the king. Maxwell earle Morton, hir husband (as was supposed) not being able otherwise to make his part good against the same earle. Wherevpon capteine Lamie and capteine Granestane were sent with two companies of hackbuts vnto the reliefe of the lard of Iohnstane. Who being thus furnished, did in the kings name raise the nobilitie and countrie thereabouts to assist him with their power: which being had, he meant and therefore went to haue ioined with the said two capteins Lamie and Granestane. But as man purposeth, and God disposeth quite contrarie to our determination: so the lard Iohnstane was disappointed of that méeting; for the earle Morton (whose heedfull watch was not idle in learning out the deuises of his enimies, a néedfull policie for all such as intend to bring great actions to effect) hauing intelligence by some of his friends tendering his safetie, of this determination and preparation of the lard Iohnstane, and wiselie (as behooued him) seeing what danger might rise vnto him, if their two forces met, which would rise to a greater number than he were able to incounter, and iudging it best in the beginning to prouide for mischiefe, and to stop their passage, did prepare to preuent all their deuises, and for that cause sent his base brother Robert Maxwell capteine of Langhoine with some horssemen and footmen vnder the conduct of Robert Maxwell base brother to earle Morton sent against capteine Lamie. Iames Fraiser brother to the lord of Fullorth, which Robert meeting on Cranford mere with the foresaid capteins Lamie and Cranestane, before that they had ioined with the lard Iohnstane, gaue the charge vpon them, and that so fiercelie as they ouerthrew the whole strength of his enimies, slue Lamie, tooke Cranestane prisoner, and so handled the matter that all Capteine Lamie & Cranestane ouerthrowen. the rest were taken or slaine except some few, who sought their liues by the benefit of flieng. After which victorie the report thereof came to the lard Iohnstane, who desirous to be reunged thereof, vsed the helpe of other meanes when he perceued that force would not preuaile. And for that cause assembling such power as he had, he vsed the strength of one element against an other, of the highest against the lowest, of the heauen against the earth, of the fire against mettall, and of burning against fighting. For with all spéed he hastened to the lands of the earle Morton, which he cruelie spoiled, and in the same did burne certeine houses and other places belonging to the earle, as Comers trées, Duncoll, Cowhill, and such like. Wherevpon the earle Morton, who in like sort did not neglect his owne cause, but as opportunitie serued, sought the requitall thereof, did with the like furie, but with more hurt, enter the lands of Iohnstane, vtterlie spoiled them, and yet not so satisfied, committed to the fire both the castels of Louchhouse and Louchwood belonging to The castels Louchhouse and Louchwood burnt. Iohnstane, and slue sundrie gentlemen of name, the friends to Iohnstane, being persons of good sort, as the two brothers of Lokierbie, a brother of the lord Wanefraie, some of the sons of Iohn Iohnstane of Holgill, with others. Which doone, the earle Morton procéeded. vnto further pursute, and determining fullie to reuenge himselfe vpon Iohnstane, and his followers, forced the lard Iohnstane himselfe to flie his furie. Wherefore he fled to a strong The lard Iohnstane forced to flie. house called the Bonshaw castell belonging to Edward Yrwine of the Bonshaw, whome the earle pursued, and besieged in the same place, at what time he so battered the castell with artillerie, that the house was almost gotten. Which being perceiued of those within, not able to make further resistance, they fell to parlée, and so to composition; whereby in the end the matter was wholie compounded and ended betwéen them, by the mediation and furtherance of the lord Scroope of England, with certeine conditions to be performed as The lord Scroope compounded the contention betwéene earle Morton and the lard Iohnstane. well on the part of the earle as of the lard Iohnstane. But the coles of inward griefe being couered with cold ashes of outward reconciliation, did not long lie couered, but in the end began afresh to shew their fire. For the lard Iohnstane falling from the said accord, vpon what occasion I know not, either for cause giuen by the earle Morton, or for an euill disposition in himselfe, or for both, they burst foorth againe into the like conflicts & part taking, which in the end falling to the worst, for the lard Iohnstane, he was taken betwéen The lard Iohnstane taken. Tinwall and the Warden ditches (where he was laid in ambush to haue performed some action against the said Robert Maxwell comming from the towne of Domfreies to Laugham from the earle Morton his brother) by William Carrutheris (baron of Holmence and capteine of the kings castell named Traife) being by the earle Morton appointed to incounter with the said lard Iohnstane: which this baron was the more willing to doo, because he entirelie loued the earle, and had alwaies from the beginning followed the earles faction.

These things thus performed and the successe therof comming to the kings knowledge, The king displeased with earle Morton for the cause of the lard Iohnstane. he grew so heauilie displeased with the earle Morton, that he was scarse able to susteine the kings displeasure, by reason that the earle attempted these things against the kings mind, when the king had supported the lard Iohnstane with men and weapons. But the kings displeasure onlie growing against the earle, was partlie for that the earle of Arrane did bitterlie exasperat the cause against him, and partlie by the persuasion & lamentation of the ladie of Iohnstane, whereof the last was enimie to the earle, as of dutie she ought in respect of hir husband, and the first (which was the earle of Arrane) became a bitter and heauie enimie besides all reason against earle Morton, because that Morton refused to exchange the baronies of Poke and Maxwell Hewch with Arrane, which most instantlie required the same, in respect they adioined neere vnto other lands which Arrane had procured to himselfe. For although that Arrane would in place of those required lands haue deliuered others of no lesse The earle of Arrane would exchange lands with the earle Morton. value and honor (for he would haue giuen the baronie of Kinneile for the same) yet Morton had good cause and no lesse reason not to yeeld therevnto: as well for that Maxwell Hewch was his ancient inheritance, and the first land which his ancestors had, and whereof they tooke the name of lord Maxwell; as for that, that there were manie of the surname of the Maxwels, who dwelling vpon these lands, would not become subiect to the earle of Arrane, The Maxwels would not be subiect to the earle of Arrane. as they must haue béene if he had departed with those lands; amongst which Maxwels so refusing to become tenants to Arrane, were Iohn Maxwell lard of Newarke, and William Maxwell lard of Poke.

This thus handled, the king assembled a parlement in Maie, wherein were certeine lawes enacted, which giuing occasion to some of the nobilitie and clergie to misconceiue thereof, and to depart the realme, did after minister cause to the king (for the more discharge of his honour, the better explaining of the said lawes, and the manifesting of secret practises against him) to set downe this following declaration thereof to the view of the world. Wherin he shewed himselfe of a rare and good disposition, in that he would humble himselfe beneath the maiestie of his crowne, publikelie to render a reason to his neighbours and to his subiects of his dealings, towards such as were vnder his gouernment, sith he was not bound therevnto, being to dispose of those his subiects according to the lawes of his realme and the customes of those countries. But before I set downe that declaration, I thinke it not vnmeet to saie somewhat of such things as went before, and were the cause of setting foorth of the same declaration. There were some lawes in the same parlement enacted for the reformation of religion, which to the king séemed to be growne ouer dangerous, in séeking a certeine equalitie of gouernment in the ecclesiasticall hierarchie. Vpon which law established, the earles of Angus and Mar, with diuers others of the temporaltie and the spiritualtie, as Andrew Meluine, and such as professed the purer and reformed religion (as it was termed) were inforced for the vse of their conscience and for other causes, to banish themselues from their countrie, and to flie into England there to vse the libertie of their religion, and to prouide for the safetie of their persons, who comming into this realme, made their abode and soiourned at Norwich. About which time also of their departure out of Scotland, there was a supposed treason discouered by Robert Hamilton vnto the king, intended to be practised against his maiestie, wherevpon some were summoned vpon suspicion, some were apprehended, and some were executed for the same cause. Of the first sort, the lord Blakater and George Dowglasse were summoned to the court vpon suspicion that they were consenting and conceling to and of the same treasons. For the second part touching the same, the lord of Donwhasell, the lord of Dunkreth, the lord of Baithkict, Robert Hamilton of Inchmachan, and Iames Sterling, were apprehended at the kings court: besides which Iohn Hoppingell of the Moores was taken at his owne house by the capteine of the kings gard, and the lord Keier with the lord Maius and other gentlemen were taken about Sterling; and lastlie the lord Donwhasell and the lord Maius were executed, with the lord Ruthwine earle of Gowrike, treasuror of Scotland, who was beheaded in Scotland. Which being thus doone, the king as is before said made this following declaration vpon the said acts of parlement, in which he sheweth reason and cause why he ought and might both make and execute those laws, with a further explanation also of the same lawes deliuered in that declaration with these words.


FOR as much as there is some euill affected men that goeth about so farre as in them lieth, to inuent lies and tales to slander and impaire the kings maiesties fame and honor, & to raise reports as if his maiestie had declined to papistrie, & that he had made manie acts to abolish the frée passage of the gospell, good order and discipline in the church: which brutes are mainteined by rebellious subiects, who would gladlie couer their seditious enterprises vnder pretense of religion (albeit there can be no good religion in such as raise rebellion to disquiet the state of their natiue souereigne, and periuredlie dooth stand against the oth, band, & obligation of their faith, wherevnto they haue subscribed) therfore that his maiesties faithfull subiects be not abused with such slanderous reports, and his highnesse good affectionat friends in other countries maie vnderstand the verities of his vpright intention, his highnesse hath commanded this bréefe declaration of certeine of his maiesties acts of parlement holden in Maie one thousand fiue hundred foure score and foure, to be published and imprinted, to the effect that the indirect practises of such as slander his maiestie and his lawes maie be detected and discouered.

In the first act his maiestie ratifieth and approoueth the true profession of the gospell, sincere preaching of the word and administration of the sacraments, presentlie by the goodnesse of God established within this realme, and alloweth of the confession of the faith set downe by act of parlement the first yere of his maiesties reigne. Likewise his highnesse not onlie professeth the same in all sinceritie, but (praised be God) is come to that ripenesse of iudgement by reading and hearing the word of God, that his highnesse is able to conuince and ouerthrow by the doctrine of the prophets and apostles the most learned of the contrarie sect. So that (as Plato affirmeth that common wealth to be counted happie wherein a philosopher reigneth, or he that reigneth is a philosopher) we maie much more estéeme this countrie of Scotland to be fortunate, wherein our king is a diuine, and whose hart is replenished with the knowledge of the heauenlie philosophie: for the comfort not onlie of his good subiects and friends in other countries but of them that professeth the gospell euerie where, he being a king of great wisedome, and by his birth-right borne to great possession; but much more his highnesse, vertue, godlinesse and learning, and dailie increase of all heauenlie sciences, dooth promise and assure him of the mightie protection of God, and fauour of all them that feare his holie name.

In the second act his maiesties roiall authoritie ouer all estates both spirituall and temporall is confirmed: which act some of malice, and some of ignorance doth traduce, as if his maiestie pretended to be called the head of the church, a name which his maiestie acknowledgeth to be proper and peculiar to the sonne of God the sauiour of the world, who is the head, and bestoweth life spirituall vpon the members of his mysticall bodie, and he hauing receiued the holie spirit in all abundance, maketh euerie one of the faithfull partakers there. of, according to the measure of faith bestowed vpon them, of the which number of thefaitfull vnder the head Christ, his maiestie acknowledgeth himselfe to be a member baptised in his name, partaker of the misterie of the crosse and holie communion, and attending with the faithfull for the comming of the Lord and the finall resurrection of Gods elect. And notwithstanding his maiestie surelie vnderstandeth by the scriptures, that he is the chéefe and principall member appointed by the law of God, to sée God glorified, vice punished and vertue mainteined within his realme: and the souereigne iudgment of a godlie quietnesse & order in the common wealth, to apperteine to his highnesse care and solicitude. Which power and authoritie of his highnesse, certeine ministers being called before his maiestie for their seditious and factious sermons in stirring vp the people to rebellion against their natiue king (by the instigation of sundrie vnquiet spirits) would in no wise acknowledge but disclaime his maiesties authoritie as an incompetent iudge: and especiallie one called master Andrew Meluin of a salt and fierie humor, vsurping the pulpit of Saundois, without anie lawfull calling, and priuie at that time to certeine conspiracies attempted against his maiestie and crowne, went about in a sermon vpon a sundaie, to inflame the harts of the people by odious comparisons of his maiesties progenitors and councell, albeit the dutie of a faithfull preacher of the gospell be rather to exhort the people to obedience of their natiue king, and not by popular sermons (which hath béene the euersion and decaie of great cities and common wealths, and hath greatlie in times past bred disquietnesse to the state thereby) to trouble and perturbe the countrie. The said master Andrew being called before his highnesse, presumptuouslie answered that he would not be iudged by the king and councell, because he had spoken the same in pulpit, which pulpit in effect he alleged to be exempted from the iudgement and correction of princes, as if that holie place sanctified to the word of God and to the breaking of the bread of life, might be anie colour to anie sedition in word or déed against the lawfull authoritie, without punishment. Alwaies his maiestie (being of himselfe a most gratious prince) was not willing to haue vsed anie rigor against the said master Andrew, if he had humblie submitted himselfe, acknowledged his offense, and craued pardon: who notwithstanding afraid of his owne giltinesse, being priuie to diuers conspirators before, fled out of the realme, whose naughtie & presumptuous refusing of his highnesse iudgement, was the occasion of the making of this second act: that is, that none should decline from his highnesse authoritie, in respect that the common prouerbe beareth "Ex malis moribus bonæ leges natæ sunt," which is, that Of euill maners good lawes proceed. And in verie deed it wanteth not anie right intollerable arrogancie in anie subiect called before his prince, professing and authorising the same truth, to disclaime his authoritie, neither doo the prophets, apostles, or others (conducted by the spirit of God) minister the like example: for it is a great error to affirme (as manie doo) that princes and magistrats haue onlie power to take order in ciuill affaires, and that ecclesiasticall matters doo onelie belong to the ministerie.

By which meanes the pope of Rome hath exempted himselfe and his cleargie from all iudgment of princes, and he made himselfe to be iudge of iudges, and to be iudged of no man: whereas by the contrarie, not onelie by the example of the godlie gouernors, iudges, and kings of the old testament; but also by the new testament, and the whole historie of the primitiue church, in which the emperors being iudges ouer the bishops of Rome, deposed them from their seats, appointed iudges to decide and determine causes ecclesiasticall, and challenge innocent men, as Athanasius from the determination of the councell holden at Tirus, and by infinit good reasons which shall be set downe by the grace of God in an other seuerall worke, and shall be sufficientlie prooued and verified. But this appéereth at this present to be an vntimelie and vnprofitable question, which hath no ground vpon their part, but of the preposterous imitation of the pretended iurisdiction of the pope of Rome. For if there were anie question of this land of heresie, whereby the profound mysteries of the scriptures behoued to be searched foorth, his maiestie would vse the same remedie (as most expedient) which the most godlie emperors haue vsed: and his maiestie following their example would allow the councell of learned pastors, that by conference of scriptures the veritie might be opened, and heresie repressed.

But God be thanked, we haue no such controuersies in this land, neither hath anie heresie taken anie déepe root in the countrie; but that certeine of the ministerie, ioining themselues to rebels haue trauelled to disquiet the state with such questions, that the people might imbrace anie sinister opinion of his maiesties vpright procéedings, and factions might be nourished and interteined in the countrie: neither is it his maiesties meaning nor intention in anie sort, to take awaie the lawfull and ordinarie iudgement in the church, whereby discipline and good order might decaie; but rather to preserue, increase, and mainteine the same. And as there is in this realme, iustices, conestables, shiriffes, prouosts, bailiffes, and other iudges in temporall matters: so his maiestie alloweth that all things might be doone in order, and a godlie quietnes may be preserued in the whole estate; the synodall assemblies by the bishops, or commissioners, where the place was vsed to be conuenient, twise in the yeare to haue the ordinarie triall of matters belonging to the ministerie and their estate: alwaies reseruing to his highnesse, that if they, or anie of them doo amisse, neglect their dutie, disquiet the estate, or offend in anie such maner and sort, that they in no waies pretend anie immunitie, priuilege, and exemption, which onelie was inuented by the popes of Rome, to tread vnder foot the scepter of princes, and to establish an ecclesiastical tyrannie within this countrie, vnder pretense of new inuented presbyters, which neither should answer to the king nor bishop vnder his maiestie: but should haue such infinit iurisdiction, as neither the law of God nor man can tollerat; which is onelie his maiesties intention to represse, and not to take awaie godlie or due order in the church, as hereafter shall appeare.

The third act of his maiesties foresaid parlement dischargeth all iudgements ecclesiasticall, and all assemblies which are not allowed by his maiesties parlement. Which act speciallie concerneth the remouing and discharging of that forme, inuented in this land, called the presbyterie: wherein a number of ministers of certeine precinets and bounds, accounting themselues to be equall, without anie difference, and gathering vnto them certeine gentlemen and others of his maiesties subiects, vsurpe the whole ecclesisticall iurisdiction, & altereth the laws at their owne pleasure, without the knowledge or approbation of the king, or of the estate: a forme of dooing without example of anie nation, subiect to a christian prince. The perill whereof did so increase, that in case it had not beene repressed in due season, & forbidden by his maiesties laws, the same had troubled the whole countrie: and being tried by his highnesse to be the ouerthrow of his maiesties estate, the decaie of his crowne, and a readie introduction to Anabaptistrie, and popular confusion in all estates; his maiestie hath giuen commandement against the same. And that the reader may know the danger thereof by manie inconueniences, which thereby insueth in this land, I will onelie set downe one, whereby they may vnderstand what perill was in the rest.

The ambassador of France, returning home into his countrie, commanded the prouosts, bailiffes, and conestable of Edenburgh to make him a banket, that he might be receiued honorablie according to the amitie of ancient times betwéene two nations. This commandement was giuen on the saturdaie by his highnesse, and the banket appointed to be on the mondaie. A number of the foresaid pretended presbyterie vnderstanding thereof, assembled themselues on the sundaie in the morning, and presumptouslie determined & agréed, that the ministers of Edenburgh should proclame a fasting vpon the same mondaie; where their seuerall ministers one after another made thrée seuerall sermons, and inuectiues against the prouosts, bailiffes, and councell for the time, and the noble men in the countrie; who repared to the banket at his maiesties command. The foresaid presbyteric called and persuaded them, and scarselie by his maiesties authoritie could be withholden from excommunicating the magistrats and noble men, for obeieng onelie his highnesse lawfull command; which the law of all countries called Ius gentium requires towards ambassadors of forren countries. And not onelie in this, but innumerable other things, their commandement was proclamed directlie, vnder the paine of excommunication to the kings maiestie and his lawes.

Which forme of proceeding ingendered nothing but disquietnesse, sedition, and trouble: as may manifestlie appeare, in that the especiall authors of the inuenting, promoting, and assisting of the foresaid pretended presbyterie, hath ioined themselues with his maiesties rebels; and flieng foorth of the realme, in respect of their guiltinesse, hath discouered what malicious practises was deuised amongst them, if God had not in time prouided remedie. The other forme of iudgement, which his maiestie hath discharged, is the generall assemblie of the whole cleargie in the realme: vnder pretense whereof a number of ministers from sundrie presbyteries did assemble, with some gentlemen of the countrie; whereof, some for that time (malcontents of the state) sought that colour as fauorers of the ministerie, by the which they haue practised manie enterprises in the realme; where there was no certeine law in ecclesiasticall affaires, but all depended vpon the said generall conuention, where the laws of the church were alterable after the number of voices, which for the most part succéeded vnto the most vnlearned of the multitude.

This generall assemblie amongst other things, did appoint and agrée with his maiesties regents in his minoritie, that the *estate of bishops should be mainteined and authorised, as is *Which is one of the estates of parlement. registred in the bookes of councell, and subscribed by the commissioners for the time. Which order was obserued manie yeares, and bishops by their consents appointed to their diocesse, vntill within this late time, in assemblies holden at Dundée, and Glascow, respecting the foresaid ministers and assemblies, tooke vpon them contrarie to their owne handwriting, to discharge the estate, and to declare the same to be vnlawfull in their pretended manner. And there commanded the bishops of the countrie, to demit and leaue their offices and iurisdictions, and that in no wise they should passe to the kings councell or pailement, without commission obteined from their assemblie: that they should confirme nothing in parlement and councell, but according to their acts and iniunctions. And further, they directed their commissioners to the kings maiestie, commanding him and the councell vnder paine of the censures of the church (whereby they vnderstood excommunication) to appoint no bishop in time to come, because they had concluded that estate to be vnlawfull. And notwithstanding, that which they would haue deiected in the bishops, they purposed to erect in themselues, desiring that such commissioners as they should send to parlement and councell, might be authorised in place of the estate: wherby it should haue come to passe, that whereas now his maiestie may select the most godlie, learned, wise, and experimented of the ministerie, to be on his maiesties estate, his highnesse should haue beene by that meanes compelled to accept such as the multitude, by an od consent of the most vnlearned, should haue appointed, which could not tend but to the ouerthrow of the realme.

After they had discharged bishops, they agréed to haue superintendents, commissioners, and visitors: but in the end they decerned that there should be no difference amongst the ministers, and imagined that new forme of presbyterie, whereof we haue spoken before. Neither was there anie other apparance that they should haue staied from such dailie alterations in the common-wealth, which could not but continuallie be disquieted, where the law of conscience, which they mainteined by the sword of cursing, was subiect to such mutations, at the arbitrement of a number, whereof the most part had not greatlie tasted of learning. At once the foresaid assemblie was accustomed, not onelie to prescribe the law to the king and estate, but also did at certeine times appoint generall fastings through out the realme; especiallie, when some factioner in the countrie was to moue anie great enterprise. For at the fast, all the ministers were commanded by the assemblie to sing one song, and to crie out vpon the abuses (as they termed it) of the court and estate for the time: whereby is most cereine great alterations to haue insued in this land; while at the good pleasure of God, and his blessing towards his maiestie, the pretense of the last fast was discouered, and his highnesse deliuered from such attempts, whereby his maiestie hath béene iustlie moued to discharge such conuentions, which might import so preiudiciallie to his estate.

But especiallie his maiestie had no small occasion, whereas the same assemblie being met at Edenburgh, did authorise and auow the fact perpetrate at Ruthwen, in the taking of his highnesse most noble person. The which déed notwithstanding, with the aduise of his estates in parlement accounted to be treason, the said assemblie esteeming their iudgement to be the souereigne iudgement of the realme, hath not onlie approoued the same, but also ordeined all them to be excommunicate that would not subscribe and allow the same. So the acts of this assemblie, and the lawes of the estate directed, weied in ciuill matter, with the which the assemblie should not haue medled, it behooued his highnesse either to discharge himselfe of the crowne, or the ministerie of the forme of the assemblie, which in déed of it selfe, without the kings maiesties licence & approbation, could not be lawfull, like as generall councels at no time could assemble, without the commandement of the emperor for the time. And our king hath no lesse power within his owne realme than anie of them had in the empire. Yea the bishop of S. Andrewes had not in time of poperie power to conuent the bishops and clergie out of their owne diocesse, without licence giuen before by his highnes most noble progenitors of good memorie, and the causes thereof intimate and allowed.

Notwithstanding that his maiesties intention and meaning maie fullie be vnderstood, it is his highnesse will, that the bishop or commissioners of anie diocesse or prouince, or part thereof, shall at their visitation appoint in euerie parish, according to the greatnesse thereof, some honest, vertuous, and discréet men, to aid and assist the minister, and to haue the ouersight and censure of the maners and behauior of the people of that parish. And if there be anie notable offense, worthie of punishment, that the bishop and commissioners be aduertised thereof, who shall haue an officer of armes to be assistant for the punishment of vice and executions to follow therevpon: that they who contemne the godlie and lawfull order of the church, maie find by experience his maiesties displeasure, and be punished according to their deseruings. And further, his maiestie vpon necessarie occasions which shall fall foorth, by diuers maners of waies amongst the clergie, vpon humble supplication made to his highnesse, will not refuse to grant them licence to assist the bishops, commissioners, and some of the most vertuous, learned and godlie of their diocesse, where such ecclesiasticall matters, as apperteine to the vniformitie of doctrine and conuersation of a godlie order in the church, maie be intreated and concluded in his maiesties owne presence, or some of his honorable councell, who shall assist for the time: where if necessitie so require, a publike fast throughout the whole realme maie be commanded, and by his maiesties authoritie proclamed, to auoid the imminent displeasure and danger of the wrath of the Lords iudgements, which is the right end of publike humilitie, and not vnder pretense thereof to couer such enterprises, as haue heretofore disquieted and troubled the peace of this common wealth.

The twentith act ratifieth and approoueth, and establisheth the estate of the bishops within the realme, to haue the ouersight and iurisdiction, euerie one in their owne diocesse: which forme of gouernement, and rule in ecclesiasticall affaires, hath not onlie continued in the church from the daies of the apostles, by continuall succession of time, and manie martyrs in that calling shed their bloud for the truth: but also sith this realme imbraced and receiued the christian religion, the same estate hath béene mainteined, to the welfare of the church, and quietnes of the realme without anie interruption, vntill within these few yeares, some curious and busie men haue practised to induce into the ministerie an equalitie in all things, as well concerning the preaching of the word, administration of the sacraments, as likewise in discipline, order, and policie. The which confusion his maiestie finding by most dangerous experience, to haue béene the mother and nurse of great factions, seditions, and troubles within this realme, hath with aduise of his highnes estates, aduisedlie concluded, the said pretended partie in discipline, orders and policie in the church, to be no longer to be tolerated in his countrie, but the solicitude & care of all churches in one diocesse to apperteine to the bishop and commissioners therof, who shall be answerable to God, and his maiestie, and estates, for the right administration and discharge of the office of particular ministers, within the bounds of his iurisdiction. For as it becommeth his maiestie, as Eusebius writeth of Constantinus the great, to be a bishop of bishops, and vniuersall bishop within his realme, in so far as his maiestie should appoint euerie one to discharge his duetie: which his highnesse cannot, his countrie being large and great, take him to euerie minister that shall offend and transgresse against dutie, or quarell with the whole number of the ministerie: but it behooueth his maiestie to haue bishops & ouerseers vnder him which maie be answerable for such bounds, as the law and order of the countrie hath limited and appointed to euerie one of them. And that they hauing accesse to his maiesties parlement and councell, maie intercede for the rest of the brethren of the ministerie, propone their gréefe vnto his highnesse and estates, and receiue his maiesties fauorable answere therein. The which forme dooth preserue a godlie quietnesse, vnitie, concord and peace in the estate, and one vniforme order in the church. As contrariwise, the pretended equalitie diuideth the same, and vnder the pretense of equalitie maketh the same of the most craftie and subtile dealers to be aduanced and inriched: and in pretending of partie, to séeke nothing but their owne ambition and aduancement aboue the rest of the simple sort.

And notwithstanding that his maiestie hath re-established the said estate, it is not his highnesse will and intent, that the foresaid bishop shall haue such full power as to doo within his diocesse what he pleaseth. For his maiestie cannot allow of anie popular confusion, wheréin (as the prouerbe saith) "Nulla tyrannis æquiparanda est tyrannidi multitudinis," that is: No tyrannie can be compared to the tyrannie of a multitude, hauing commandement and power in his hands: so on the other part his maiesties will is, that the bishops authoritie in anie graue matter, be limited to the councell of thirtéene of the most ancien, wise, and godlie persons of his diocesse, selected out of the whole synodall assemblie of the prouince: by whose aduise, or at the least the most part thereof, the weightie affaires of the church maie be gouerned to the glorie of God, and quietnes of the realme. Further it is his highnesse will and commandement, that their bishops and commissioners twise in the yeare, to wit, ten daies after Easter, and the sixt of September, hold their synodall assemblies in euerie diocesse, for the kéeping of good orders therein: and if anie be stubborne, or contemne within their bounds the good order of the church, that it maie be declared vnto his maiestie, and punished to the example of others, according to their deseruings. Neither is it his maiesties meaning or intent, that such bishops or commissioners as shall be appointed, shall receiue their onelie and full commission of his maiestie without admission ordinarie, by such as are appointed to that effect in the church: but hauing his highnesse nomination, presentation, and commendation as lawfull and onlie patrone, they to be tried and examined, that their qualities are such as they are able to discharge their cure and office. And if it shall happen anie of the said bishops or commissioners, to be negligent in their office, or to be slanderous or offensiue in their behauior, life, and maners, in time to come, it is not his highnesse will, that they shall be exempted from correction, notwithstanding anie priuilege of his highnes estate, councell or parlement: but their labors, trauels, diligence and behauiors, to be tried in the generall assemblie, not consisting of a confused multitude, as it was before; but of such worshipfull persons as is heretofore prescribed in his highnesse presence, or his deputies to that effect.

Lastlie his maiestie giueth commission to the said bishops or commissioners at their visitations, to consider in what part of the countrie, the enterprise, or interpretation of the scripture, by conference of a certeine number of the ministerie within those bounds, maie be most commodiouslie once in euerie fiftéene daies. For as his maiestie inhibits all vnlawfull méetings, that maie ingender trouble and contention in the countrie: so his maiestie is well affected to sée the ministerie increase in knowledge and vnderstanding, and by all meanes to fortifie and aduance the same. Wherein his highnesse commandement is, that a graue, wise, and sage man shall be appointed president, who maie haue the ouersight of these bounds, and be answerable therefore to the bishop, his councell and synod; and he to be respected reasonablie for his paines, at the modification of stipends: that all things maie be orderlie doone in the church, peace & quietnesse maintened in the realme, and we deliuered from apparant plagues, and the blessings of God continued to the comfort of our posteritie. And in the meane time his highnesse inhibits & expreslie forbids vnder the paines conteined in his maiesties acts of parlement, & all other pains arbitrable at his maiesties sight & councell, that no minister take in hand to assemble themselues for the foresaid cause, without the appointment and order taken by the said bishops or commissioners, whereby his highnesse maie be certeinlie informed, that the foresaid ministers assemble not, to meddle with anie ciuill matters, or affaires of estate, as was accustomed before; but onelie to profit in the knowledge of the word, and to be comforted one by another in the administration of their spirituall office: which his highnesse wisheth them faithfullie to discharge, and then to call to God, that his maiestie maie in a prosperous reigne enioie good and long life, and continue and increase in the feare of the almightie.

Besides which, the king at the end of this his intention, did further articulate his intention into sundrie heads as here followeth.


  1. "HIS maiesties intention is, by the grace of God, to mainteine the true and sinceare profession of the gospell, and preaching thereof within his realme.
  2. "2 His maiesties intention is, to correct and punish such as seditiouslie abuse the truth, and factiouslie applie or rather bewraie the text of the scripture to the disquieting of the state and disturbing of the commonwealth, or imparing of his highnesse and councels honour.
  3. "3 His maiesties intention is, if anie question of faith and doctrine arise, to conuocate the most learned, godlie, wise, and experimented pastors, that by conference of scriptures the veritie may be tried, and all heresie and schisme by that means expressed.
  4. "4 His maiesties intention is, that for the keeping of good order in euerie paroch, certeine ouerséeers to the good behauiour of the rest, be appointed at the visitation of the bishop or visitour, who shall haue his maiesties authoritie, and officers of armes concurring for the punishment of vice.
  5. "5 His maiesties intention is, to mainteine the exercise of prophesie for the increase and continuing of knowledge amongst the ministerie: in which a wise and a graue man selected by the bishop or commissioner at the synodall assemblie, shall render accompt of the administration of those bounds, where the exercise is holden, for which cause some respect of liuing shall be had vnto him, who susteins that burthen.
  6. "6 His maiesties intention is, not to derogate from the ordinarie iudgement of matters of the church by the ordinarie bishops, their councels and synods: but if anie of them doo amisse, and abuse their calling, to take order for correcting, amending and punishing thereof.
  7. "7 His maiesties intention is, not to hinder or staie anie godlie or solid order, grounded vpon the word of God, and order of the primitiue church, but that the ministers of the word meddle themselues onelie with their owne calling, and iudge not fearefullie of the estate.
  8. "8 It is his maiesties intention, that the presbyteries consisting of manie ministers and gentle: en, at Laacwar or otherwaies, be not further tollerat in his realme: but the exercise of iurisdiction of all churches to be in the hand of the bishop or commissioner, and their councels and synods.
  9. "9 It is his maiesties intention, that the bishops or commissioners assemble not anie generall assemblie out of the whole realme, without his maiesties knowledge and licence obteined therevnto: which vpon supplication his highnesse will not denie, that an vniforme order may be obserued in the whole realme, and the bishops and their diligences there tried and examined, and the complaints of euerie particular heard and discussed.
  10. "10 It is his maiesties intention to assist this assemblie himselfe, or by a noble man of his councell, his highnesse deputie.
  11. "11 It is his maiesties intention, that when anie paroch findeth necessitie of anie fast, they informe the occasion to the bishop or commissioner and their councell, that they may vnderstand the cause to be lawfull; as likewise the bishop of the diocesse finding lawfull occasion, may within the same, with his councell prescribe anie publike humiliation.
  12. "12 It is his maiesties intention, that a generall fast throughout the whole realme, shall not be proclamed but by his maiesties commandement, or by a generall councell, wherin his maiestie or his highnesse deputie is present.
  13. "13 It is his highnesse intention, that the bishops in the realme in euerie diocesse with their councell procéed into the ecclesiasticall gouernement, but as is said with a councell, that both tyrannie and confusion may be auoided in the church.
  14. "14 It is his maiesties intention, that commissioners be directed vniuersallie throughout the whole realme, to establish a godlie order, and that his maiesties commissioners take order presentlie for the translation of such ministers, whose trauels they esteeme may more conuenientlie and profitablie serue in an other place."

These things was the king faine to publish, to staie the euill report of such as went about to touch him for the breach of the christian order in religion, which being nothing but that which séemeth answerable to naturall sense & princelie maiestie, should neither by malice haue mooued, nor for colour of religion procured anie beyond the warrant of the word of God, or the duetie of naturall allegiance to resist the kinglie ordinance, or to lift vp their sword or word against him, who being a god in earth, presenteth the maiestie of the God of heauen. But leauing the discourse of these things to preachers, to whome it belongeth to instruct vs in our dutie to God, to our prince, & to our neighbours, we will turne againe to the other following occurrents of Scotland. And yet before we speake anie thing of those matters, sith I haue in this place as well as in manie other spoken of parlements & acts of parlement, I thinke it not amisse to set downe somewhat collected out of authors touching their manner and order of parlement, and that the rather bicause the same consisteth of thrée estates, and the princes confirmation as our parlement dooth, from whome it séemeth The parlement of Scotland consisteth of thrée estats. to me that they haue fet their light. Touching which, Lesleus in his Scotish historie lib. 1. pag. 75, vnder the title of Leges Scotorum, writeth in this sort. "Qui verò seculi negotijs sese implicantes in ecclesiasticorum album non referuntur, legibus, quas reges descripserunt, aut regum voce confirmatas, tres regni ordines sanxerūt, continentur, has partim Latino, partim Scotico sermone confirmatas, regni municipales leges vocamus: libro qui leges Latinè scriptas continet, titulus (regiam maiestatem) præfigitur, quòd ab illis vocibus libri exordium ducatu;. Reliquis legum libris, comitiorū (quæ populari sermone parliamenta dicimus) acta inseribuntur. Quanquam hîc aduertendum, nos ita lege municipali teneri, vt si causa multis controuersijs implicata (quod sæpe sit) incidat quæ legibus nostratibus non possit dirimi, statim quicquid ad hanc controuersiam decidendam necessarium censetur, ex ciuilibus Romanorum libris promatur. Sed si quis legum nostrarum originem velit conquisitè inuestigare, intelligat potestatem has ferendi antiquandíque trium ordinum suffragijs liberè in publico latis regis assensu confirmatis esse positam." On which parlements so assembled, consisting of the three estates, & the princes confirming voice (in the beginning whereof the king goeth to the place where that assemblie is made, to kéepe such parlement attired in his regall garments, with the sword and other ornaments, the ensignes of his kingdome and kinglie authoritie, caried before him, attended on with all his nobilitie and cleargie) those common people will manie times giue such bie names as séemeth Parlements nicknamed. best liking to themselues, and is most answerable to the nature & order of that parlement, as we also doo héere in England, whereof I could produce manie examples of both nations, which at this time I will forbeare, and onelie set downe one proofe (as well of England as Scotland) to confirme the same, least in passing it ouer without some example thereof, I might make a vaine shew of knowledge consisting in naked words, without anie sound matter. Wherefore I saie, that as in England in the yeare of our redemption one thousand The made parlement. two hundred fiftie and eight, being the two and fortith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the third, the parlement held at Oxford by the lords against the king, was called Parliamentum insanum, bicause manie things were there intreted which turned to the death of diuerse noble men. So the Scots in like maner bynamed a parlement, in the yeare of Christ 1556, (being the foureteenth yeare of Marie the now imprisoned queene of Scotland) and called the same a running parlement, bicause there were manie intermissions and remoouings during the The running parlement. continuance thereof, as appeareth by Lesleus in these words. "Aestate sequenti habita sunt Edinburgi trium ordinum comitia, in quibus domini Brunstonius, Grangius, Balnauius, & alij nonnulli, quorum bona à gubernatore publicata fuerunt, singulari regis Franciæ Lesleus. commendatione dignati, famæ atque bonis restituti sunt. Hæc verò comitia quòd intermissa, potiùs quàm omissa, quasi continuarentur, nomen à vulgo acceperunt, vt currentia dicerentur." Thus much being said about their parlements, let vs againe fall with our pen into the other matters of Scotland, which followed the former parlement assembled in Maie, and mooued the king to make that declaration thereof which I haue before set downe.

About the time that the earle Gowrike or Gowrie was as before is remembred beheaded, the king did roiallie set forward his iourneie, and possessed the towne of Sterling, in which the said earle was executed, hauing a sister married to Lesle earle of Rothos, and a daughter married to Steward earle of Atholl. After the death of the said earle Gowricke lord treasuror of Scotland, the king bestowed that office vpon Grahame earle of Montrosse, who had married the lord Dromands sister, which name of Grame is supposed to be deduced from Grahame, who in the yeare of Christ foure hundred twentie and two, resisted the Romans, inuading the Picts and Scots, for when Victorinus the Romane legat, had againe Lesleus li. 4. pag. 133. commanded a trench or fense to be made from the castell of Abincorne to Cluide, the same was vtterlie ouerthrowne and cast abroad by the noble Capteine Grame, of whome as is supposed the familie of the Grames liuing at this daie had their originall, the same place to this daie being called the trench of Grame or Grames trench.

The tenth of September (after that he was sent for by the queene of England vpon certeine articles laid against him) did George Talbot erle of Shrewsburie (a graue and honourable person, who had Marie the imprisoned queene of Scots in his custodie at Sheffeld castell) repaire to London according to his dutie, to answer those things which should be obiected against him, who comming to London verie honorablie attended on with his owne retinue, amounting to the number of two hundred horsse, and with some few others of the queenes men, which were sent to bring him vp, repaired to his house at Coleherbert in London from whense in Nouember going to the court to answer the things to be obiected vnto him, about the custodie and vsage of the same queene of Scots, which had manie yeers beene vnder his charge, he answered the matter verie honourablie, and to his good discharge, being then dismissed of the keeping of the same queene of Scots. During whose being here at London the queene of Scots was appointed to the charge of sir Rafe Sadler knight banneret, a graue and old councellor to the state of England, and chancellor of the dutchie of Lancaster; with whome was also ioined in the same commission Iohn Summers esquier, clearke of the signet, a wise and honest gentleman, well seene in the languages, excellent at disciphering, and brought vp vnder that worthie and rare witted gentleman, doctor Nicholas Wotton, of whome I haue spoken more in the historie of England. These hauing this queene thus committed vnto them, did (as persons carfull of so weightie a charge) remooue hir to a place of good strength, and conueied hir to be kept in the castell of Tutberrie, where she (not remaining long in their custodie) bicause they were remooued and others put in place, was afterward about Maie following as anon shall appeare committed to the charge of sir Aimes Paulet one also of the priuie councell of England, hauing before beene ambassador legier in France, a person descended of an ancient and honourable familie, with whome and vnder whose charge she still remaineth at this present in the said castle of Tutburie.

But to leaue that matter, we saie that about the tenth daie of Ianuarie following this discharge of the earle of Shrewsburie, sir Lewis Balentine knight, iustice, clerke, and maister of the ceremonies of the kings house, which office as I haue beene crediblie informed by a Scot (but how trulie I leaue to others) his father, his grandfather, and great grandfather before him, did inioie, and to whome most of the nobilitie of Scotland, either by affinitie, consanguinitie, or aliance, were linked in blood, a goodlie yoong gentleman about the age of thirtie yeares, was sent ambassador into England for the redeliuerie and accusation of the erle of Angus and Marre, and the other nobles which were fled out of Scotland into England for a supposed treason wrought by them against their king, whose redeliuerie was required of the queene of England, to the end the king might execute the law vpon them. In which his ambassage he behaued himselfe before the councell of England so grauelie and learnedlie, that the said earles were sent for from Norwich (where they soiorned before his comming) to Westminster, there to answere to such things as should be laid to their charge by the said sir Lewis Balentine. Wherevpon after that the said ambassador had remained in England at London (honorablie interteined and feasted of the nobilitie and others) by the space of seuenteene weeks, he was dispatched into his countrie with answer, that hir maiestie would shortlie send an ambassador into Scotland which should fullie satisfie the king. Wherevpon the said sir Lewis Balentine departed from London on the tenth daie of Maie following, in the yeare of our redemption one thousand fiue hundred eightie and fiue, and so returned 1585. into Scotland; much about which time, as is before a little touched, was Marie queene of Scots, remaining in the custodie of sir Ralfe Sadler in the castell of Tutburie, committed to the keeping of sir Aimese Paulet.

After this the queene of England the nineteenth daie of the said moneth of Maie dispatched in ambassage into Scotland, Edward Wootton esquier, a gentleman of good descent, and one whose ancestors had honorablie & faithfullie serued manie princes of England, as well in the place of priuie councellors, as also in manie ambassages into forren nations: which ambassador being of yeares not much more than the said sir Lewis Balentine, had trauelled the most part of Europe, and had before time beene ambassador for the queene of England into Portingall. This gentleman so sent from the queene of England to the king of Scots, attended on by other English gentlemen, departed as is before said from London towards Scotland the nineteenth of Maie, who remaining at Berwike about three dais, did there receiue his conduct from the king of Scots to passe into his kingdome; which once obteined, he presentlie entred that land on Whitsun eeue, being the nine and twentith daie of the said moneth of Maie, and so came that daie to Edenburgh, being first at his entrance into the Scotish borders receiued by the lord Hume and his retinue, who conueied them to Seton house, where they were interteined by the lord Seton: after which when the ambassador was departed about halfe a mile from the said lord Setons house, he was met with sir Robert Meluin knight, maister William Keth one of the kings chamber, and others, which conueied him that night to Edenburgh. The next morrow (after that the English ambassador was come to the citie of Edenburgh) beig Whitsundaie, the ambassador was after dinner brought to the kings presence, where he had full audience for the deliuerie of his ambassage, consisting vpon the confirming of the old and concluding of a new league of amitie betweene the two nations of England and Scotland; which the king accepting in honorable part, did for that time dismisse the ambassador, vntill the minds & consents of the nobilitie might be vnderstood and had. With which answer the ambassador then satisfied, tooke leaue of the king for that present, and remained still at Edenburgh some fortnight, interteined with sports of delights answerable to the course of the yeere, and the dutie of an ambassage. From whense the ambassador attending on the king was conueied to Dumfermling, where the king remained some time to repose himselfe, progressing from thense to Falkland, and so to saint Andrews, hauing the ambassador alwaies with him. When the king was come to saint Andrews, the noblemen and states of the realme repaired thither to hold a parlement, according to the former appointment.

But whilest these things did thus passe at saint Andrews, the time drew on, when the borderers of both the nations of England and Scotland should assemble according to the custome of the true daies, there to determine for recompense of all such iniuries as each people had offered to other, in conueieng of cattel or other booties from their borders; for which cause there did about the sixteenth daie of Iulie assemble the people of both the borders, and the wardens of the same; at what time the lord of Fernhurst warden of the Scotish borders, and sir Francis Russell knight lord Russell, and sir Iohn Foster knight warden of the middle marches came with their companie to the borders of Scotland, not far from Berwike, and so entred into speech with the Scots of such causes for which the repaired thither. After when the wardens were set vpon the bench to heare and determine the same, there did suddenlie arise among the people a contention, whereby followed at the first some small fraie, which being perceiued by sir Francis Russell, he arose from the bench and called for his horsse, who meaning to appease the matter, went among the prease. At what time a certeine number of shot comming on him, he was suddenlie, but most vniustlie, slaine with a peece amongst the rest discharged against him by a Scot borne about that place (suspected by the most to be the brother of the lord of Fernhurst) contrarie to the nature of such assemblies, where each part shuld labor for quiet, sith publike faith at such times are giuen, that euerie one shall returne home without anie damage or iniurie offered by anie side. The losse of which sir Francis Russell, being a gentleman of great hope, was much lamented of the English, and that especiallie sith his vntimelie death so iniuriouslie (by the earle of Arrane, as the common fame went) procured and so suddenlie performed, in the fiue and thirtith yeare of his age, did bereaue the realme of England of a goodlie yoong person, well staied in gouernement, bountifull, wise, and vertuous, whose death happening the daie before that his honorable father the earle of Bedford (being of the same christian and surname) departed the world, occasioned T. G. first in Latine, and then in English, to set downe certeine funerall and moorning verses touching both the father and the son in these words: “ En duo Francisci subitò occubuere, simúlque
Et pater & natus, Russellæ splendida stirpis
Lumina, quos binos mors abstulit atra diebus:
Londini, comitem prouecta ætate parentem,
Finibus ac Scotiæ natum florentibus annis,
Ille perit morbo, insidijs cadit alter iniquis:
Dum miser occulta traiecit viscera glande
Incautè Scotus, heu fictæ sub nomine pacis.
Occidit ante patrem, non multis filius horis.
Anglia magna tibi est rapti iactura parentis,
Nec leuis est nati, de quo spes optima fulsit.
Quis scit an irati foret hæc vindicta Iehouæ,
De vitijs pœnas dum nostris sumit acerbas?
” The English whereof is in this forme drawne into verse by the first author of them T. G. in this sort: “ "Lo Francies twaine at once
both suddenlie are gone:
Two shining stars of Russels race,
the father and the sonne.
Whom in two daies vntimelie death
hath from vs caught awaie:
The earle in London natures debt,
the father old did paie.
The sonne his heire, lord Russel hight,
Of courage fresh and yeares:
On Scotish borders lost his life,
whose want now well appeares.
The father did by sicknesse die,
the sonne through fraud vniust:
By Scotish hand with gun was slaine:
whilst nothing he mistrust.
The sonne before the fathers death
not manie hours was slaine:
Great is thy loss, ô England, of
these peerelesse nobles twaine.
Thy fathers worthie vertues late
knowne well (and long) to all:
From fathers steps the sonne great hope
gaue that he would not fall.
Who knows if God the Lord of hosts,
this punishment doth send:
Our sinnes so great thereby to scourge,
and wicked liues amend?"

Of which erle of Bedford (hauing occasion to mention him in this place by the death of his sonne) I suppose not amisse to saie somewhat more, especiallie concerning such matters whereof he was a dealer with the imprisoned queene of Scots when she was at libertie and in hir best estate.

In the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and three score, Francis the French king died at Orleans in the kalends of December. After which, in the yere following, Marie the queene of Scots, Dowager of France and widow to the said Francis, soiourned a certeine time in France about Ianuille and Loreine, where the cheefe part of hir friends & kindred (being of the house of Guise) did remaine, during whose abode in France, and before she went into Scotland: this earle of Bedford and sir Nicholas Throgmorton (ligier ambassador in France for the queene of England) were sent vnto the queene of Scots to conclude with hir, that the agreements and conditions of peace, which were established a little before at Leith should be established by hir consent. Wherevnto for answer she affirmed, that she could not determine anie thing therein, vnlesse that she were present with the nobilitie of hir kingdome, to whom the administration of the realme of Scotland was committed at the intreatie of the English. And that when she was in Scotland, where by Gods good furtherance she hoped shortlie for to be, she should earnestlie trauell all she might for the establishing of all good conditions of peace. Againe when the king of Scots now liuing was by his godfathers to be taken from the font and to be regenerate in Christ, in the yere of our saluation one thousand fiue hundred threescore and six, being the foure and twentith yeare of the reigne of the same Marie queene of Scots, this earle of Bedford as ambassador from the queene of England, was sent to the queene of Scots by waie of deputiship to present the person of his mistresse requested to christen the yong prince of Scotland. At what time this earle of Bedford presented, in the behalfe of the queene of England, one font of gold curiouslie wrought, weighing three hundred thirtie and three ounces, and amounting in value to the summe of one thousand fortie three pounds & nineteene shillings. Thus this much spoken by the way of the earle of Bedford.

The report of the death of sir Francis Russell before mentioned, came to the knowledge of the said Edward Wootton, as yet remaining ambassador in Scotland, and then lieng at S. Andrews: wherevpon the ambassador went to the king, and opening vnto him the iniurie doone to the English by the procurement, as was thought, of Iames Steward erle of Arrane then chancellor: he obteined that the king (finding the matter to sound both to reason and iustice) did command the said earle to prison, where he remained some time, and was after at the sute of William Steward brother of the earle, vpon the kings remoouing from saint Andrewes, released from the prison, and committed to restreint in his owne house, vntill such time as he had cleered himselfe of the same imposed crime, and cause of breach of amitie betweene the two nations of England and Scotland. During which imprisonment of the earle of Arrane, the former appointed parlement or assemblie at saint Andrews was holden by the king & the nobilitie there gathered togither, which were Graham earle of Montrosse treasuror of Scotland, Robert Steward erle of March sometime bishop of Cathenesse, and now prior of S. Andrewes, great vncle to the king and to the yoong duke of Leneux, Keith erle marshall, Lesle erle of Rothos, Steward earle of Atholl, & Patrike Constance archbishop of S. Andrews, with diuers others. Amongst whom the king opening the contents of the ambassage sent out of England for the concluding of the league betweene the two nations, vsed vnto them this following speech, wherein declaring the opinion he conceiued of the religion, the necessitie of the ioining with England the sworne league of other nations against the professors of the gospell, and the reasons which induced him to mooue this matter vnto his people, all which he vttered in this sort.


"Two causes my lordis and ye all of the estatis haue mooued me to send for yow at this time to craue your aduises towardis them, quharof sith the one is generall & the vther particular, I will begin at the generall as the matter of greatest weight. Amongst all the benefeits that God dooth bestow vpoun his elect and church, the triall and sifting of the gud chosin from the bad hipocreitis, is ane of the mast speciall, quhich he hath vsed in all ages for the separatioun of thame, als well for that to lang companie of the vicked dooth corrupt the godlie, as also that their separatioun is a taken in this earth, of Godis luue towardis them, quhich triall he dooth now cheeflie vse, for that the number of the vicked doth abound in these letter daies, quherin God dooth permit the deuill most to rage. For quhar greater triall of the faithfull can there be, than the confederating togidder of all the bastard christians, I meane the papistis, in a league quhich they terme holie, albeit most vnholie in varie truth, for the subuersioun of the trew religioun in all realmes throuchout the quhole world. This is a matter so manifest and notorious to you all, euen by the report of the smallest merchantis that trauill, as it dooth dilat the selfe, though I were silent.

"This leagues whome of I speake, are composed of Frenchmen, and Hispaingnols, assisted with the king of Spaines and the papes monie, solemlie sworne to performe the forsaid enterprise before they leaue armes: the performance quhereof we aught to resist for three causes (to wit) for conscience, honor, and loue of selffis. For gif they may atteine to their purpose (as God forbid) either will they destroie or root out vs, our wifis, and childrein, & quhatsoeuer we possesse, gif we remaine constant; either else must we render Christ Iesus, and suffer our saulis which is the mast nablest part of man to be bund with the bundis of idolatrie, and our bodies to be vsed at their inordinat plesuris. But sith the loue of our selffis and our honour cannot permit the ane, and that our consciencis and the reuerence we ow to God, cannot suffer the vther: I craue my lords your best and soundist opinionis and aduisis quhat ye thinke meitest to be vsed for the remedie hereof. But gif ye desire to haue first my opinioun, it is this in few woardis; that as sondrie christian princis haue alreadie counselled me, our contraleague sal be maid, not anelie in termes, but in effect holie, for the ioining togidder all true christian princis to defend themselfis, in case of vtheris inuasioun. A thing hurtfull to none, profitable for selfis, acceptable to God, and vise in the sight of the varld. By this meanes sall our consciencis, honors, and lifis be preseruid, and God and his religioun glorified and aduancid.

"And sith the queene of England is not anlie a true christian, but also nerest ioinit to vs in nighbourhed, consanguinitie and gudwill, I thinke it meitest in mine opinioun, that it be our league first & maist abstrictlie maid with hir; for quhich cause I haue maid & set downe a forme of act to be subscribit by you all, quherein ye promes to ratifie and approue in parliament, quhatsoeuer articles I, or anie in my name sall conclude with the queene of England, or anie in hir name, for the making and the effectualing of the foresaid league. But for that the act it selfe vill mare ample informe you, it sal be presentlie read in all your audiencis."

Vpon this speech, the lords being of diuerse opinions, some willing to imbrace the league with England, and some desirous to leaue it, and to ioine in amitie with France according to the most ancientest leagues, which haue beene established betweene them and the Scots (by most of their former kings, whereof the first was Achaius, who entering league with Charles the great, had a token of confirmation thereof, which was the floure de lices added to the armes of Scotland) there was nothing doone in that conuention. After which, the banished lords of Scotland remaining in England, entered their countrie: the manner and time of the entrance of which nobilitie was in this sort.

Towards the latter end of September, the earls of Angus and Mar, with such others of their faction as were in England, did (after that they had long before this, sent thither the maister of Glames out of England to prepare their waie, which he did verie effectuallie) returne into Scotland; at whose comming into that their natiue countrie, there met with them about the borders, manie others of the nobilitie to ioine in one action, for the redresse of such gouernment as was vsed by persons about the king, suspected to nuzzell him in the Romane religion. After this their first meeting, they did by appointment disperse themselues, euerie one to the place of his most strength, and where he could make most friends and folowers, appointing a daie to meete againe at Fawkirke, a meete place fensed by nature for the assemblie of an armie. Wherevpon, some departed to Lowthian, some to Domefreis and others to other places. But in short time following they reassembled in October at Fawkirke with such power as they could make, which amounted to the number of ten or eleuen thousand persons. The report whereof was brought vnto the king, then remaining at a noble mans house (not far from Sterling, whereas a contract of mariage was solemnized. Vpon which, the king supposing it to stand most for his suretie (iudging these noblemen so assembled to be his enimies) conueied himselfe, and such nobilitie as were with him to Sterling, raising power (such as the present state of the time would permit) intending with them to haue subdued the earle of Angus and his companie: For which cause also, the earle of Arrane came from his house to Sterling, and the maister of Greie with commission rode to saint Iohns towne to assemble the kings subiects.

After that the earle of Arrane was come to Sterling to the king, the earles of Angus, Mar, Bothwell, Atholl, Marshall, the lords Hamilton, Hume, Heres, Cambuskeneth, Dribourgh, Paislaie, & Coldingham; the lairds of Sefford, Drumlarige, Codentnewes, Wedderburne, with other earles, barons, gentlemen & commons, with their friends & complices, marching all night from Fawkirke, did in the next morning come to saint Ninians chappell within a mile of Sterling, and presented themselues before the towne of Sterling, before suspicion was had of their approch so neere. At what time, being the first of Nouember, they pitched their tents, placed there as it had beene a new towne, to the great terror of their enimies within Sterling: deliuering for the cause of their comming this proclamation following.


"WHEREAS the kings maiestie our souereignes good, naturall, and vertuous education is now plainelie vnderstood to haue beene abused, and his roiall qualities giuen to him by the almightie God (which caused his fame far aboue the capacitie of his yeares to be magnified, and worthilie praised, to the great comfort of all his subiects) hath beene these yeares past obscured by the craft & subtiltie of some lewd and wicked persons of no desert or woorthinesse, and for the most part of base linage, not borne to one foot breadth of land, yet of maruelous aspiring wrongs and cruell inclination; who vnder colour of friendship and bloud creeping in about his maiestie, and seeking onelie their owne particuliar profit and promotion: shaking off (as it were) not onelie all christian and charitable nature: but euen the generall points and offices of humanitie vsed amongst most barbarous people, without feare of God or man, as subtill foxes and bloudie woolues, by wresting of lawes and other deceitfull practises hath so wasted, torne in peeces, and deuoured the whole bodie of this afflicted commonwealth, that of the whole ancient forme of iustice and policie receiued of our ancestors, remaineth nothing, neither in spirituall or temporall estate; but the naked shadow & counterfeited maske thereof to our souereignes high dishonor, our opprobrie (who are a part of his nobilitie) and heauie griefe of all good men throughout the realme. It is euidentlie knowne what iustice and quietnesse was in the realme, what heartie loue betwixt his maiestie and his subiects, what beautifull countenance the church of God had, what dailie hope of increase, what expectation was of his highnesse in forren nations, before the arriuall of Obigneie, afterwards calied the duke of Leneux; and the entring in credit of Iames Steward, and coronell Steward with their vnhappie companies. But what hath succeeded since no true Scotish heart can remember without extreame dolor: for there is no part or corner within the land at this time peaceable or quiet, but all replenished with particular enimities, and cruell reuenges without punishment.

"It is also well knowne, that whereas the wisest of his maiesties most noble progenitors labored by clemencie, not by crueltie to possesse the hearts of their subiects, & to keepe the strengths of their relms in their owne hands (thereby meaning the better to preserue themselues against such inconueniences, as manie princes of that land misgouerned, and lead by peruerse counsell haue beene subiect vnto) that the foresaid abusors had depriued his maiestie both of the one and the other so far as in them laie. For the cheefe strength of the realme are in Arrane his hands, who bragging of his pedegree by descent from duke Mordacke (one that was beheaded for his treason against his souereigne) was not ashamed to saie (meaning of himselfe) Here stands the person of king Iames the seuenth. And to the end that the hearts of the people might be alienated from his highnesse, and so (as appeareth) his maiestie made vnable to punish them, if at anie time hereafter he should perceiue their false and treasonable dooings, what can be added more than these said seditious hath alreadie doone in that behalfe, seeing vnder his maiesties name and authoritie, such parcialitie is vsed in all matters, such extortion with crueltie, and incredible dissimulation throughout the whole land, that were it not of his good subiects (vpon the experience of his mild & calme gouernement before these lewd men about him) cleerelie vnderstood that the causes of all these misorders ought to be imputed vnto them, & not to himselfe, they had long agone by vniuersall male-contentment of the people (proceeding from the causes aforesaid) procured a great distraction of the kings leeges hearts, and had cast his maiesties honor, crowne, and estate in maruellous danger, whereas now (blessed be God) all his true subiects are certeinelie persuaded, that if the said lewd persons could be separated from his maiestie, he would returne againe to exercise his former clemencie and towardnesse in euerie respect, which hath beene these yeares past maruellouslie eclipsed by the craft of those treasonable persons aforesaid, who not onelie haue sought & seeke for their particular commoditie, the destruction of certeine seuerall persons, but euen (as it appeareth) haue conspired against the whole bodie of the realme, in so much as there is no estate of the land free from their persecutions.

"The worthiest and most ancient of the barons and nobilitie (namelie such as haue giuen best proofe of their forwardnesse in true religion, and fidelitie to their souereigne) are by parcialitie, and wresting of lawes, without mercie either executed, coosoned, imprisoned, banished, or at the least debarred his maiesties presence, against the ministerie, schooles, and clergie, acts and proclamations published, inhibiting their presbyteries, assemblies, and other exercises, priuileges, and immunities ratified by parlements, proceedings, or at the least by laudable custome permitted euer since the first reformation of religion within this land; and without the which the puritie of doctrine, and right forme of the ecclesiasticall discipline cannot long continue: as being the onelie meanes to trie and examine the liues, maners, and knowledge of euerie person, and to reforme the same if need require. With this the most learned, and of most vnspotted liues of that number, are either compelled for safetie of their liues and consciences to abandon their countrie, or else inhibited to preach, or depriued of their stipends. Iesuits, seminarie priests, and such as be knowne practisers in diuers nations for the execution of the bloudie councell of Trent are interteined, and in great estimation; yea some indurated papists in session, to occupie the places from the which the most godlie and faithfull senators haue beene by them deiected. An euident presage of the ouerthrow of true religion. And concerning the estate of burowes, by intrusion of such magistrates to rule aboue them, as neither are comburgesses, nor apt to discharge themselues of such offices, but men elected to applause and to consent to the appetire of the reditious aforesaid, their priuileges and ancient liberties are so preiudiced, that without timelie remedie that estate (sometime a great ornament of the land) must needs suddenlie decaie. So as these three pillers (whereby the king and common wealth should be preserued, and vpholden) being wasted and vndermined in maner aboue written, what can be expected but vniuersall ruine and ouerthrow of the whole bodie of the estate; except God of his mercie preuent the same. Besides all these, the foresaid abusors not resting content with the enormities aboue expressed, haue practised, and dailie doo practise to turne the happie amitie and loue, which now a good space hath stood betweene the inhabitants of the whole Ile in open hostilitie and hatred, without respect of neighborhood or kindred, standing betweene the two princes, or regard had to the benefits that hir maiestie of England hath bestowed vpon the king our souereigne, and his whole countrie, first by planting of true religion within this realme, and next by preseruing his maiestie, when as in his minoritie he could not take in hand or enterprise for himselfe.

"To this effect they openlie delt with such persons, as by all meanes sought hir maiesties destruction, as by the confession of sundrie hir maiesties rebels latelie executed in England is made manifest. But how soone they perceiued open danger to arise, by open dealing with hir enimies, then fraudfullie to illude hir maiestie, they haue pretended these months past, in great freendship and kindnesse, promising largelie in that behalfe, and offering to capitulate a band offensiue and defensiue to stand perpetuallie. But in the end, notwithstanding all these liberall promises, the effects by experience declare nothing to haue beene in their minds but falshood & crueltie, as by the late murder of the lord Russell is manifest to the whole world, who being a yoong nobleman, for his birth and qualities verie honorable and vertuous, and of great expectation, & for his earnest zeale to religion, and good affection to the king and souereigne, and to all Scotishmen in generall, one that merited great praise, loue and commendation: yet he was murdered in most odious and treasonable maner, euen when as greatest kindnesse and freendship was pretended; which cannot but produce maruellous suspicion and slander, aswell against the king our souereigne, as against the whole countrie, to his maiesties great dishonor, and discredit of his innocent subiects, if condigne iustice be not ministred vpon the authors and the executors of the horrible crime aforesaid.

"Last, which is most of all, and necessarilie craueth present reformation, the foresaid abusors couer all these enormities with his maiesties name and authoritie, thereby thinking to excuse themselues, and to laie the burden on him. And therefore, as it cannot be but verie slanderous and dangerous to his maiestie, if such licentious persons (who hath alreadie made shipwracke of all honestie) be suffered to remaine in his companie, so is it shamefull to be reported in other nations, that such a few number of beggerlie fellowes replenished with all vice, should extinguish the beautie of the nobilitie, haue empire ouer the whole countrie, & keepe his maiestie thrall to authorise by his roiall power their abhominable and execrable facts. For the causes aforesaid and manie others that might be iustlie alleged, we of his maiesties nobilitie here present, in the feare of God and our souereignes obedience, being through Gods free mercie called to be professors of the blessed euangell, and borne councellors to his highnesse our souereigne, bound in duetie not onelie to hazzard, render and renounce our liues, lands, and goods (if need be) for the same euangell and true religion, but also in conscience charged to be carefull of his maiesties welfare, honor, and reputation, and to procure to our abilitie, peace and quietnesse to him and his realme, hauing our lands and heritages for that effect, holden of his maiesties most noble progenitors of woorthie memorie.

"In consideration of which great enormities and tyrannies, hauing connected our selues togither for redresse and reformation of the same, seeing the suffering thereof hath alreadie wounded the estate of true religion, dishonored his maiestie, disturbed the whole realme, and had almost disioined aswell the hearts of the princes as of the subiects of the two nations, we thinke it therefore high time, and we are in dutie and conscience (all doubt and perill set apart) to procure the separation and thrusting awaie of the said desperate and enorme persons from about his maiestie, that his highnesse being restored to his former libertie, maie freelie, peaceablie, and wiselie gouerne his subiects and realme, by aduise of graue, modest, and indifferent councellors; onelie respecting his maiesties suretie and preseruation, to the end that the afflicted church within this land maie be comforted, and all acts latelie made in preiudice of the same, maie be solemnelie cancelled, and for euer adnulled, his maiestie restored to his former libertie, the bodie of his commonwealth (by punishing of vice cheeflie vpon the authors of these late misorders, and mainteinance of vertue) maie be once disburdened of the heauie oppressions and iniuries that they haue with no small greefe so long susteined, and the happie amitie with England reestablished and conserued, to the high glorie of God, honor of the king our souereigne, and vniuersall contentment of all good men euerie where. In prosecution whereof, we protest before God and his holie angels, we shall neither spare our liues, lands, nor goods, but frankelie hazzard and expend the same as need craueth, vntill the said abusors be either apprehended or presented to iustice, to suffer for their demerits, or else (if they cannot be found out) till they be debarred from his maiesties companie and expelled the realme.

"Wherefore we command and charge (in our souereigne lords name) all and sundrie his subiects, as well to burrow as to land, to fortifie and assist this godlie enterprise, and to concurre with vs to that effect, as they will giue testimonie of their affection to the aduancement of true religion, his maiesties suertie and welfare, and the publike quietnesse of the whole realme, certifieng all and sundrie that dooth attempt anie thing to the contrarie, or will not take one fold and plaine part with vs, we will repute them as partakers of all vice and iniquitie, assisters of the treasonable conspirators aforesaid, and enimies of true religion, to his maiestie and his authoritie, and to the publike quietnesse betwixt the two realmes, and will vse them as bodies and goods accordinglie. And that all iustices as well lords of sessions as shiriffes, commissioners, and other inferiour iudges sit and administer iustice to the furtherance thereof, according to the lawes of the realme, as they will answer vpon their allegiance and vttermost perill, with certification of the disobeior as is aforesaid."

This assemblie of the nobilitie, and the proclamation thus knowne; the earle of Arrane and others which were in Sterling with the king, placed foure hundred men vpon the wals of the The earle of Arrane flieth. towne to defend the assault. But the earle of Arrane chancellor, knowing that he was the principall person, against whome they directed their force, did secretlie without anie other companie flie from thense to Dunbritaine, escaping the hands of the lords of the religion, The earle of Angus entreth Sterling. wherevpon small resistance being made by such as were within Sterling against the assailants, vsing their force by the space of two houres, the earle of Angus and the rest did quietlie enter Sterling and all parts; which being perceiued by such of the nobilitie as were within the towne, they (as the earle of Montrosse, Crawford, Rothosse, Glencarne, Arroll and the Colonell) fled to the castell whither the other faction did chase them. Now when the lords of the religion (for so they of the presbyterie terme them) had fullie gotten possession of the towne of Sterling, they placed their ensignes before the foreblockhouse of the castell, and The castell of Sterling besieged. so ordered the matter, that there was no waie for anie in the castell to escape their hands, for they had by strength inuironed the same, and by siege brought it as some said to that extremitie, that they within were in great default of vittels. Wherevpon the king (after agreement made, that persons on each part might passe betweene to compound the matter) sent The king sendeth to the lords of the religion. foorth of the castell vnto the lords of the religion, the maister of Greie his secretarie and sir Lewes Ballentine, iustice Clarke (deputie to the earle of Argile cheefe iustice of Scotland by inheritance) and colonell Steward, desiring three petitions of his nobilitie; the first whereof was, that his life honor and estate might be preserued; that the liues of Crawford, Montrosse and the Colonell, might be preserued; thirdlie, that all things might be transacted peaceablie: on which conditions he would hereafter be ruled by their aduise and counsell. Wherevnto the noblemen answered, first that the lord knew that they neuer had anie other intention The answer of the lords of the religion to the kings demands. but to preserue his noble person, his honor and estate, and to deliuer his maiestie out of their hands, who vnder his name had so greeuouslie oppressed the church and commonwealth, and therein hazarded as well his life and crowne, as the danger of other of the nobilitie. Wherefore they were onelie there assembled in the feare of God, and loue to his person and their countrie, wholie to endeuour themselues to shew the performance of their obedience and dutie vnto him, and so to shew themselues faithfull and good subiects.

To the second point they answered, that where the liues of such were desired to be preserued, which had disturbed the whole kingdome, and beene instruments of the great confusion in the church & commonwealth, they could doo no lesse in respect of the loue and dutie which they bare to the king and their countrie, but vse all meanes possible to bring them to the triall of iustice, thereby to receiue the reward of their demerits. And for the third they would most humblie craue of his maiestie, that these things might be doone in most peacefull maner in due time required therefore, wherby all his good subiects might be satisfied, towards the execution whereof they offered their assistance, with the vttermost of their endeuour, because they were assembled and come thither for the dooing thereof.

Besides which at the returne of these commissioners, the nobilitie exhibited other three The lords of the religion exhibit three petitions to the king. petitions vnto the king, whereof the first was, that the kings maiestie would allow of their intention, subscribe their proclamation (conteining the declaration of their cause) vntill further order were established by the estates, and so agree vnto the reformation of the premisses, & that all the common holds & strengths might be rendred into their hands to be kept as the councell of the ancient nobilitie should appoint, who were there in good number assembled. Secondlie, that the said disquieters of the common-wealth might be deliuered into their custodie, vntill they had receiued their due triall by the law. Thirdlie, that the old gard might be remooued and an other placed of modest, wise, and godlie men. Which petitions being so to the king The king granteth the requests of the lords. exhibited, the first was vpon diuers considerations granted, and the castels Dunbarton & Kineile were assigned to the custodie of Iohn lord Hamilton; the castell of Edenburgh was committed to sir Iames Hume of Codenknolles; the castell of Sterling was restored to the earle of Marre, to whome the custodie thereof did belong by descent of inheritance; the castell of Blacknesse to the lard of Dalketh; Tantallan and Dowglasse were deliuered to the earle of Angus. Touching the satisfaction of the second request of the lords, the said Noble men committed to custodie. earles of Crawford, Montrosse, Glenkarne, Rothosse, Arroll, and colonell Steward, the lords Seton, Leuingstone, Greie, Summerwell, sir William Steward brother to the earle of Arrane, and William Steward capteine of Dunbarton (who had beene taken in the towne of Sterling, when the lords of the religion entered thereinto) were committed to the safe custodie of manie noble men. For the performance of the lords third petition, the old gard The kings gard remooued and a new placed. was immediatlie remooued, & the maister of Glames was appointed by the consent of the whole nobilitie capteine of the gard, with such gentlemen as the nobilitie and he should choose of those which are alreadie entred into their places and offices.

In the meane time, as is before touched, lames Steward earle of Arrane did at the entring of the lords of the religion into the towne of Sterling, flie to the castell of Dunbarton, where he was inclosed, as well by sea as by land, without anie great store of vittels. The bishop The bishop of S. Andrews taken. of saint Andrews was taken by the scholers of the vniuersitie, and yoong men of the towne aforesaid (as was said) to be presented to iustice into the hands of the lords of the religion; and so all capteins were set at libertie, the banished ministers called home (though manie of The ministers call a home. them still remained in England) and restored to their former offices, dignities, and liuings, and the lesuits and seminarie priests woonderfullie amazed, who were willinglie minded to The Iesuits readie to flie Scotland. The king in the custodie of the lords of the religion. flie disguised in mariners attire into the parts beyond the seas. Thus the king granting the requests of the nobilitie, and yeelding to the state of the present time, committed himselfe to the protection of these lords of the religion remaining in their custodie, after that they had once entred the castell of Sterling.

Wherevpon much congratulation being made for this returne of those banished lords into Scotland, the queene of England hauing intelligence thereof, did send hir ambassador William William Knolles sent ambassador into Scotland. Knolles esquire marshall of hir bench into the parts of Scotland, to vnderstand the parts thereof, and of the maner of the proceeding of these noble men with the king: which ambassador after his abode and honorable interteinment in that countrie, returned home in December following. In which moneth there was a parlement called at Lithgo, for the full ratifieng and confirming of the restitution of these lords of the religion: at what time the earle of Arrane was displaced both from his earldome of Arrane, and office of chancellorship: and the earle of Bothwell was admitted to that office of lord chancellor. Besides The earle Bothwell made chancellor. which also the custodie of the lunatike earle of Arrane, sonne of the duke of Chatelerault was taken from the same lames Steward earle of Arrane, and committed to lohn lord Hamilton lord of Arbroth, and brother to the lunatike earle, sometime remaining in the wardship of the said Iohn Hamilton, before that the said lames Steward had gotten the possession of that lunatike earle into his owne hands, out of the custodie of the same Iohn Hamilton.

But somewhat to leaue the lunatike earle in safe keeping, we will speake a little of this Iames Steward earle of Arrane married to the widow of the erle of March. lames Steward earle of Arrane, and of his wife; who being a woman of delight of change in marriage, was (after the second shipwracke) married to this earle of Arrane; for she being one of the daughters of the earle of Atholl, was first married to the lord Louet. After which, iudging it better to marrie than to burne (although by the sequele of the same she felt small contentment therein) she bound hir selfe with the knot of matrimonie vnto Robert Steward earle of March and bishop of Cathnesse; but after finding occasion of diuorce, the contention and sute whereof continued verie long, from the said earle she was in the end separated; and then the third time bestowed hir selfe in marriage vpon this lames Steward earle of Arrane, by whome she had issue diuerse sonnes and daughters, the eldest whereof the king tooke from the font and christened.

Thus leauing this erle of Arrane for this time, I thinke it not amisse in this place to step aside from the matters of these present times; and herein at the aduancement of this earle Bothwell to be lord chancellor of Scotland, to record some things touching some such persons as haue (to my knowledge by reading of Scotish histories) possessed that office of chancellorship before time, as in an other place before at the mention of an other chancellor I haue discoursed of the originall and deriuation of the name of that office. In which this my discourse of the succession of chancellors, although I shall set downe but few persons in number, & can not make a full continuance of their orderlie succession, from their first institution vnto this daie: yet I suppose it better to mention those which haue come vnto my hands, thereby to occasion others hereafter to treat more liberallie of such honorable officers, than vtterlie to drowne them in the pit of forgetfulnesse. Which treatise of the chancellors I am the willinger to deliuer, because I haue doone the like (but more amplie) for England, as being better acquainted with our owne than their histories.

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