The Names of Ireland, with the Compasse of the Same, also what Shires or Counties it Conteineth, the Diuision or Partition of the Land, and of the Language of the People.

Chapter I.

THE more part aswel of Cosmographers, as Chronographers, do with on accorde affirme, that the nation of Ireland (the vttermost weasterne Ile known) is halfe as big as Britannia. Which I take to be true, if the word Britannia so farre displaie the signification, that it comprise England, Wales, and Scotland. To
The length and breadth of Ireland. which opinion Giraldus Cambrensis relieth, saieng, that Britannia conteineth in Girald. Cambrens. lib. 1. topog. dist. 1. rub. 2. length eight hundred miles, and two hundred in breadth. Ireland he taketh to be in length from the mounteins called Torrach (the author of Polychronicon termeth them Polych. lib. I. cap. 32. Brendane his hilles) to saint Columbe his Iland eight daies iourneie, rating of long Irish miles fortie miles to the daie: and in breadth from Dublin to saint Patrike his hilles and the sea of Connaght foure daies iorneie, according to the former rate. So as by Cambrensis his surueie, who was a curious insearcher therof, Ireland is thrée hundred & twentie miles long of Irish miles, and one hundred and three score miles broad. And accounting thrée hundred and twentie Irish miles to amount to foure hundred English miles, which may well be reckoned according to their iudgements that haue trauelled in the Irish territories; Ireland will be found halfe as big as Britannia: which Girald. Cambrensis auoucheth, saieng, that Ireland is as big as Wales and Scotland. Ireland hath on the east, England, within one daies sailing; on the southeast it hath France; Hispaine on the south, distant thrée daies sailing; on the west the maine ocean sea.

The name Ibernia whense it proceedeth. Touching the name Ibernia, historiographers are not yet agreed from whense it is deducted. Some write it Hibernia corruptlie, and suppose that the strangers finding it in an od end of the world, foistie and moistie, tooke it at the first for a verie cold countrie, and thereof named it Hibernia, as to saie, the Winter land. But this error being vpon short experience reformed, it could not be that the name should haue liued long, especiallie the first impositors suruiuing the triall, and able Ireland. to alter the first nomination. Others bring a ghesse, that it should be named of Irlamale. But because I read nothing of them in anie probable historie, I purpose not to build vpon that coniecture.

Most crediblie it is holden, that the Hispaniards (the founders of the Irish) for deuotion towards Hispaine, called then Iberia of Iberius the sonne of Iuball, Iberus the Hispanish riuer. and the rather, for that themselues had dwelled beside the famous riuer Iberus, named the land Iberia (for so Leland and manie forren chroniclers write it) or Leland. in cyg. cant. Ibernia, adding the letter (n) for difference sake. And from Ibernia procéedeth Iberland, or Iuerland; from Iuerland, by contraction Ireland: forsomuch as in corruption of common talke we find that (u) with his vocale is easilie lost and suppressed; so we saie ere for euer, nere for neuer, shoole for shoouell, ore for ouer, ene for euen, dile for diuell. At the same time it was also named Scotia, in Scotia. Scotach. Gatheius. reuerence of Scotach the wife of Gathelus, ancient capteine of those Iberians that flitted from Hispaine into Ireland: & the said Scotach was old grandame to Hiberus and Hermon after the Scotish chronicles, who in anie wise will haue their countrimen deriued from the Irish, and not from the Britons. The name Scotia Iohan. maior. Scot. lib. 1. ca. 9. is of late yeares so vsuallie taken for that part of Britaine that compriseth Scotland, that diuerse ancient Irish authors are holden to be borne in Scotland, wheras in verie déed their natiue soile is Ireland. As the famous schooleman Iohannes Duns Iohannes dominus Scotus borne in Ireland. Scotus, otherwise named Doctor subtilis, for his subtill quiddities in scholasticall controuersies, was an Irish man borne, and yet is taken for a Scot.

Some hold opinion that he was borne in Thathmon, a market towne fiue miles distant from Weiseford. Others auouch, and that more trulie, that he was borne in Downe, an old ancient ciuitie in the north of Ireland, and thereof they ghesse him to be named Dunensis, and by contraction Duns, which tearme is so triuiall Why schoolemen are called Dunses. and common in all schools, that whoso surpasseth others either in cauilling sophistrie, or subtill philosophie, is forthwith nickenamed a Duns. Wherefore as Scotland is named Scotia minor, so Ireland is tearmed Scotia major, as the head Scotia maior. Scotia minor. from whense the name of Scotia minor tooke his ofspring. The Irish also were named of the foresaid Gathelus, or Gaudeilus, Gaudeili. In their Irish rithmes, Gaudeili. they tearme Ireland verie often Banno. I cannot diuine what reason should lead Banno. their makers therto, vnlesse it be the riuer in the countie of Weiseford, named the Banne, where the Britons vpon the conquest first arriued. The place otherwise is The riuer Banne. called Bagganbun, according to the old ancient rithme: Bagganbun.

At the creeke of Bagganbun,
Ireland was lost and wun.

For the remembrance of which riuer so notoriouslie famosed, it carieth great likelihood, that the name should be to the whole realme generallie ascribed. Sundrie Latine authors write Ireland Inuerna, others Iuerna, diuerse Ijerna. Claudius Inuerna. Ioan. Camettes in cap. 35. Solini. nameth it Iberna. The diuersitie of which names grew, for that in their time the true and certeine name was not knowne, so that they were contented to take it as they found it, which matter is handled by Hermolaus Barbarus.

Hermol. Barb. ca. 16. in lib. 4. Plin. castig. The name Irish and Ireland curiously seuered. There are some of the ruder sort so quaint in seuering the name Irish and Ireland, as that they would be named Ireland men, but in no wise Irishmen. But certes, in my fantasie such curious distinctors may be verie aptlie resembled to the foolish butcher, that offred to haue sold his mutton for fiftéene grots, and yet would not take a crowne. Who so will grate vpon such nice diuersities, in respect that he is ashamed of his countrie; trulie (in mine opinion) his countrie maie be ashamed of him. Ireland is diuided into foure regions, Leinster, east: Connaght, west: 1. Lagenia. 2. Connatia. 3. Hultonia. 4. Momonia. 5. Media. West Méeth & East Méeth. Vlster, north: Mounster, south: and into a fift plot, defalked from euerie fourth part, and yet mearing on each part, called thereof Media, Méeth, comprising as well east Méeth, as west Méeth. Leinster butteth vpon England, Ulster vpon the Scotish Islands: which face with Hebriades scattered betweene both the realms, Hebriades. wherin at this daie the Irish Scot, successor of the elder Scithian, Pict, or Redshanke dwelleth. Ech of these fiue, where they are framable to ciuilitie, & answer the writs of the princes courts, be sundred into shires or counties in this manner. The shires and counties of Ireland. In Leinster lieth the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Weiseford, or Gueisford, Catherlach, Kilkennie, the counties of Leise & Ophalie, called the kings and quéenes counties: these two latelie so named by parlement, in the reignes of Philip and Marie, hauing shire townes accordant, Philips towne, and Marie bourgh. Connaght hath the countie Clare: Vlster the counties of Louth, Doune, Antrim, one moitie of the towne of Droghedagh (for the rest is in Méeth) and Carregfergus. In Mounster lie the counties of Waterford, Limerike, Corke, the countie palantine of Tipperarie, Kerie, & the crosse of Tipperarie. Mounster was of old time diuided into east Mounster, Ormond, west Mounster, Desmond, south Mounster, Toonmound. The occasion why Ireland was parted into these fiue principall regions grew of this. There arriued in Ireland fine brethren, that were valiant & martiall An. mun. 2533. Cambrens. lib. 1. dist. 3; rub. 5 & 6. gentlemen; to wit, Gandius, Genandius, Sagandus, otherwise named Gangandus, Rutheragus or Rutheranus, & Slanius. These fiue perceiuing that the countrie was not sufficientlie peopled, were agreed (as it were) to cast lots, and to share the whole realme betwéene themselues. The foure elder brethren seuering the countrie into foure parts, and being loth to vse their yoongest brother like an outcast or stepsonne, condescended that each of them foure should of their owne portion allot to Slanius a paring or parcell of their inheritance. Which being as heartilie receiued of Slanius, as it was bountifullie granted by them, he setled himselfe therein, and of that partition it tooke the appellation of Media, Méeth. The foure Méeth whense it is named. parts méet at a certeine stone at Méeth, néere the castell of Kilaire, as an indifferent meare to seuer the foure regions.

But although Slanius in the beginning had the least parcell, yet in short space he stood so well to his tacklings, and incroched so far vpon his neighbors, that he obteined the whole monarchie of Ireland. At which time he did not suppresse Méeth appointed for the king his table. in obliuion his inheritance of Meeth; but did inlarge it, and decréed it should be a countrie appendant to the monarch his diet or table. And albeit the confines thereof were by Slanius stretched, yet it conteineth not so much land as anie of the other foure parts comprehendeth; but rather by indifferent surueie, the halfe deale, whereof also it is not vnlikelie named Méeth. For whereas in the time of Slanius, each of the foure parts compriseth two and thirtie cantreds, Meeth conteineth but sixteene cantreds. A cantred is named so much land as conteineth an Cantred. hundred towneships. This Slanius is intoomed at an hill in Méeth, which of him is named Slane. There hath béene in ancient time one Galfride Geneuile, lord of Slane. Galfride Geneuile. the libertie of Meeth. This noble man became a frier preacher, and decesed in the yeare of our Lord 1314, the twentith of October, and was intoomed in the abbcie of the Black friers at Trim.

There is also another diuision of Ireland, into the English pale, and Irishrie. The English pale. For when Ireland was subdued by the English, diuerse of the conquerors planted themselues néere to Dublin, and the confines thereto adioining, and so as it were inclosing and impaling themselues within certeine lists and territories, they feazed awaie the Irish; insomuch as that countrie became méere English, and thereof it was termed the English pale: which in ancient time stretched from Dundalke to Catherlagh or Kilkennie. But now what for the slacknesse of marchours, and incroching of the Irish enimie, the scope of the English pale is greatlie impaired, & is cramperned and coucht into an od corner of the countrie named Fingall, with a parcell of the king his land, Méeth, the countries of Kildare and Louth, which parts are applied chieflie with good husbandrie, and taken for the richest and ciuilest soiles in Ireland. But Fingall especiallie from time to time hath bin so Fingula excelleth in husbandrie. addicted to all the points of husbandrie, as that they are nickenamed by their neighbours, for their continuall drudgerie, Collonnes, of the Latine word Coloni, Collonnes of Fingall. Clowne. wherevnto the clipt English word clowne seemeth to be answerable.

The word Fingall counteruaileth in English the race or sept of the English or Fingall, why so named. estrangers, for that they were solie seized of that part of the Iland, griping with their talants so firmelie that warme nest, that from the conquest to this daie the Irish enimie could neuer rouse them from thense. The inhabitants of the English pale haue béene in old time so much addicted to their ciuilitie, and so farre sequestered from barbarous sauagenesse, as their onelie mother toong was English. And The ciuilitie of Ireland in ancient time. trulie, so long as these impaled dwellers did sunder themselues as well in land as in language from the Irish: rudenesse was daie by daie in the countrie supplanted, ciuilitie ingraffed, good lawes established, loialtie obserued, rebellion suppressed, and in fine the coine of a yoong England was like to shoot in Ireland. But when their posteritie became not altogither so warie in kéeping, as their ancestors were valiant in conquering, the Irish language was frée dennized in the English pale: this canker tooke such déepe root, as the bodie that before was whole and sound, was by little and little festered, and in manner wholie putrified. And not onlie this parcell of Ireland grew to that ciuilitie, but also Vlster and the greater part of Mounster, as by the sequele of the Irish historie shall plainlie appéere. But of all other places, Weisford with the territorie baied and perclosed within the riuer called Weisford wholie English. The Pill. the Pill, was so quite estranged from Irishrie, as if a traueller of the Irish, (which was rare in those daies) had pitcht his foot within the Pill and spoken Irish, the Weisfordians would command him foorthwith to turne the other end of his toong and speake English, or els bring his trouchman with him. But in our daies they haue so acquainted themselues with the Irish, as they haue made a mingle mangle or gallimaufreie of both the languages, and haue in such medleie or checkerwise so crabbedlie iumbled them both togither, as commonlie the inhabitants of the meaner sort speake neither good English nor good Irish.

There was of late daies one of the peeres of England sent to Weisford as commissioner, The saieng of a noble man touching the English of Weisford. to decide the controuersies of that countrie; and hearing in affable wise the rude complaints of the countrie clowns, he conceined here & there some time a word, other whiles a sentence. The noble man being verie glad, that vpon his first comming to Ireland, he vnderstood so manie words, told one of his familiar friends, that he stood in verie great hope to become shortlie a well spoken man in the Irish, supposing that the blunt people had pratled Irish, all the while they iangled English. Howbeit to this daie, the dregs of the old ancient Chaucer English are kept as well there as in Fingall, as they terme a spider, an attercop, a wisp, a wad, Old English in Weisford and Fingall. a lumpe of bread, a pocket, or a pucket, a sillibucke, a copprous, a faggot, a blease, or a blaze, for the short burning of it (as I iudge) a physician, a leach, a gap, a shard, a base court or quadrangle, a bawen, or rather (as I doo suppose) a barton, the houshold or folks, meanie, sharpe, kéene, estrange, vncouth, easie, éeth or éefe, a dunghill, a mizen. As for the word bater, that in English purporteth a lane, Bater. bearing to an high waie, I take it for a méere Irish word that crept vnwares into the English, through the dailie intercourse of the English and Irish inhabitants. And whereas commonlie in all countries the women speake most neatlie and pertlie, which Tullie in his third booke De oratore, speaking in the person of Crassus séemed to haue observed: yet notwithstanding in Ireland it falleth out contrarie. For the women haue in their English toong an harsh & brode kind of pronuntiation, The pronuntiation of the Irish women. with vttering their words so péevishlie and faintlie, as though they were halfe sicke, and readie to call for a posset. And most commonlie in words of two syllables they giue the last the accent: as they saie, markeat, baskeat, gossoupe, pussoat, Robart, Niclase, &c: which doubtles dooth disbeautifie their English aboue measure. And if they could be weaned from that corrupt custome, there is none that could dislike of their English.

Here percase some snappish carper will take me at rebound, and snuffinglie snib me for debasing the Irish language: but trulie, whosoeuer shall be found so ouerthwartlie bent, he takes the matter farre awrie. For as my skill is verie simple therein, so I would be loth to disueile my rashnes, in giuing light verdict in anie thing to me vnknowen: but onelie my short discourse tendeth to this drift, that it is not expedient that the Irish toong should be so vniuersallie gagled in the English pale: because that by proofe and experience we sée, that the pale was neuer in more florishing estate than when it was wholie English, and neuer in woorsse plight than since it hath infranchised the Irish. But some will saie, that I shew my selfe herein as friuolous as some loosing gamsters séeme superstitious, when The superstition of gamsters. they plaie themselues drie, they gogle with their eies hither and thither, and if they can prie out anie one that giueth them the gaze, they stand lumping and lowring, fretting and fuming, for that they imagine that all their euill lucke procéeded of him: and yet if the stander by depart, the looser may be found as drie shauen as he was before. And euen so it fareth with you, because you sée all things run to ruine in the English pale, by reason of great enormities in the countrie, either openlie practised, or couertlie winked at; you glanse your eie on that which standeth next you, & by beating Jacke for Gill, you impute the fault to that which perhaps would little further the weale publike if it were exiled. Now trulie you shoot verie néere the marke. But if I may craue your patience till time you sée me shoot my bolt, I hope you will not denie, but that as néere the pricke as you are, and as verie an hagler as I am, yet the scantling shall be mine. First therefore take this with you, that a conquest draweth, or at the leastwise ought to draw to it thrée things, to wit, law, apparell, and language. For where the A conquest implieth three things. countrie is subdued, there the inhabitants ought to be ruled by the same law that the conqueror is gouerned, to weare the same fashion of attire wherwith the victor is vested, and speake the same language that the vanquisher parleth. And if anie of these thrée lacke, doubtlesse the conquest limpeth. Now whereas Ireland hath bin by lawfull conquest brought vnder the subiection of England, not onelie in king Henrie the second his reigne, but also as well before as after (as by the discourse of the Irish historie shall euidentlie be deciphered) and the conquest hath béene so absolute and perfect, that all Leinster, Meth, Vlster, the more part of Connagh and Mounster, all the ciuities and burroughs in Ireland haue béene wholie Englished, and with English conquerors inhabited, is it decent (thinke you) that their owne ancient natiue toong shall be shrowded in obliuion, and suffer the enimies language, as it were a tettar or ringworme, to harbor it selfe within the iawes of English conquerors? No trulie.

And now that I haue fallen vnawares into this discourse, it will not be farre amisse to stand somewhat roundlie vpon this point. It is knowen, and by the historie you may in part perceiue, how brauelie Vlster whilom florished. The English families were there implanted, the Irish either vtterlie expelled or wholie subdued, the laws dulie executed, the reuenue great, and onelie English spoken. But what brought it to this present ruine and decaie? I doubt not but you gesse before I tell you. They were inuironed and compassed with euill neighbours. Neighbourhood bred acquaintance, acquaintance waffed in the Irish toong, the Irish hooked with it attire, attire haled rudenesse, rudenesse ingendered ignorance, ignorance brought contempt of lawes, the contempt of lawes bred rebellion, rebellion raked thereto warres, and so consequentlie the vtter decaie and desolation of that worthie countrie. If these chinks, when first they began to chap, had beene diligentlie by the dwellers stopped; hir maiestie at this daie, to hir great charges, should not haue béene occasioned to dam vp with manie thousand pounds, yea and with the worthie carcases of valiant souldiors, the gaps of that rebellious northerne countrie.

Now put the case that the Irish toong were as sacred as the Hebrue, as learned as the Gréeke, as fluent as the Latine, as amarous as the Italian, as courteous as the Spanish, as courtlike as the French; yet trulie (I know not which waie it falleth out) I sée not but it may be verie well spared in the English pale. And if reason will not lead you to thinke it, trulie experience must force you to grant it.

In old time, when the Romans were first acquainted with the Gréeke toong, as it is commonlie the nature of man to be delighted with newfangle wares: so he was accounted no gallant among the Romans, that could not pratle and chat Gréeke. Marcus Cicero father to Tullie, being at that time stept in yeares, perceiuing his Cic. lib. 2. de orat. countrimen to become changelings, in being bilwise and polmad, and to sucke with the Gréeke the conditions of the Grecians, as to be in words talkatine, in behauiour light, in conditions quaint, in manners hautie, in promises vnstedfast, in oths rash, in bargains wauering (which were reckoned for Gréekish properties in those daies) the old gentleman not so much respecting the neatnesse of the language, as the naughtie fruit it brought with it; said, that his countrimen the Romans resembled the bondslaues of Siria; for the more perfect they were in the Greeke, the worse they were in their manners and life. If this gentleman had béene now liuing, and had séene what alteration hath happened in Ireland, through the intercourse of languages, he would (I dare saie) breake patience, and would demand whie the English pale is more giuen to learne the Irish, than the Irishman is willing to learne English: we must imbrace their language, and they detest ours. One demanded merilie whie Oneile that last was would not frame himselfe Oneile whie he would not learne English. to speake English? What (quoth the other) in a rage, thinkest thou that it standeth with Oneile his honor to writh his mouth in clattering English? and yet forsooth we must gag our iawes in gibbrishing Irish? But I dwell too long in so apparent a matter. As all the ciuities & towns in Ireland, with Fingall the king his land, Meth, the countie of Kildare, Louth, Weisford, speake to this daie English. (whereby the simplicitie of some is to be derided, that iudge the inhabitants of the English pale, vpon their first repaire into England, to learne their English in three or foure daies, as though they had bought at Chester a grotes worth of English, and so packt vp the rest to be carried after them to London) euen so in all other places their natiue language is Irish.

I find it solemnlie aduouched, aswell in some of the Irish pamphlets as in Girald. Camb. lib. 1. dist. 3. rub. 8. The founder of the Irish language. Camb. that Gathelus or Gaidelus, & after him Simon Brecke, deuised the Irish language out of all other toongs then extant in the world. And thereof (saith Cambrensis) it is called Gaidelach, partlie of Gaidelus the first founder, and partlie for that it is compounded of all languages. But considering the course of interchanging and blending of speeches togither, not by inuention of art, but by vse of talke, I am rather led to beléeue (séeing Ireland was inhabited within one yeare after the diuision of toongs) that Bastolenus a branch of Japhet, who first seized Bastolenus. vpon Ireland, brought thither the same kind of spéech, some of the 72 that to this familie befell at the desolation of Babell. Vnto whom succeeded the Scithians, Epipban. cont. kar lib. 1. 1. tom. 1. Grecians, Egyptians, Spaniards, Danes, of all which the toong must néeds haue borowed part, but especiallie reteining the steps of Spanish then spoken in Granado, as from their mightiest ancestors. Since then to Henrie Fitzempresse the conqueror no such inuasion happened them, as whereby they might be driuen to infect their natiue language, vntouched in manner for the space of seuenteene hundred yeares after the arriuall of Iberius. It séemeth to borrow of the Spanish the common phrase, Commestato, that is, How doo you? or how fareth it with you? It fetcheth sundrie words from the Latine, as arget of Argentum, monie; salle of sœl, salt; cappoulle of Caballus, a plough horsse, or (according vnto the old English terme) a caball or caple: birreat of the old motheaten Latine word Birretum, a bonnet. The toong is sharpe and sententious, & offereth great occasion to quicke apophthegms and proper allusions. Wherefore their common iesters and rimers, whom they terme Bards, are said to delight passinglie these that conceiue the grace and propertie Bards. of the toong. But the true Irish indéed differeth so much from that they The obscuritie of the true Irish. commonlie speake, that scarse one in flue hundred can either read, write, or vnderstand it. Therefore it is preserued among certeine of their poets and antiquaries. And in verie déed the language carrieth such difficultie with it, what for the The difficultie. strangenesse of the phrase, and the curious featnes of the pronuntiation, that a verie few of the countrie can atteine to the perfection thereof, and much lesse a forrener or stranger.

A gentleman of mine acquaintance reported, that he did see a woman in Rome, which was possessed with a babling spirit, that could haue chatted anie language sauing the Irish: and that it was so difficult, as the verie diuell was grauelled therewith. A gentleman that stood by answered, that he tooke the speech to be so sacred and holie, that no damned féend had the power to speake it; no more than they are able to saie (as the report goeth) the verse of saint John the euangelist, "Et John 1. verse 14. verbum caro factum est." Naie by God his mercie man (quoth the other) I stand in doubt (I tell you) whether the apostles in their copious mart of languages at Jerusalem could haue spoken Irish, if they were apposed: whereat the companie heartilie laughed. As fluent as the Irish toong is, yet it lacketh diuerse words, and borroweth them verbatim of the English. As there is no vulgar Irish word (vnlesse there be some od terme that lurketh in anie obscure shrowds or other of their The want of the Irish. storehouse) for a cote, a gowne, a dublet, an hat, a drinking cup: but onelie they vse the same words with a little inflexion. They vse also the contracted English phrase, God morrow, that is to saie, God giue you a good morning.

I haue apposed sundrie times the expertest men that could be had in the countrie, and all they could neuer find out an equiualent Irish word for knaue. The Grecians No Irish word for knaue. (according to Tullie his iudgement) were in the same predicament as touching the terme Ineptus: his words are these. "Ego meherculé ex omnibus Latinis verbis, Lib. 2. de orat. Insptus. huius verbi vim vel maximam semper putaui. Quem enim nos ineptum vocamus, is mihi videtur ab hoc nomen habere ducrum, quód non sit aptus, idque in sermonis nostri consuetudine perlaté patet. Nam qui aut tempus, quo quid postulet, non videt, aut plura loquitur, aut se ostentat, aut eorum, quibuscum est, vel dignitatis vel commodi rationem non habet, aut denique in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, is ineptus esse dicitur. Hoc vitio cumulata est eruditissima illa Græcorum natio. Itaque qui vim huius mali Græci non videdent, ne nomen quidem ei vitio imposuerunt. Vt enim quæras omnia, quomodo Græci ineptum appellent, non reperies."

Certes I haue béene of opinion (saith Tullie) that amongest the whole crue of Latine terms the word Ineptus hath béene of greatest importance or weight. For he, whom we name Ineptus, seemeth to me to haue the etymologie or ofspring of his name here hense deriued, that he is not apt; which stretcheth far and wide in the vsuall custome of our dailie spéech or communication. For he that dooth not perceiue what is fitting or decent for euerie season, or gableth more than he hath commission to doo, or that in bragging, bosting, or peacockwise setteth himselfe foorth to the gaze, by making more of the broth, than the flesh is worth; or he that regardeth not the vocation and aftaires of them, with whome he intermedleth: or in fine, who so is stale without grace, or ouer tedious in anie matter, he is tearmed Ineptus; which is asmuch in English, in my phantasie, as saucie, or malapert. The famous & learned Gréeke nation is generallie dusked with this fault. And for that the Grecians could not spie the enormitie thereof, they haue not so Saucines. much as framed a terme thereto. For if you should ransacke the whole Gréeke language, you shall not find a word to counteruaile Ineptus. Thus far Tullie. Yet Budæus would not séeme to acknowledge this barrennesse, but that the Gréeke word ὰπειρͅὸχαλος is equiposlent to Ineptus: but that I referre to the iudgement of the learned, being verie willing to find out some other Budæus, that could fashion an Irish word for knaue, whereof this discourse of Ineptus grew. As the whole realme Budœ. lib. 2. de Asse. & part. ciue. of Ireland is sundred into foure principall parts, as before is said, so each parcell differeth verie much in the Irish toong, euerie countrie hauing his dialect, or peculiar maner in speaking the language: therefore commonlie in Ireland they ascribe a propertie to each of the foure countries in this sort. Vlster hath the right Irish phrase, but not the true pronunciation; Munster hath the true pronunciation, but not the phrase; Leinster is deuoid of the right phrase, and true pronunciation; Connaght hath both the right phrase and true pronunciation. There is a cholerike or disdainfull interiection vsed in the Irish language called Boagh, which is Irish boagh. as much in English as twish. The Irish both in ancient time and to this daie commonlie vse it, and therefore the English conquerors called them Irish poghes, or pogh Morice. Which tawnting terme is at this daie verie wrongfullie ascribed to them of the English pale. The English interiection, Fough, which is vsed in Fough. lothing a ranke or strong sauour, seemeth to be sib to the other.

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