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THE PROTECTORS, GOUERNOURS, OR REGENTS OF SCOTLAND, DURING THE KINGS MINORITIE OR HIS INSUFFICIENCIE OF GOUERNEMENT, OR DURING HIS ABSENCE OUT OF THE REALME.

CONANUS was gouernor vnder Thereus about the yeare before the birth of Christ, one
Conanus. hundred thirtie and seuen: for Thereus renouncing the kingdome and flieng to Yorke, where in the end he died, this Conanus during the exile of this Thereus, was regent or gouernour, of whom writeth Lesleus lib. 2. pag. 89. "Conanus qui rempublicam Therei iam exulantis loco optimè administraret, interrex à nobilibus declaratur. Nam Thereo viuo nullum alium regem substituere voluerunt, quo mortuo, Iosina eius frater suffectus est."

Cadallus liuing about the yeare before the birth of Christ, seuentie and nine, did pursue Cadallus. Gillus (the bastard of Euenus) hauing slaine the sonne of Euenus, and vsurping the crowne, of whom thus writeth Lesleus lib. 6, pag. 92. "Tandem auctore Cadallo viro fortissimo, qui interrex à regni nobilibus interea constitutus est, quidam in illum (which was Gillus) conspirant, quem in Hiberniam profugam assecuti, inita prius pugna capiunt, & statim capite plectuntur."

Argadus earle of Argile, when Conar who began his reigne in the yeare of Christ one Argadus erle of Argile. hundred fortie and eight, was cast in prison for his euill life, was by the nobilitie chosen gouernour of Scotland, after which Ethodius the next king, whome this Argadus holpe vnto the crowne made him chiefe iustice of Scotland to him and his heires, which function at this daie the earles of Argile doo inioie by inheritance.

Donald, Colollan, Mordacke and Conrade were made gouernors of the kingdome, for Donald, Colollan, Mordacke, & Konrade. thus writeth Lesleus lib. 4. pag. 198. "Senectutis tandem tædio illius (which was Elphine who began his reigne about the yeare of Christ, seuen hundred thirtie and thrée) vires ita debilitatæ sunt, & cum regni oneri ferendo impar fuerit, quatuor sui regni regulos (in quibus præstans quædam sed fucata virtutis species eluxit) delegit, quibus singulas prouincias decreuit; Donaldo Argadiam; Colano Atholiam; Mordaco Gallouidiam; & Conano Morauiam."

William Fraiser bishop of S. Andrews, &c: after the death of Alexander the third king William Fraiser. of Scotland, which fell in the yeare of our Lord, one thousand two hundred foure score and thrée, who died without issue, the nobilitie (because it was not knowen to whome the kingdome did apperteine, sith there were manie which claimed the same, as Balioll, Bruse, Hastings, and others) agréed amongst themselues, and chose six regents or gouernors of the same, vntill a king were fullie known and established: the names of which six were these, William Fraiser bishop of saint Andrewes, Duncane earle of Fiffe, Iohn Cumine earle of Buchquane, to whome the rule of the north parts were committed. The other thrée were Robert bishop of Glascow, sir Iohn Cumine, and Iames high steward of Scotland, who had the disposition of the south parts.

Hugh Cressingham an Englishman was made gouernor of Scotland by Edward the first, Hugh Cressing ham who going into France about the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred ninetie and six, after that he had brought Scotland vnder his subiection, appointed the said Hugh (whom he had before made treasuror of Scotland) to haue the gouernment of that realme in his absence, whilest he was busied in the wars of France. But not long after, this Cressingham was slaine at Sterling by William Wallace (and such Scots as attempted by all the force they could to set themselues at libertie from the subiection of the English) in the ides of September, in the yeare of Christ, one thousand two hundred ninetie and seuen, at what time also Andrew Murreie was slaine, whose sonne did certeine yeares after (as hath Buchan. lib. 8. Buchanan) administer and gouerne Scotland for the king.

William Wallace after manie worthie exploits doone in the behalfe of his countrie against William Wallace. the English, was for the Scots chosen gouernor of the realme vnder Iohn Balioll, when the king had forsaken the realme and was come into England, about the yeare of Christ, one thousand two hundred ninetie and six, who after that (as is before touched) did slea Cressingham the gouernor of Scotland vnder the king of England, which Wallace did after in the yeare of Christ one thousand two hundred nintie and eight renounce his office of gouernor, and was in the end for his rebellion against king Edward the first king of England, and absolute lord of Scotland, taken, brought to London, drawen, hanged and quartered, in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred and fiue.

Iohn Cumine, after that William Wallace had giuen ouer his office of gouernor, was Iohn Cumine. chosen to be gouernor for the Scots, in purpose to trie with the Englishmen for their liberties, which being knowen to Edward the first king of England, he sent an armie into the countrie, and destroied it. Whervpon Iohn Cumine admitted Simon Fraiser fellow with him in the administration of the wars against the English, and discomfited the English in the yere of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred and two. After which, king Edward being againe a conqueror of the Scots, returned homewards, and left Odomare de Valence his deputie in Scotland.

Odomare de Valence or Aimer de Valence, vncle to king Edward the first king of Eng. Odomare de Valence or Aimer de Valence. land by the halfe bloud, was about the yeare of our Lord one thousand thrée hundred and foure, made gouernor of Scotland vnder Edward the first king of England, who before in the yeare one thousand thrée hundred & two, tooke William Wallace and sent him to London to king Edward, to be dealt withall as you haue heard before. After which Robert Bruse being crowned king of Scotland, was on the nineteenth of Iune in the yéere of Christ one thousand thrée hundred and six, at Mefen discomfited by the English armie, and put to flight by the said Odomare de Valence, who after banished all those which anie waie tooke part with king Robert Bruse. But in the end Robert Bruse recouering himselfe & more aid, draue all the Englishmen out of Scotland, gouerning the kingdome all his life, by himselfe & his substitutes, as by that which followeth maie well appeare.

Thomas Randolph earle of Murreie, much about the yeare of Christ one thousand three Thomas Randolph. hundred and six and twentie, being about the 21 yeere of Robert Bruse, was made protector of the realme. For Robert Bruse being fallen into extreme sickenesse, whereby he could not wéeld the scepter to gouerne as the state of that countrie required, cōmitted the administration of the relme to erle Thomas Randolph, and to Iames Dowglasse knight, who ruled the same to their singular commendation, and the countries good about foure yeares, during the life of the said Robert Bruse, whose death happened in the yéere of Christ one thousand thrée hundred twentie and nine. After the death of king Robert, when Dauid his sonne came to the crowne, being but seuen yeares old, this Randolph was againe appointed to haue the administration of the kingdome as regent of the same, during the kings minoritie and insufficiencie of gouernement, who confirmed a new peace betweene England and Scotland. Shortlie after which the gouernor died of poison at Muscleborough, in the yere of our redemption one thousand three hundred thirtie and one, being about the second yeare of king Dauid, & was buried at Dunfermling, hauing had two sons, Iohn erle of Murreie, and Thomas, both being persons woorthie of such a father.

Patrike Dunbar earle of March was made regent after this sort. After the death of earle Patrike Dunbar. Thomas Randolph, there was an assemblie of parlement of the three estates of the realme, in which in the said yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and one, and the second yere of the reigne of king Dauid, these two, Patrike earle of March and Dauid (whom Lesle calleth Donald) earle of Marre were chosen gouernors of the relme by common consent. Whereof the first had the charge of that part of the relme which lieth on the south side of the Frith, & the other was appointed to gouerne all that on the north: which Donald in the yere of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and two was slaine sléeping in his bed at Duplin neere to the water of Erne, by such as followed and tooke part with Edward Balioll atteining the crowne, and expelling Dauid from the kingdome.

Andrew Murreie, a man of great power, and of no lesse possession, hauing performed Andrew Murreie. manie exploits of warre for his countrie, was made gouernor after the death of the earle of Marre, and ioined in that office with Patrike of Dunbar earle of March. Shortlie after which this Andrew was taken prisoner at Rocksborough, being yet in the end ransomed for a great summe of gold. After which he died of a vehement sicknesse, and was buried in Rose Markie, in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and eight.

Archibald Dowglasse, after the decease of Andrew Murreie, was by one consent of the Archibald Dowglas. nobilitie chosen gouernor in the place of Andrew Murreie, whilest king Edward did besiege Berwike, who raising a power of men entred England, and caused the king to remooue his siege of Berwike. Afterward this Dowglasse was slaine at the battell of Halidon hill, in the yeare of Christ one thousand three hundred thirtie and two (as some haue) but Hector Boetius and Buchanan refer it to the yeare of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and thrée, the ninetéenth of Iulie.

Dauid Cumine was made protector in this sort. When that Edward the third king of Dauid Cumine. England, in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and six had entred Scotland with maine force by land and by sea; he afterwards hauing Edward Balioll the king of Scotland in his companie with 50000 men came by land to Glascow: but perceiuing no resistance against him, retired with Balioll into England, and left Dauid Cumine earle of Atholl gouernor in his roome, to win such holds and strengths as were yet defended against him. Which Dauid tooke on him to be gouernor in the name of Edward Plantagenet king of England, and of Edward Balioll king of Scots, seizing into his hands all the lands which perteined to Robert Steward, so that at one time there was chopping and changing of gouernors by each part which became stronger.

Robert Steward regent of Scotland possessed that place, at this time also when Dauid Robert Steward. Cumine was gouernor for Edward Balioll; for this writeth Lesleus li. 7. pa. 234. "Verùm ne patria gubernatoris imperio destituta, aduersariorum insidijs pateret magis, Robertus Stuartus omnem regni curam in se transtulit, quoad Dauid ex Gallia rediret, ipse tūc regni gubernacula suscepturus." By which words appeareth, that as Dauid Cumine was gouernor for Edward Balioll gone into England, so this Robert Steward tooke vpon him the regentship for king Dauid Bruse fled into France: the which he the rather did, because he would incounter Dauid Cumine which had spoiled him of all his liuings and patrimonie. Which Robert being thus procurator of the kingdome, granted sundrie priuileges to the inhabitants of Bute & Arrane, as amongst other things, to be frée from paieng of tribute of corne and graine. For this Steward togither with Iohn Randolph earle of Murreie, were by a councell Iohn Randolph earle of Murreie protector. assembled at Edenborough by generall voices elected and confirmed to be gouernors of the realme, about the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and foure, or one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and fiue.

Robert Steward earle of Fife, second sonne to Robert Steward the first king of Scotland Robert Steward. (by the name of Steward) and the second by the name of Robert, was (because his father became extreme old, and could not follow the affaires of the kingdome) made gouernor by the consent of the realme during the life of his father, about the yeare of our Lord God one thousand thrée hundred foure score and nine, being about the nineteenth yeare of the reigne of the said Robert the second: which office this Robert continued during the life of his father, dieng in the yeare of Christ one thousand thrée hundred & ninetie. After whose death, when Robert the third, being before called Iohn, came to the kingdome, and had by a fall from his horsse so brused himselfe, that he was not able to follow the gouernement of the kingdome, this Robert earle of Fife his brother was made gouernor of the kingdome. After which about the yeare of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred ninetie and eight, being about the ninth yeare of Robert the third king of Scotland, the king created this Robert Steward duke of Albanie, being one of the first dukes which were made in Scotland. Besides which also, after the death of the same Robert the third, which fell in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred and six, this Robert duke of Albanie was by new election, or rather confirmation established in the office of gouernor (as haue some Scotish chronicles) which duke of Albanie died in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred and ninetéene, the third of September, when he had béene gouernor fiftéene yeares after the death of Robert the third. Wherein it seemeth to me for this time that there is much difference of yeares, if the Scots haue truelie set the same downe: for those accounts can not stand togither, with the death of king Robert the third, and the yeares gouernement of the duke of Albanie, after the death of the king. But I passe it ouer, and rather impute the fault to the offendor, in mistaking the figure of the number of yeares, than anie want of consideration in the writer of the historie.

Mordacke Steward erle of Fife & Mentith, the eldest sonne of Robert duke of Albanie, Mordacke Steward. was after his fathers death made gouernor of Scotland, continuing in that office by the space of foure yeares, vntill about the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and foure, in which yeare he found meanes to bring home Iames the right king of Scots, who had béene eightéene yeares deteined in England, and placed him in the kingdome of Scotland, by the name of Iames the first: at what time the crowne was set vpon the kings head with the hands of the said Mordacke the gouernor, & Henrie bishop of saint Andrews. This duke was in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and six, and in the second yeare of the reigne of Iames the first conuicted of high treason, and beheaded before the castell of Sterling. He had issue two sons, Walter Steward, and Alexander, which were also beheaded at the same place the daie before the death of their father.

Alexander Leuingstone knight was made gouernor the daie after that Iames the second Alexander Leuingstone. was crowned, in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand foure hundred thirtie & six: for the king being but six yeares old, the nobilitie did appoint the said Alexander Leuingstone of Calender knight to be gouernor of the realme: at what time the kings person was committed to the education and rule of William Creicton knight lord chancellor, who was then William Creicton. confirmed in his office. After this in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred fortie and foure, about the eight yere of Iames the second, they both (through dissention which had long continued betwéene them about their authorities) were put from their offices, remooued from the king, all their friends banished the court, and they themselues commanded to appéere before the king: which bicause they refused so to doo, they were both proclamed rebels and put to the horne.

Marie the daughter of the duke of Guelderland & widow to Iames the second, was Marie. appointed with others to be gouernors: for after the death of Iames the second, which fell in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and thrée score (when Iames the third hir sonne was but seauen yeares old) the nobilitie assembled at Edenborough to prouide for the administration of the realme, because the king was so yoong. Wherevpon there were seuen regents appointed for the gouernement both of the kings person, and also of the kingdome, which were Marie the quéene his mother; Iames Kennedie bishop of S. Andrews, being sisters sonne to Iames the first, the bishop of Glascow, the earles of Angus, Huntleie, Argile, and Orkenie. These so long as Kennedie liued, agréed well togither about the gouernment of the realme; but shortlie after his decease, or rather before, they fell at square, which we will more largelie touch hereafter when we haue a little spoken of the death of this bishop, falling in the yeare of our redemption one thousand foure hundred thrée score and six, and in the sixt yeare of the reigne of king Iames the third, who being buried in the college of saint Sauior which he founded most sumptuouslie in the towne of saint Andrews, did in his life time besides his bishoprike hold in his possession the commandrie of the abbeie of Pettinwen, which was worth vnto him 800 crownes by yeare: the grauitie and wisdome of which bishop occasioned Lesleus in his commendation to set downe these few words.

"Hic (which was this bishop of saint Andrews) prudentia consilióque ita valuit, vt quicquid latebat in republica insidiarum, apperiret, vnde meritò potest dici, non armis regem, sed ingenio episcopum Douglassij superbiam fregisse, ac furorem retudisse. Tria confecit (quorum fabrica artificio insigniter polita, & sumptu magnificè instructa, omnibus admirationem sui faciebant) collegium sancti Saluatoris, in quo iuuentus ad eruditionem ac religionem informari possit; sepulchrum quo mortuus tegebatur, ac nauim onerariam ingentis magnitudinis. Horum vnumquódque eiusdem fuisse pretij vulgi sermone celebratum est." After his death, or rather (as hath Hector Boetius) in his life, in the second yeare of the reigne of king Iames the third, being in the yeare that the word became flesh one thousand foure hundred thrée score and two, there was discord kindled betweene quéene Marie the Dowager, and the archbishop Kennedie, who perceiuing that the woman did wholie séeke to vsurpe the gouernement vnto hir selfe, withstood it in that behalfe, insomuch that it was doubted that the matter would haue broken foorth into some ciuill warre, if that the bishops of Glascow, Dankeld, and Aberden, with certeine abbats had not taken in hand to trauell betwixt both the parties for attonement, who wrought so effectuouslie therein, that the matter was quieted in this maner. The queene mother was appointed to haue the charge and custodie of the kings person, and of his brethren Alexander duke of Albanie, and Iohn earle of Marre, and also of their two sisters. But as for the administration and gouernement of the realme of Scotland, she should leaue it to the péeres, wherefore by common consent there were elected as gouernors the bishops of Glascow, and Dunkeld, the earle of Orkenie, the lord Graham, Thomas Boid, and the chancellor.

Margaret the daughter to Henrie the seuenth king of England was (after the death of hir Margaret. husband Iames the fourth, and in the minoritie of hir sonne Iames the fift, being but a yeare and six moneths old when he was inuested with the kingdome) made regent of the realme, which she should gouerne by the counsell of Iames Betune archbishop of Glascow, the earles of Huntleie, Angus, and Arrane, but shortlie after they falling out amongst themselues for the bestowing of benefices, the duke of Albanie was called out of France to performe that office.

Iohn duke of Albanie being sent for out of France (where he accustomed to abide) to Iohn duke of Albanie. come into Scotland (to be tutor to the king and gouernor of the realme, as he which next of bloud to the king, and néerest to the crowne) was by vniuersall consent at saint Iohns towne admitted to those offices accordinglie, hauing the same confirmed vnto him by a parlement holden at Edenburgh in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and thirtéene, and the first yeare of the yoong king Iames the fift. Whereof intelligence being brought vnto the duke, yet in France, he in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and fouretéene, directeth dilatorie and excusing letters of his acceptance of that charge. At that time, but in the yere following, being the yeare of Christ, one thousand fiue hundred and fifteene, and in the third of Iames the fift, on the seuentéenth of Maie, he arriued at the towne of Aire in Scotland to execute his office of gouernor, who was honorablie interteined at sundrie places as he passed along by the sea coasts, before he came to Edenburgh. After which a parlement was made to be called at Edenburgh (being but the continuance of the former parlement, as my memorie serueth) in which this duke of Albanie was againe confirmed gouernor, the scepter and sword being deliuered vnto him, and an oth by him to the lords, and by the lords to him giuen, that ech of them should be faithfull to ech other, and euerie of them to their lord and king, &c. After this the duke of Albanie going into France in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and seuentéene, as saieth Lesleus, committeth the gouernement of the kingdome in his absence to the archbishops of S. Andrews and Glascow, and to the earies of Huntleie, Argile, Angus, and Arrane. And least anie euill might happen to the kings person in his absence, he appointed the king to be brought into the castle of Edenburgh, there to be committed to the earle marshall, and to the lords Eschwine, Bothwike, and Ruthwéene, whereof two at the least should alwaies be present with him. The duke hauing thus beene about some three yeares in France, returned into Scotland about the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and twentie, remaining still gouernor: but in following time, which was the yere of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and foure, and about the twelfe yeare of the reigne of king Iames the fift, the duke of Albanie left that office, and went againe into France.

Margaret the quéene, the mother of Iames the fift, did (after the departure of the duke Margaret the quéene. of Albanie into France, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and foure, the six and twentith of Iulie) find meanes that the yoong king came from Sterling vnto Edenburgh: thrée daies after which the quéene tooke the whole gouernment vpon hir, and entred into the castle of Edenburgh with the king, making the lord Maxwell prouost of Edenburgh. Then the quéene appointing a parlement to be held the Februarie following, there were in the same parlement eight lords chosen to be of the kings priuie councell, to take on thein the gouernment of the king and the realme, which were the archbishop of S. Andrewes and Glascow, the bishops of Aberden & Dunblane: the earles of Angus, Arrane and Leneux, to whom the quéene was adioined as principall, without whose aduise nothing should be doone. Which ordinance did not long hold, Archibald Dowglasse earle of Angus in the end fullie getting the whole gouernement into his hands.

Archibald Dowglas (after that the bishop of Dunbane was dead, and the quéene gone Archibald Dowglas. vnto Sterling, leauing the king with the earle of Angus, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and fiue, being about the thirteenth of Iames the fifth) tooke the whole gouernement vpon him both of the king and kingdome, setting vp, remoouing, and pulling downe what officer it best pleased him: who for the more declaration of his authoritie and gouernment, made his vncle Archibald Dowglas treasuror of the realme, and bestowed all benefices and offices by the aduise of his brother George Dowglas and the earle of Leneux who assisted him. After which there was a diuorce had betwéene the queene and the earle, who falling in the kings disgrace in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred twentie and eight, and the sixtéenth yeare of the same Iames the fift, was atteinted by parlement holden at Edenburgh in September, when the king had taken the absolute gouernment into his hands in the seuentéenth yeare of his age, and the said sixteenth yeare of his said gouernement. Wherevpon the yeare following, this Archibald came vnto the king for to submit himselfe, but the king would not receiue him, by reason wherof he fled into England.

Iames earle of Arrane in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fourtie and two, Iames earle of Arrane. when Marie (the daughter of Iames the fift) being but seuen daies old obteined the kingdome, was by authoritie of the nobilitie proclamed regent and protector of Scotland, notwithstanding all that Dauid Beton, fauoror of the French causes had without all reason vsurped the gouernment, vnder the pretense of a deuised will and testament of Iames the fift, in which testament he was appointed gouernor. This earle thus made protector, appointed by the old quéenes consent a gouernor to the person of the yoong quéen, which was the lord Leuingstone capteine of Lithquo. This protector in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fortie and foure, being the second yere of quéene Marie, was by the French king made knight of the order of saint Michaell. About eight yeares after which, that is in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and thrée, being about the twelfe yeare of quéene Marie, this earle was inforced to leaue his office of gouernor, and the quéene tooke the same into hir hands, appointing procurators to rule the same vnder hir: wherevpon the gouernor in the yeare following, being one thousand fiue hundred fiftie & foure, was by the French king made duke of Chatelerault. The procurators which were appointed for and by quéene Marie, were (as hath Lesleus) Henrie king of France, Charles cardinall of Loreine and the duke of Guise his brother, touching whom thus writeth the same Lesleus in these words: "Hos (which was hir curators) sibi in Gallia delegerat Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 517. regina nostra (being Marie the queene of Scots) matris suasu, Henricum regem Franciæ, Carolum cardinalem Lotharingum, ac ducem Guisium eius fratrem, qui totam regni nostri molem regina matri procurandam transtulerunt: &c." This duke had issue Iames Hamilton earle of Arrane after lunatike, and one Dauid Hamilton.

Marie descended of the house of Guise, the dowager of Scotland, as widow to Iames the Marie dowager of Scotland. fift, and mother to the yoong quéene Marie, was in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and foure, being the twelfe yeare both of the age and reigne of the same quéene Marie, made regent of Scotland vnder hir daughter the same yoong quéene, which office this regent tooke vpon hir hauing the same confirmed by parlement, continuing in that place about six yeares, & died in the castle of Edenburgh, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred and three score, being vpon the point of the eighteenth yeare of queene Marie, whose bodie (as hath Lesleus) was after caried into France, for thus he writeth: Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 169. "Fuit aūtem corpus in Gallia postea transuectum, primùm ad monasterium Feckamense, quod in Normania est, deinde ad cœnobium S. Petri Rhemis in Campania, cui soror ipsius piè tunc præerat, delatum, honorificè condebatur."

Iames Steward bastard sonne to king Iames the fift king of Scots, and base brother to Iames Steward. Marie queene of Scots now liuing and imprisoned, being prior of saint Andrews and earle of Mar, was in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred three-score and two, being about the twentith yeare of the reigne of the same queene Marie, made earle of Murreie. About fiue yeares following, after that the nobilitie had conspired against queene Marie, tooke hir, committed hir to prison, deposed hir, and vpon the same (on the nineteenth daie of Iulie in the yeare a thousand fiue hundred three score & seuen, being the fiue and twentith yeare of the reigne of that queene) aduanced hir sonne Charles Iames Steward (being then about a yeare old) to the kingdome, by the name of Iames the sixt: this Iames earle of Murreie, was made regent and gouernor of the yoong king Iames the sixt, and of the kingdome: who vpon the office receiued, did by parlement abolish the popes authoritie and doctrine in Scotland: continuing that office of regent vntill his death, falling about the time of three yeares after. For in the time of Christ one thousand fiue hundred three score and ten, being in the third yeare of the reigne of Iames the sixt, this regent as he was riding through Lithquo, was shot at with an harquebus by one Iames Hamilton, and so wounded, that he died of the hurt the next daie following, hauing before in that yeare, in which he was created earle of Murreie, maried Agnes Keith daughter to the earle Marshall.

Matthew earle of Leneux being sent for out of England, where he had before long Matthew earle of Leneux. remained, was after the death of the earle of Murreie, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred three score and ten, being in the third yeare of the reigne of Iames the sixt, made lord lieutenant or protector of Scotland, in a conuention of the lords of Sterling. After which in August following, there was another conuention at Edenburgh, where by the consent of the three estates of the realme, the said earle was made regent of Scotland, at what time the earle of Huntleie tooke vpon him to be lord lieutenant of Scotland: for Marie queene of Scots remaining then vnder custodie in England, with Huntleie in hir name summoned a parlement at Lithquo the 21 daie of September, wherevnto the earle of Leneux was summoned: to incounter which, the earle of Leneux caused a parlement likewise to be summoned in the kings name, at the same place, wherevnto the earle of Huntleie was warned at the same daie. But the earle of Huntleie comming no neerer at that time than Brechin, it was ordered by the regent Leneux and the nobilitie, to pursue him: wherevpon insued great warres betweene the nobilitie of Scotland diuided into factions, some taking part with the deposed queene Marie, and other with the yoong king in possession. During which turmoiles & warres, this earle of Leneux hauing bin regent about a yeare and more, was wounded at Sterling with a pistoll by capteine Cawder, whereof he shortlie after died, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred three score and eleuen, being about the fourth yeare of Iames the sixt.

Iohn Areskin earle of Mar was made regent after the death of the earle Leneux, as maie Iohn Areskin earle of Mar. appeare by that which I haue before set downe in the continuance of the annals of Scotland, after whome succeeded the earle Morton, of whome I haue a little before spoken, and of Earle Morton Regent of Scotland. whome we will more intreat hereafter, when we come to speake of his beheading in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred fourescore and one, falling about the fourteenth yeare of Lewes the sixt, after that the said earle had continued that office about fiue yeares. For being aduanced to that place, about the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred threescore and twelue, he continued in the same, vntill he surrendered it, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred three score and seuenteene, as is before touched. Thus setting end to the discourse of the protectors of Scotland, let vs descend to other matters which haue succeeded.

Going therefore forward with that yeare one thousand fiue hundred three score and The lord Glames chancellor slaine. seuenteene, we saie that much about the time in the which the earle Morton gaue ouer his regentship, that the lord Glames, who was then in office of the chancellorship, was trecherouslie slaine by his enimies at Sterling, with a shot of purpose discharged against him, as he was comming out of Sterling castell, & going to his owne lodging from the councell or parlement. Whereby it seemeth that this murthering by sudden shot began now to be a common thing: for there were three great persons in short time dispatched after tabt sort, which were the earles of Murreie and Leneux regents, & this lord Glames chancellor. After the death of which lord Glames, the earle of Atholl was aduanced to that place, and The earle of Atholl made chancellor. inuested with the titie of lord chancellor of Scotland. Wherefore hauing so good occasion therefore at this time by talking of this earle of Atholl thus made lord chancellor to treate of that office: I thinke it not inconuenient in this place, nor disagreeable to the nature of the matter which I haue in hand, somewhat by waie of digression, to discourse of the originall of this office in Scotland, of the etymon of the name, and other circumstances belonging thereto.

This officer the chancellor had his first originall in Scotland by Malcolme the second of The originall of the office of the chancellor. that name king of Scots, who beginning his reigne in the yeare of our redemption one thousand and ten, and gouerning thirtie yeares, departed the world in the yeare of Christ one thousand and fortie. This man, during the time of his gouernment, ordeining manie necessarie lawes for the better rule of his countrie, and for the benefit of the crowne, did also first ordeine the honorable officers of the kingdome, as chancellor, conestable, marshall, chamberleine, and others, as appeareth by Lesleus in the historie of Scotland in these words: "Fœliciter rempublicam haud paucos annos administrauit (king Malcolme) multis & egregijs Lesleus lib. 1. pag. 204. operibus illustris: intérque cætera municipialium legum volumen condidit, quas nostrates exinde in iudicijs ferendis seruarunt, nihil pene immutatas, regiorum magistratuum iudicumque, quos licet mundiús, magisque Latinè vocare possunt, vulgò tamen cancellarium, conestabilem, mariscallum, camerarium, iusticiariúmque vocitant, & qui a secretis, a thesauris, a cubiculo, a chartophylaceo essent: cunctorúmque ministrorum aulæ annua saleria, vt nostris dicbus penduntur, quantúmque regijs pro diplomatibus, ac cæteris literis, libellionibus, tabularjs, lectoribúsque soluendum foret, instituit. This officer being in Scotland before the time of Edward the Confessor, seemeth also to me couertlie to proue, that the same officer was in England before the time of the same king, sith it appeareth, that the Scots for the most part haue alwaies taken their maner of gouernement, lawes, and customes from vs, as will be I doubt not sufficientlie proued, although it maie be that some will affirme that they might haue this officer from the Frenchmen and Romans as other nations had: which as I doo not suppose, because the Romans had but little dooings amongest them, for as they neuer vsed anie such officer in this land whilest they gouerned here (for anie thing that I can yet learne) so it may be, (because they will not séeme to haue borrowed anie order of their gouernement from vs) that they will suppose that they had the first ground of this officer from the French, with whome they haue alwaies beene in league euer since the time of their king Achaius the first, who (beginning his reigne in the yeare of Christ seuen hundred fourescore and eight) did knit a perpetuall league with Charles the great. But leauing that to be as it will (sith it is no dishonor for one nation to deriue their good lawes, beneficiall customes, or needfull officers from another, no more than it was for the Romans to fetch their lawes of the twelue tables from the Grecians) true it is, that this officer so ordeined by Malcolme amongst the Scots, was such an officer as was vsed amongst the Romans, touching the cause of whose name, the ciuilians affirme that he was called "Cancellarius à cancellando, cuius officium est rescripta, vel responsa imperatoris, & mandata inspicere, mala scripta cancellare, & bene scripta cum signaculo suo signare, & sigillum eis imprimere." Of which word chancellor is risen this name, " Archicancellarius quasi princeps cancellariæ," as is noted by Azo in summa.

This officer taking his name of Cancellando, (that is of defacing, blotting, or putting out of writings,) did vse to adnull all writings, as we at this daie doo obserue in our chancerie, by drawing certeine strokes or lines made crosse one upon an other ouer the writing, in forme of woodden latices, in Latine termed Cancelli, which are either such latices as we at this daie, and of antiquitie vsed in windowes, or such as were made to compasse about the iudgement seats. For thus said the ciuilians touching that; "Cancelli sunt ligna inter se modicis interuallis in transuersum connexa, quibus tribunalia, scænæ & fenestræ muniri consueuerunt." And Cicero saith in his first booke 'De oratore;' "Forensibus cancellis circumscriptam sententiam, &c." From which word Cancelli, is deduced this word Cancellare. For thus doo some write thereof: "Cancello verbum videtur esse deductum à Cancellis, in quibus vt transuersaria nectuntur ligna, ita cum scripta expungenda sunt, transuerso calamo lineæ inducuntur, quod propriè illinere, seu allinere est, vel litura:" whervpon thus writeth Q. F. Horace the liricall poet in his tract called the art of poetrie:

"—incomptis allinet atrum
Transuerso calamo signum, &c:"
as who should saie, He dooth cancell and blot out the writing with lines drawne one ouer an other like latices, the ciuilians fullie agreeing to the same and saieng, that "Cancellare Gl. in l. si quis, libertatem de pot. hœred. est scripta transductus lineis instar cancellorum delere." Beside which this word Cancellarius is also by some (whose curious ears and pens count the words of former ages to be barbarous) taken scarselie for good Latine, and therefore saie that this officer more purelie ought to be called Scribarum præfectus, of which number Polydor Virgil is one, who in his admonidon to the reader, at the end of his historie of England, setteth downe these words: "Monitum te optime lector volo, per multa verba minùs Latina longo vsu non item ratione iam primùm in consuetudinem quotidiani sermonis venisse, sic vt velimus nolimus ea interdum vsurpare cogamur, cuiusmodi sunt dux & comes, olim officij tantùm at summæ nūc dignitatis vocabula. Item comitatus pro regione, cancellarius pro scribarum, abbas prior pro monachorum præfecto:" and Leland calleth the chancellor Archigrammateus. Besides which there be some in our age, who searching after the originall & etymologies of names, affirme this word chancellor to be deriued from the Saxon toong, as it were a cleare or shining person or one excelling other men: compounding that word of these two parts, chance and clere, in which word this part clere dooth after the Saxon signifie in Latine Prœeminens or clarus, and that part chance must note to vs a man. But how aptlie and truelie the same may stand to make the etymon of chancellor, I leaue to others to consider. This thus said for the originall and name of the officer called the chancellor, of whose succession we will talke hereafter, and will now returne to the matters of Scotland in this sort.

In the moneth of Iulie there was a parlement of the nobilitie assembled, where Robert 1578. Robert Steward created earle of Leneux. Steward great vncle to the king was created erle of Leneux, being girded with the sword of that earledome, after the death of Charles Steward, sonne of Matthew Steward erle of Leneux, wherof we haue before intreated. But ouerpassing this Robert, being honoured with a new title, not due to him by inheritance, for anie thing which I can yet perceiue, we will for a while take our leaue of the Scotish seile, though not of the Scotish persons, and remember to speake somewhat of the dooings of Steward, coronell of the Scots, which serued in the wars of the low countries: where he behaued himselfe right valiantlie to his owne and his countries commendation. For when the warres were at the hottest in those The tragicall historie of the ciuill warres of the low countries, li. 4. fo. 31. Church yards choice. low countries betweene the states and king Philip (at what time the archduke Matthias was generall for the noblemen or states, and Iohn duke of Austria, the base sonne of Charles the fift, and like brother to king Philip, was gouernour of those parts for the same king Philip) the states gathered a puissant armie of all such nations as were then in seruice with them (as English, Scots, Germans, and their owne countriemen) vnder the conduct of the countie Bossue, with whome duke Iohn of Austria determining to encounter, hoping by that one conflict to set end to all the warres, and to make a full pacification of the countrie: it happened that on the first of August, in this yeare that the armie of the duke of Austria comming to visit the armie of the states (which laie then incamped in the field called Reminant) that in the armie (as I said before composed of diuerse nations both footmen and horssemen) there was amongst others one companie of Scots vnder the leading of Steward their capteine and countriman, who being with his companie called foorth into the battell, was appointed to keepe the streict on the left side, when the English should keepe the like streict on the right hand. After which the enimie making towards the armie of the states, they were intercepted by the English, who interteined them with such sufficient skirmish, as that they forced Don Iohns men to giue ground and retire towards the strength of the Scots (which the same Steward had in charge) and that so farre, that in the same action the English brought themselues betwixt the enimie and the Scots, who mistaking the companie, and supposing them to be their enimies, gaue them from the hedge, where they laie such a volee of shot, that it made them to loose more ground than euer the enimie could haue doone.

The enimie in the meane time perceiuing that, and being now fighting vpon the retreict came forward with great force and furie, hauing a new supplie of numbers of fresh souldiors to succour them. All which notwithstanding they could not for all that they might do, force them to abandon the streict which they had in charge, vntill such time as certeine Englishmen (that were left within the closes to discouer the enimie) brought word that the enimie had entred the streict vpon the Scots. Which thing was in deed verie true, for euen at that instant the fire was seene to arise in the village, and the whole forces which were to enter betweene the water and the English companies, retired themselues to the heath againe. The Scots then valiantlie making good their fight vpon the retreict, the lieutenant of the English was likewise driuen to the same: which if he had not doone, the enimie had cut betwixt him, his companie and the trenches. This being well perceiued by capteine Liggins, he presentlie aduanced himselfe, and was now come halfe the waie to the succour of the lieutenant, to preuent the enimie, and to ioine with the forces of the same lieutenant, all who being gotten togither doo retire to the church, and perceiuing that the enimie came on appase, the lieutenant of the English leaueth capteine Liggins to a reasonable ground of strength to interteine them, when he himselfe rideth backe to fetch releefe for capteine Liggins his retreict.

The enimie seeing the streict of the waie, and that their other forces preuailed more on the other streict forsooke anie longer to attempt the same against the English, and retired themselues all they might on the side ouer the closes, to ioine them with their other forces, which had euen now passed the streict which the Scots had in gard, who all togither made hast vp to the hill, and so to the burnt house, then fired by the Scots, at that instant forsaking the field, and retiring them to the campe, after that they had obteined victorie against the Spaniards, by valiant resisting & pursuing the force of the enimie. At what time also maister Norris coronell of the English and the forenamed maister Steward coronell of the Scots, carried awaie the whole commendation of this victorie obteined by the men of these two nations of England and Scotland. But leauing the Scots reioising of this good successe in those low countries, we will call backe our pen and resalute the countrie of Scotland, at this time in some ciuill dissentions amongst themselues, whereof these manie yeares, since the gouernment of this yoong king, it seemeth to me that it hath not long beene free.

In the forenamed moneth of August, there grew secret dissention amongst the nobilitie at home, which still continued & fed the former vnkindlie fire of contention betweene the two factions of the yoong king, and the imprisoned queene: by occasion wherof the realme was diuided into three parts, some following the king, some standing on the queenes side, & some assisting neither of both, all which by some were termed by three seuerall names; as the kings faction, the part of the male-contents, and the neutrals, consisting of such as remained indifferent on both sides, neither seeking to vphold the one or to suppresse the other. Amongst which on the kings part were manie earls, lords and bishops, as Dowglasse erle Morton admerall of Scotland, Dowglasse erle of Angus, Dowglasse earle of Buquhane, Areskin earle of Marre, Steward earle Bothwell, Cuningham earle of Glenkarne, Lesleh earle of Wrothouse, Montgomerie earle of Eglington, Steward earle of Orkeneie, and Steward earle of Leneux, all which were in house with the king, and attendant vpon his person, with whom were confederat the lords Boid, Ochetree, Ruthwen treasuror of Scotland, Harris, Maxwell, Lindseie, Semple, and others.

Besides these, bishops and abbats, that is to sale, Patrike Adamson archbishop of S. Andrews, Cunningham (kinsman to the erle of Glencarne) bishop of Aberden, Boid (of bloud and kindered with the lord Boid) archbishop of Glascow, Dowglasse bishop of Mannaw, Hexburne bishop of Rosse, Robert Petcarne abbat of Dunfermeling, cheefe secretarie of Scotland, Coluington abbat of Cowlros, Richard Bedwell abbat of Holierood house; one of the councell, the abbats of Cambuskinnell and of Dribourgh, with Iames Maghill maister of the rolles, or clearke of the register, and one of the councell. These noble persons thus aiding the king, the partie of the male-contents was supported by manie other persons of the nobilitie: as Camberle erle of Argile, Gordon earle of Atholl, Sincleare earle of Cathnesse, Gordon earle of Southerland, Gordon earle Huntleie (who was verie yoong, of six yeares of age, and had his power with these earles) the earles of Mentros and Menteth (being both surnamed Grahams) and Kenedie earle of Casselles a child of three yeares old, whose strength was also ioined to these male-contents. Besides which earles there was to assist those male-contents Crawford shiriffe of Aire, Kenedie lord of Kurgenie, Kenedie lord of Blachekichen, the lords of Maxewell, Locheuar, Hume (being but six yeares old) which Hume lord of Colden Knolles (warden of the middle marches of Scotland) Alexander Hume of Maundstone, Care (Lord Seford, and the lord Lindseie, with the Hebburns, which wholie depended vpon the lord Lindseie; vnto whom in like sort, as partaking of the game malecontentment, were added Alexander Areskine, of Mar, vncle to the earle of Mar, & capteine of the castell of Edenburough, and Cunningham, the lard of Drunwassell, capteine of Dunbritaine, with manie other persons of honour and strength.

The heads of these two factions thus set downe, it resteth now to declare who were the neutrals, who being but few, and as I can yet learne onelie three in number, so they were of no great power; aswell for that the one of them being Keth the earle Marshall, was a sickelie man; as for that the Hamiltons were not beloued of the king, nor greatlie esteemed of the other factions: and the third, the Leuingstons familie, wanting their head the lord of that house, being then in France, wherby they could not be of great power, which part soeuer they should support. The order of which diuision and proceeding in Scotland, comming afterward to the knowledge of the queene of England, who had sent Robert Bowes a man of good seruice hir ambassador into Scotland, she did also (tendering the yoong king of Scots, and as a carefull neighbour and louing godmother, fearing least that he might receiue iniurie by the assemblie of these malecontents, whose power grew to be somewhat strong) direct hir commission to the earle of Huntington, president of the north in England, and to the lord Hunsdon capteine of Berwike, they both being of bloud and aliance vnto hir maiestie. In which commission, she willed them to leuie an armie of footemen and horssemen to be imploied in those warres. All which these English lords should haue in a redinesse, against such time as the said maister Bowes (who, as ye haue heard before, had beene sent into Scotland to pacifie these troubles, and to establish a quiet peace and loue amongst them) should giue knowledge for their entrance into the Scotish dominions (vnder the conduct of the same lord of Hunsdon) against the power of those male-contents. Wherevpon the lord Hunsdon (hauing a time appointed him accordinglie, and being in order set, well furnished with men and munition) setting forward to execute the force of his commission, threatned spoile to manie places of Scotland belonging to the borderers, and burnt the houses of the lords there inhabiting: if they ioined themselues with the male-contents, as they had fullie deliberated for to doo. By reason whereof, they leauing their former determination, and for that present refusing to ioine against the king: these male-contents (doubting the sequell of their attempt, and how they might performe that which they had taken in hand, being now in the field and in armes (against the other faction) began to hearken vnto a pacification, and were after reconciled to the king and the other lords, about the two and twentith of the same moneth of August, as I haue beene informed. Which matter being more largelie to be discussed, because it is knowne by the name of the battel of Faukirke, I must for this time passe ouer, determining hereafter more liberallie to intreat thereof. Wherefore, falling into other matter, we sale, that much about this time, Iohn Lesle bishop of Rosse (who had some yeares before been some certeine time imprisoned in the Tower of London in England, and had trauelled to Rome about the affaires of the imprisoned queene of Scotland, where he labored to procure such aid for hir, as the princes which fauored hir faction would yeeld) did depart from Rome, and went from the pope to Randulph, as the second of that name now emperor. Which Lesie, taking his iourneie out of Italie, passed through the frontier townes of Germanie, and was staied at Phaltzburgh, otherwise called Palatinopolis, by George duke of Bauier, countie Palatine of Rhene, and earle of Veldtzens; in which citie, his cofers and other things were rifled and searched: at what time there were manie writings found, and amongst others certeine papers, in which did appeare what friends the queene of Scots had of all the parts of Europe, what enimies, and what neutrals: with letters and other instructions of Philip king of Spaine.

All which notwithstanding (though they gaue the said George occasion to mistrust Lesle, as an enimie to his religion) this bishop of Rosse was afterward dismissed, because he was furnished with the emperors passport, or safe conduct to come vnto him. Wherefore the duke of Bauier for his better discharge, and to manifest to the world that they did nothing but that, which both the present estate of these troublesome times, and the dutie of a religious prince required, did honorablie dismisse the said Lesle, bearing all his charges, restoring all his goods, and conueieng him out of his dominions with a goodlie companie of horssemen, after that he had caused the said bishop of Rosse to leaue a testinoniall writing in the Latine toong vnder his owne hand, to shew that no iniurie was doone to the said bishop, in that his deteining and search for those causes; & that the bishop should not anie waie seeke anie reuenge thereof: the copie of which writing (as I receiued the same) I haue faithfullie and Verbatim set downe in this sort.

THE TESTIMONIALL LEFT BY THE BISHOP OF ROSSE WITH THE DUKE OF BAUIER.

"Nos Iohannes Lesleus, Dei gratia, episcopus Rossensis, & administrator Morauiæ, &c: testamur hoc scripto palàm & apud omnes hoc inspecturos, aut lecturos. Cùm in hisce periculosis & motuum plenissimis temporibus omnibus sacri imperij principibus & magistratibus prospectio incumbat, ne imperium aut eius membra aliquid detrimenti accipiant, neque per prætereuntes & redeuntes ex externis nationibus, calidas negationes, ad turbandam pacem publicam, aut noxias dissentiones sub quouis pretextu tractari, strui aut seminari inter ordines & membra imperij sinant aut patiantur; præcipuè cùm nunc exempla in vicinis locis extant, quám facilè aliquid strui & seminari possit. Ita factum est, vt illustrissimus princeps Georgius, Iohannes comes Palatinus Rheni, dux Bauariæ, comésque Veldentziæ, &c: motus præcedentibus & alijs rationibus, in absentia, per suos capitaneos & ministros, in suo territorio Lutzelsteinensi, & vrbe Palatinopoli, nos cum nostris retineri mandauerit. Quam causam & mandatum retentionis imperatori, antequam exequeretur significauit. Post factam retentionem celsitudo eius certior facta de literis imperatoris nobis communicatis de Spira, vbi mandatum dederat, protestatione ibi aliqua habita, festinanter huc appulit: præsertim etiam simul cum literis imperatoris, aliquæ copiæ instructionis & memoralium eius celsitudini missæ fuerant, vnde aucta suspicio, aliquid nos ad extirpandam religionem tentare: & cùm mentio aliqua extirpandæ religionis hisce verbis facta fuerit, nimirùm, ut extirpata hæresi, religio reuiuiscat, & simul cum procuratione Scoticorum monasteriorum, quorum Palatini aliquot possident, aliquid moturos in Germania putauerit, præsertim cùm plurimos catholicæ religionis principes & episcopos in itinere cum literis credentalibus à papa salutauerimus, & inuiserimus. Ad quam suspicionem amouendam & purificandam, cum celsitudo eius aduenit, lectione aliquarum copiarum conati sumus celsitudini eius satisfacere. Etsi tamen aliquid scrupuli de extirpanda religione ac opinio de aliquibus negotijs quæ vrgerem remaneret, quæ pacem publicam tàm in religione, quàm politicis perturbare, & suspicionem principibus Augustanæ confessionis mouere, non minùs quàm ipsius celsitudini possent. Nihilominùs celsitudo eius, magis alijs rationibus, quàm præcedentibus suspicionibus imminentium periculorum non diutiùs nos detenturos conclusit. Ea tamen conditione, vt promitteremus nos contra patriam in causa religionis per viam armorum, aut structione dissentionum, aliquid nunquam tentaturos, sicut & alibi, sed quod exhortationibus pijs & doctrina facere possimus, liberam relinquere conscientiam. Secundo, quod polliceamur more solito, pro nostro, nostrarúmque familiarum nomine, neq; per nos neque per alios, vlla via ratione quæ nominari possit, illam detentionem vindicatam fore. Quare consideratione habita periculorum & motuum, quæ passim (potissimum verò in locis vicinis) cernuntur, sacro imperio, optima ratione metuendum & vigilandum, maximè verò in extremis imperij limitibus & terminis. Ideò ab illustrissima eius celsitudine ratione publicorum decretorum, & arctissimæ inter ordines coniunctionis, hanc circumspectionem & detentionem nostram non iniquo animo ferimus, neque pro iniurir accepimus: cùm præsertim eius celsitudo, non modo liberaliter nos habuerit, sed absque omni rerum nostrarum iactura, alijsque dispendijs, nos liberos fecerit, & gratiosè splendido equitum comitatu in maiorem securitatem deduci iusserit. Idcircò sanctè pollicemur, (decreto Constantiensis concilij, quo diuersis à Romana religione hominibus fidem datam seruandam haud esse, sancitum fuisse dicitur, hoc ipso scripto & optimo modo renuntiantes) nos nostro, nostrarúmque familiarum nomine, iam neque per nos, neque per alios, vlla vi, vel ratione, recta aut obliqua, qua eius celsitudinem, aut eius famulos aut subditos & ditiones hanc retentionem persequi vel vindicare velle. Et ad maiorem huius scripti & promissi corroborationem propria manu signauimus, & sigillo nostro appresso confirmauimus.

Actum & datum Luzelsteni 28 Decembris: anno Domini 1578.
Iohannes Lesleus episcopus Rossensis & administrator ecclesiæ Morauensis.

This Lesle being yet liuing, and (as I vnderstand) in great credit in France, possessing the place of the chancellor of Lions, is descended of an ancient familie, as one whose ancestors and name hath both inioied honorable titles iu descent, and great places of gouernement in the common-wealth of Scotland. For when Edgar the sonne of Edward the outlaw and kinsman to Edward the Confessor king of England was vexed with vniuat war, first by Harold king of England the son of Goodwine, & then by the Norman bastard surnamed the Conqueror, which slue Harold and obteined the crowne of England; Edgar did priuilie take shipping with his mother Agatha, and his two sisters, to the end, that being now out of all hope euer to obteine the kingdom of England, they might direct their course and saile againe into Hungarie, from whense they came. But it happened by diuine prouidence, that being on the sea, they were grieuouslie molested with vehement winds, which forciblie made them forsake their appointed course, and draue them into the mouth of the riuer of Forth or Frith, whose landing place is yet to be séene, & at this dale called S. Margarets hauen (after the name of hir which was sister to this Edgar & called Margaret) whome Malcolme king of Scots (for the rare parts both of bodie & mind wherwith she was woonderfully indued) did after take to wife, & solemnlie crowned to the great comfort of the whole kingdome. Vpon which déed William the Conqueror, being more gréeuouslie mooued than he was before, banished all the friends of Edgar out of England. By occasion whereof, Lindseie, Vaus, Ramseie, Louell, and diuerse other men of great nobilitie came then first into Scotland to craue aid of king Malcolme; which persons being liberallie indued with rich possessions by the same Malcolme; their posteritie doo at this daie in our age flourish with great honor. Besides which also, at this time there came out of Hungarie with Agatha before touched diuerse other persons of account, as Crichton, Fodringham, Giffert, Manlis, Brothike, and others; amongst whome Bartholomew Lesle descended of noble parentage, and of great valor of mind, did with the rest appeare verie famous, whose sharpe wit, and excellencie of knowledge (ioined with a sound and strong bodie) when Malcolme the king of Scots did behold, he vsed his helpe in the defense of the castell of Edenburgh, and in all other weightie affaires which concerned the warres.

Out of this familie of the Lesles haue sproong and flourished manie worthie persons, valiantlie ressting and subduing their enimies. And amongst those, one Walter Lesle earle of Rosse, who afterward purchased such singular commendation for valor and wisedome shewed in manie battels of the emperor Lewes the second, & Charles the fourth, against the Saracens, "Vt (one of their owne name now a bishop of Rosse in his historie of Scotland saieth) Lesleus lib. 5. pag. 211. à quodam animi generoso impetu, quo hostes frāgere, & sub iugū fortiter mittere solebat, generosi equitis cognomentum sit consecutus: eiusdem stirpis comes Rothesius, multíque alij barones & equites Leslei cognominati (quos Malcolmus primùm, ac alij deinde reges multis amplísque agris, in Fifa, Augusia, Gourea, & Gareocha, alijsque prouincijs munificè cumulabant) magnæ hodie nobilitatis virtutísque commendatione in Scotia vigent." Of whose line and name at this daie (as is before said) continuing in great honor, the earle of Rothos now liuing called Lesle dwelleth in Fife, and married the daughter of the earle of Gowrie or Gowrike, the same earle of Rothos being a person no lesse wise and honorable, than descended of ancient and honorable ancestors. But leauing that familie, let vs returne from whense we haue digressed.

The bishop of Rosse being departed from the duke of Bauier (as before you haue heard) in the yeare following, which was the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred thrée score and nineteene, Amies Steward the lord of Obignie in France, being of the house of the The lord of Obignie made earle of Leneux. Stewards, and sonne to Iohn the eldest brother of Matthew Leneux, sometime regent of Scotland, buried at Sterling, as is before touched, did come into Scotland, was by the king most honorablie receiued, and aduanced to further honor. For the king taking from Robert Steward (whom the last yeare he had created earle of Leneux) the title of that Robert Steward made erle of March. earledome of Leneux, he now inuested this lord of Obignie with the same, and created him earle of Leneux, thereby more firmelie to bind the lord of Obignie in France to be faithfull vnto him in Scotland. And least he should séeme by taking the earledome from Robert Steward to haue wronged him, the king for recompense thereof, bestoweth vpon the said Robert Steward as honorable a title and earldome as the same was, for he inuested the same Rober with the earledome of March. Not long after which the king erecting the same earledome of Leneux vnto a dukedome, he did bestow that honor of duke vpon the said lord of Obignie, & created him duke of Leneux, which title at this daie, his sonne being a towardlie yoong gentleman dooth most honorablie possesse, he being the onlie person in that countrie which dooth in this our age inioie that title of duke, being such an honor as was but latelie begun amongst them, and neuer verie plentifull in that region: for the same hath not yet as I for this present suppose norished at anie one time (when that title was rifest amongst them) thée persons adorned with that stile. Now touching the matter of their first creation and continuance, I thinke it not vnfit to sale somwhat in this place.

The first creation of dukes in that countrie was vsed by Robert the third of that name, The first erection of dukes in Scotland. whose right name being Iohn, was after turned vnto Robert, for doubt of euill successe to grow to the kingdome by a gouernor so called. For thus write the Scots as Lesleus hath deliuered with these spéeches: "Verùm quum ipsi nobiles arbitrarētur nomini inesse nescio quid Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 264. To which king Iohn of England and France, he might also haue added one of his own countrie of Scotland Iohn Balioll the king, who was as infortunate in his gouernment as anie of the other. Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 263. ominis infausti, quòd reges Franciæ & Angliæ, hoc nomine consignati, bello prehenderētur, mutato nomine Robertum vt patrem eum appellari decreuerūt. Quæ illorum siue in nominis obseruatione superstitio, siue in regis conseruatione diligentia, maioris mali regi iam impendentis augurium quoddam mihi videtur. Nam non multo post ex equo illi decidenti, omnia membra ita contusa fuerunt, vt (quòd regnandi molestias ac labores nullo modo poterat pati) Roberti comiti Fifensi fratri suo regni gubernationē dedere cogeretur." Which Iohn as before is said, hauing now obteined a new name, was the first which brought a new title of honor into his kingdome: for he created Dauid his eldest sonne duke of Rothseie, and his brother Robert (whom he had made protector of the kingdome) duke of Albanie, as is set downe by the same Lesleus in these words: "Tertio plus minus anno" (whch was about the yeare of our redemption one thousand thrée hundred foure score and thirtéene) "concilio ex omni ordinum genere Perthi habito, post alias res pro regni cōmodo sapienter actas, rex Dauidem filium suum titulo ducis Rothsaiæ, & Robertum fratrem suum quem regno administrando præfecerat, ducis Albanij honore ornabat: qui duo primi fuerunt in Scotia his titulis illustrati." Thus much he, proouing that it is not aboue one hundred foure score and thirteene yeares since that title came first into Scotland. Wherby it appereth that England since the conquest hauing dukes erected by king Edward the third, who in the yeare of Christ one thousand three hundred thirtie & seuen, made his eldest sonne duke of Cornwall, hath had dukes about two hundred fortie & nine yeres past, being fiftie and six yere before they had anie in Scotland. And as those two before named were the first which were inuested with the honor of duke in Scotland, so after the death of the same king which fell in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and six, in the Interregnum or Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 268. vacancie of the kingdome (which continued eightéene yeares from the said yere of Christ one thousand foure hundred and six, vntill the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and foure) in which Iames the first hauing béene trained vp in England obteined the crowne, and vnder the protectorship of Mordacke (the sonne of the foresaid Robert the first duke of Albanie) to whom the gouernment of the realme of Scotland was committed after the death of the said Robert the third.

Archibald Dowglasse was the first Scot which passing the seas, & seruing a strange prince, inioied anie such title of duke in anie forrein nation. For the Scots going then to aid the French against the English, the French king to honour the Scots and to bind them to be more faithfull vnto him, created Iohn Steward earle of Buquaine constable of France, & aduanced the said Archibald Dowglasse to the honor of the dukedome of Turone; but he did not long inioie that great title, being shortlie after slaine at the battell of Vernoile, in the yere of Christ one thousand foure hundred twentie and foure. In treting of which battell Bucchanan, whose name may rightlie be deduced from Bucca vana, beyond all modestie and course of reason forgetting his calling, his learning and humanitie, bath spued out all his malice against the English nation, whereof I haue treated in my former additions to the historie of Scotland. Thus hauing somewhat digressed from the matter of later yeares, wherewith I ought to haue furnished my imperfect continuances of the annals of Scotland, I will returne to the lord of Obegnie, and who was at this time created duke of Leneux, and who occasioned me to make this discourse. Wherefore I will here set downe what Lesleus hath written of the first originall of that house in France, and of this duke of Leneux thus by the king newlie as before said created, the words of which Lesleus bishop of Rosse be these: "Nouam quoque Lesleus lib. 7. pag. 271. Scotorum equitum turmam Carolus 6" (king of France, which had the warres against the king of England, when the Scots were thus aduanced in the dominions of France, being meane betwéene the said yeares of Christ one thousand foure hundred and six, and one thousand foure hundred twentie and foure) "paulo ante conscripsit, quæ vulgò Scotorum armatorum cohors dicebatur. Huius primus dux Robertus Stuartus ex Lenoxij comitis familia ortus, domino de Aubigne multisque alijs terris, muneribus, honoribus, & baleagijs cōmuni populi sermone dictis, a rege insignitus est. Quæ omnia a Scotis eiusdem cognominis & prosapiæ continuata, successionis serie per Barnardum nimirum celebrem militiæ ducem, deinde per Robertum, denique Iohannem Stuartum comitis Lenoxij fratrem iam diu possessa, præclaræ nobilitatis ac indolis iuuenis, Iohānis filius non paruam suorum virtutis spem de se excitans, etiam nunc hodie obtinet." Thus much Lesle. Beside which that Lesleus hath set downe of the first lord of Obegnie in France, Paulus Iouius in his booke of Empresse written in Italian, hath not forgotten to speake somewhat of him, where he setteth downe the deuise of his ensignes or armes in this sort translated by me into English.

There was (saith Iouius) amongst the Frenchmen a man of knowne vertue or prowesse, & most famous capteine called * Heberard Steward (borne of the bloud roiall of Scotland) * Barnard. being honored with the title of monsieur de Obegnie, who being of kinred to Iames the fourth of that name, did beare for his deuise or ensigne, a field siluer, a ramping lion gewles, with a number of buckles thereabout; the which cote armour he did weare vpon his vpper garment, and likewise beare in his standard, with this posie, Distantia iungit: signifieng thereby, that he was the mean or buckle to hold and knit togither the king of Scots and the French king, with a iust counterpeise against the force of the king of England, naturall enimie to Scotland and France. Thus much Iouius, & thus much I of the duke of Leneux lord of Obegnie in France. After which, sith I am now in discoursing of dukes of that countrie, and haue shewed when the first duke was made in Scotland, and who they were; I thinke it not vnfit for this place, to set downe a catalog of all such dukes of Scotland as haue come vnto my knowlege by search of histories, since the creation of the same first dukes, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred and eightéene; which I will not refuse to doo in this place, following the same course which I haue obserued before in the historie of England, where I haue set downe all the dukes, since the first creation of anie duke in that countrie. Wherefore thus I enter into my dukes of Scotland.

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