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The Names of the Ciuities, Boroughs and Hauen Townes in Ireland.

The Third Chapter.

Dublinum. DUBLIN the beautie and eie of Ireland, hath béene named by Ptolome, in ancient time, Eblana. Some terme it Dublina, others Dublinia, manie write it Dublinum, authors of better skill name it Dublinium. The Irish call it, Ballée er Cleagh, that is, a towne planted vpon hurdels. For the common opinion is, that the plot vpon which the ciuitie is builded, hath béene a marish ground; and for that by the art or inuention of the first founder, the water could not be voided, he was forced to fasten the quakemire with hurdels, and vpon them to build the citie. I heard of some that came of building of houses to this foundation: and other hold opinion that if a cart or waine run with a round and maine pase through a stréet called the high stréet, the houses on ech side shall be perceiued to shake. This citie was builded, or rather the buildings Dublin builded. thereof inlarged, about the yeare of our Lord 155. For about this time there arriued in Ireland thrée noble Easterlings that were brethren, Auellanus, Sitaracus, and Yuorus. Auellanus the founder of Dublin. Auellanus being the eldest brother builded Dublin. Sitaracus Waterford, and Yuorus Limerike. Of the founder Auellanus, Dublin was named Auellana, and after Auellana. Eblana. by corruption of speach Eblana. This citie, as it is not in antiquitie inferiour to anie citie in Ireland, so in pleasant situation, in gorgious buildings, in the multitude of people, in martiall chiualrie, in obedience and loialtie, in the abundance of wealth, in largenesse of hospitalite, in maners and ciuilitie it is superiour to all other cities and townes in that realme. And therefore it is commonlie called the Irish or yoong London. The seat of this citie is of all sides pleasant, comfortable, and Dublin the Irish London. The situation of Dublin. The Liffie. wholesome. If you would trauerse hils, they are not far off. If champion ground, it lieth of all parts. If you be delited with fresh water, the famous riuer called the Liffie, named of Ptolome Lybnium, runneth fast by. If you will take the view of the sea, it is at hand. The onlie fault of this citie is, that it is lesse frequented of merchant estrangers, bicause of the bare hauen. Their charter is large. King The sword giuen to Dublin. Shiriffes of Dublin 1547. Henrie the fourth gaue this citie the sword, in the yeare of our Lord 1409, and was ruled by a maior and two bailiffes, which were changed into shiriffes by a charter granted by Edward the sixt, in the yeare of our Lord 1547. In which yeare Iohn Rians and Robert Ians, two worshipfull gentlemen, were collegues in that office. & thereof they are named the last bailiffes & first shiriffes that haue beene in Dublin. It appéereth by the ancient seale of this citie, called Signum præpositarœ, that this Dublin gouerned by a prouost. citie hath beene in old time gouerned by a prouost.

The hospitalitie of the maior and the shiriffes for the yeare being, is so large and The hospitalitie of the maior and shiriffes. bountifull, that soothlie (London forepriced) verie few such officers vnder the crowne of England kéepe so great a port, none I am sure greater. The maior, ouer the number of officers that take their dailie repast at his table, keepeth for his yeare in maner open house. And albeit in tearme time his house is frequented as well of the nobilitie as of other potentats of great calling: yet his ordinarie is so good, that a verie few set feasts are prouided for them. They that spend least in their maioraltie (as those of credit, yea and such as bare the office haue informed me) make an ordinarie account of fiue hundred pounds for their viand and diet that yeare: which is no small summe to be bestowed in houskéeping, namelie where vittels are so good cheape, and the presents of friends diuerse and sundrie.

There hath beene of late yeares a worshipfull gentleman, named Patrike Scarsefield, 1551. Patrike Scarsefield his hospitatalitie. that bare the office of the maioraltie in Dublin, who kept so great port in this yeare, as his hospitalitie to his fame and renowme resteth as yet in fresh memorie. One of his especiall and entire friends entring in communication with the gentleman, his yeare being well neere expired, mooued question, to what he thought his expenses all that yeare amounted? Trulie Iames (so his friend was named) quoth maister Scarsefield, I take betwéene me and God, when I entered into mine office, the last saint Hierome his daie (which is the morrow of Michaelmasse, on which The maior of Dublin when he is sworne. daie the maior taketh his oth before the chiefe baron, at the excheker within the castell of Dublin) I had thrée barnes well stored and thwackt with corne, and I assured my selfe, that anie one of these thrée had bene sufficient to haue stored mine house with bread, ale, and béere for this yeare. And now God and good companie be thanked, I stand in doubt, whether I shall rub out my maioraltie with my third barne, which is well nigh with my yeare ended. And yet nothing smiteth me so much at the heart, as that the knot of good fellowes that you sée here (he ment the sergeants and officers) are readie to flit from me, and make their next yeares abode with the next maior.

And certes I am so much wedded to good fellowship, as if I could mainteine mine house to my contentation, with defraieng of fiue hundred pounds yearelie; I would make humble sute to the citizens, to be their officer these thrée yeares to come. Ouer this, he did at the same time protest with oth, that he spent that yeare in housekéeping twentie tuns of claret wine, ouer and aboue white wine, sacke, malmeseie, muscadell, &c. And in verie deed it was not to be maruelled: for during his maioraltie, his house was so open, as commonly from fiue of the clocke in the morning, to ten at night, his butterie and cellars were with one crew or other frequented. To the haunting of which, ghests were the sooner allured, for that you should neuer marke him or his bedfellow (such was their buxomnesse) once frowne or wrinkle their foreheads, or bend their browes, or glowme their countenances, or make a sowre face at anie ghest, were he neuer so meane. But their interteinment was so notable, as they would sauce their bountifull & deintie faire with heartie and amiable chéere. His porter or anie other officer durst not for both his eares giue the simplest man that resorted to his house Tom drum his interteinment, Tom drum his interteinment, which is, to hale a man in by the head, and thrust him out by both the shoulders. For he was fullie resolued, that his worship and reputation could not be more distained, than by the currish interteinment of anie ghest. To be briefe (according to the golden verses of the ancient and famous English poet Geffreie Chaucer:) Chaucer in the prolog of his Canterburie tales.

"An housholder, and that a great, was hee,
Saint Iulian he was in his countrie.
His bread, his ale, was alwaie after one,
A better viended man was no where none.
Without bakte meat was neuer his house,
Of fish and flesh, and that so plenteouse.
It snewed in his house of meat and drinke,
Of all deinties that men could thinke.
After the sundrie seasons of the yere,
So changed he his meat and his suppere.
Full manie a fat partrich had he in mew,
And manie a breme, and manie a luce in stew."

Some of his friends, that were snudging peniefathers, would take him vp verie roughlie for his lauishing & his outragious expenses, as they tearme it. Tush my maisters (would he saie) take not the matter so hot: who so commeth to my table, and hath no néed of my meat, I know he commeth for the good will he beareth me; and therefore I am beholding to thanke him for his companie: if he resort for néed, how maie I bestow my goods better, than in reléeving the poore? If you had perceiued me so far behind hand, as that I had bene like to haue brought haddocke to paddocke, I would patientlie permit you, both largelie to controll me, and friendlie to reproue me. But so long as I cut so large thongs of mine owne leather, as that I am not yet come to my buckle, and during the time I kéepe my selfe so farre aflote, as that I haue as much water as my ship draweth: I praie pardon me to be liberall in spending, sith Godof his goodnesse is gratious in sending.

And in déed so it fell out. For at the end of his maioraltie he owght no man a dotkin. What he dispended was his owne: and euer after during his life, he kept so woorthie a standing house, as that hée séemed to surrender the princes sword to other maiors, and reserued the port & hospitalitie to himselfe. Not long before him was Nicholas Stanihurst their maior, who was so great and good an housholder. Nicholas Stanihurst. that during his maioraltie, the lord chancellor of the realme was his daille and ordinarie ghest. There hath beene of late worshipfull ports kept by maister Fian, who was twise maior, maister Sedgraue, Thomas Fitz Simons, Robert Cusacke, Walter Cusacke, Nicholas Fitz Simons, Iames Bedlow, Christopher Fagan, and diuerse The hospitalitie of Dublin. others. And not onelie their officers so farre excell in hospitalitie, but also the greater part of the ciuitie is generallie addicted to such ordinarie and standing houses, as it would make a man muse which waie they are able to beare it out, but onelie by the goodnesse of God, which is the vpholder and furtherer of hospitalitie. What should I here speake of their charitable almes, dailie and hourelie extended to the néedie? The poore prisoners both of the Newgate and the castell, with thrée or foure hospitals, are chieflie, if not onelie, relieued by the citizens.

Furthermore, there are so manie other extraordinarie beggers that dailie swaruie there, so charitablie succored, as that they make the whole ciuitie in effect their hospitall. The great expenses of the citizens maie probablie be gathered by the woorthie and fairlike markets, weeklie on wednesdaie and fridaie kept in Dublin. Their shambles is so well stored with meat, and their market with come, as not The shambles and markets at Dublin. onelie in Ireland, but also in other countries you shall not sée anie one shambles, or anie one market better furnished with the one or the other, than Dublin is. The citizens haue from time to time in sundrie conflicts so galled the Irish, that euen to this daie, the Irish feare a ragged and iagged blacke standard that the citizens The blacke standard. haue, almost through tract of time worne to the hard stumps. This standard they carrie with them in hostings, being neuer displaied but when they are readie to enter into battell, and come to the shocke. The sight of which danteth the Irish aboue measure.

And for the better training of their youth in martiall exploits, the citizens vse to The musters of Dublin. musterfoure times by the yeare: on Black mondaie, which is the morrow of Easter daie, on Maie daie, saint Iohn Baptist his eeue, and saint Peter his eeue. Whereof two are ascribed to the maior & shiriffes: the other two, to wit, the musters on Maie daie and saint Peter his eeue, are assigned to the maior and shiriffes of the Bull ring. The The maior of the Bull ring. maior of the Bull ring is an office elected by the citizens, to be as it were capteine or gardian of the batchelers and the vnwedded youth of the ciuitie. And for the yeare he hath authoritie to chastise and punish such as frequent brothelhouses, and the like vnchast places. He is tearmed the maior of the Bull ring, of an iron ring that sticketh in the cornemarket, to which the bulles that are yearelie bated be vsuallie tied: which ring is had by him and his companie in so great price, as if anie citizen batcheler hap to marrie, the maior of the Bull ring and his crue conduct the bridegroome vpon his returne from church, to the market place, and there with a soiemne kisse for his Vltimum vale, he dooth homage vnto the Bull ring.

The Blacke mondaie muster sproong of this occasion. Soone after Ireland was The blacke mondaie. conquered by the Britons, and the greater part of Leinster pacified, diuerse townesmen of Bristow flitted from thense to Dublin, and in short space the ciuitie was by Dublin inhabited by the Bristollians. This was about the yeare of our Lord 1209. them so well inhabited, as it grew to bée verie populous. Wherevpon the citizens hauing ouer great affiance in the multitude of the people, and so consequentlie being somewhat retchlesse in héeding the mounteine enimie that lurked vnder their noses, were woont to rome and roile in clusters, sometime thrée or foure miles from the towne. The Irish enimie spieng that the citizens were accustomed to fetch such od vagaries, especiallie on the holie daies, & hauing an inkling withall by some false clatterfert or other, that a companie of them would haue ranged abrode, on mondaie in the Easter weeke towards the wood of Cullen, which is distant two miles from Dublin, they laie in stale verie well appointed, and laid in sundrie places for their comming. The citizens rather minding the pleasure they should presentlie inioy, than forecasting the hurt that might insue, flockt vnarmed out of the ciuitie to the wood, where being intercepted by them that laie hoouing in ambush, they were to the number of fiue hundred miserablie slaine. Wherevpon the remnant of the citizens deeming that vnluckie time to be a crosse or a dismall daie, gaue it the appellation of Black mondaie.

The citie soone after being peopled by a fresh supplie of Bristollians, to dare the Irish enimie, agréed to banket yearelie in that place, which to this daie is obserued. For the maior and the shiriffs with the citizens repaire to the wood of Cullen, in which place the maior bestoweth a costlie dinner within a mote or a rundell, and both the shiriffs within another: where they are so well garded with the youth of the ciuitie, as the mounteine animie dareth not attempt to snatch as much as a pastie crust from thense. Dublin hath at this daie within the citie and in the The churches of Dublin. suburbs these churches that insue, of which the greater number are parioch churches, onelie Christs church with a few oratories and chappels excepted. Christs church, Christs church. otherwise named Ecclesia sanctœ trinitatis, a cathedrall church, the ancientest that I can find recorded of all the churches now standing in Dublin. I take it to haue beene builded, if not in Auellanus his time, yet soone after by the Danes. The building of which was both repared & inlarged by Critius prince of Dublin, at the earnest request of Donat the bishop, and soone after the conquest it hath béene much beautified by Robert Fitz Stephans and Strangbow the erie of Penbroke, who with his sonne is in the bodie of the church intoomed. The chappell that standeth in the chore, commonlie called the new chappell, was builded by Gerald Fitz Thomas earle of Kildare, in the yeare of our Lord 1510, where he is intoomed.

Saint Patrikes church, a cathedrall church, indued with notable liuings; and diuerse fat benefices. It hath a chappell at the north doore which is called the paroch church. This church was founded by the famous and woorthie prelate Iohn Commin, about the yeare of our Lord 1197. This foundation was greatlie aduanced by the liberalitie of king Iohn. There hath risen a great contention The contreuersie betweéene Christ church and saint Patriks church. betwixt this church and Christes church for antiquitie, wherein doubtlesse S. Patrike his church ought to give place, vnlesse they haue further matter to shew, and better reasons to build vpon than their foundations, in which this church by manie yeares is inferior to the other. Saint Nicholas, Saint Michaell, Saint Verberosse, or Saint Varburgh, so called of a Chesshire virgine. The citizens of Chester founded this church, with two chappels thereto annexed; the one called our ladies chappell, the other S. Martins chappell. Hir feast is kept the third of Februarie. This church with a great part of the citie was burned in the yeare 1301: but agaiue by the parochians reedified. Saint Iohn the euangelist, Saint Audeon, which is corruptlie called Saint Ouen, or Owen. His feast is solemnized the fourtéenth of August. The paroch of this church is accounted the best in Dublin, for that the greater number of the aldermen and the worships of the citie are demurrant within that paroch.

Saint Tullocke now prophaned. In this church in old time, the familie of the Fitz Simons. Fitz Simons was for the more part buried. The paroch was meared from the Crane castell, to the fish shambles, called the Cockhill, with Preston his innes, & the lane thereto adjoining, which scope is now vnited to Saint Iohn his paroch. S. Katharine, S. Michan or Mighan, Saint Iames; his feast is celebrated the fiue and S. Iames his faire. twentith of Iulie, on which daie in ancient time was there a woorthie faire kept at Dublin, continuing six daies, vnto which resorted diuers merchants, as well from England, as from France and Flanders. And they afforded their wares so dogcheape, in respect of the citie merchants, that the countrie was yeare by yeare sufficientlie stored by strangers: and the citie merchants not vttering their wares, but to such as had not readie chinkes, and therevpon forced to run on the score, were verie much impouerished. Wherefore partlie thorough the canuasing of the towne merchants, and partlie by the winking of the rest of the citizens, being woon vpon manie gaie glosed promises, by plaieng bopéepe to beare themselues ouerlie in the matter, that famous mart was supprest, and all forren saile wholie abandoned. Yet for a memoriall of this notable faire, a few cottages, booths, and alepoles are pitched at Saint Iames his gate. Saint Michaell of Poules, alias Paules, Saint Brigide, Saint Keuin, Saint Peter Demonte, or vpon the hill, appendant to Saint Patrikes church. Saint Stephan; this was erected for an hospitall for poore, lame, and impotent lazers, where they abide to this daie, although not in such chast and sincere wise, as the founders will was vpon the erection thereof. The maior with his brethren on Saint Stephan his daie (which is one of their station daies) repaireth thither, and there dooth offer. Saint Andrew now prophaned.

Both the gates neere the White friers, Saint Keuen his gate, Hogs gate, Dammes The names of the gates of the citie and suburbs of Dublin. gate, Poule gate, aliâs Paules gate, Newgate, a goale or prison, Wine tauerne gate, Saint Audeon his gate; hard by the church going downe towards the Cockestréet. The reason why this gate, and the Wine tauerne gate were builded, procéeded of this. In the yeare 1315, Edward Bruise a Scot, & brother to Robert Bruise king of Scots arriued in the north of Ireland. From whence he marched on forwards with his armie, vntill he came as far as Castleknocke. The citizens of Dublin being sore amazed at the sudden and Scarborough approch of so puissant an enimie, burned all the houses in Saint Thomas his stréet, least he should vpon his repaire to Dublin haue anie succour in the suburbs. The maior (named Robert Notingham) and communaltie being in this distresse, razed downe an abbeie of the frier preachers, called Saint Sauiour his monasterie, and brought the stones thereof to these places, where the gates now stand; and all along that waie did cast a wall for the better fortifieng of the ciultie, mistrusting that the wals that went along both the keies, should not haue béene of sufficient force to outhold the enimie. The Scots hauing intelligence of the fortifieng of Dublin, and reckoning it a folie to laie siege to so impregnable a ciuitie, marched toward a place not far from Dublin, called the Salmon leape, where pitching their tents for foure daies, they remooued towards the Naas. But when the ciuitie was past this danger, king Edward the second gaue strict commandement to the citizens to build the abbeie they razed; saieng, that although lawes were squatted in warre, yet notwithstanding they ought to be reuiued in peace. Gurmund his gate, hard by the Cucull, or Coockolds post. Some suppose, that one Gurmundus builded this gate, and thereof to take the name. Others iudge, that the Irish assaulting the cinitie, were discomfited by the earle of Ormond, then by good hap soiourning at Dublin. And because he issued out at that gate, to the end the valiant exploit and famous conquest of so woorthie a potentate should be ingrailed in perpetuall memorie, the gate bare the name of Ormond his gate. The bridge gate, Saint Nicholas his gate, Saint Patrike his gate, Bungan his gate, the Newstréet gate, Saint Thomas his gate, Saint Iames his gate.

The Dammes stréet, the Castle stréet, stretching to the pillorie, Saint Verberosses The names of the streets, bridges, lanes, and other notorious places in Dublin. John Decer. stréet, Saint Iohn his stréet, aliâs fish shamble street, Skinners rew reaching from the pillorie to the tolehall, or to the high crosse. The high stréet bearing to the high pipe. This pipe was builded in the yeare 1308, by a woorthie citizen named Iohn Decer, being then maior of Dublin. He builded not long before that time the bridge hard by Saint Woolstans, that reacheth ouer the Liffie. The Newgate stréet, from the Newgate to Saint Audoen his church. Saint Nicholas his stréet, the Wine tauerne street, the Cooke street, the Bridge stréet. This stréet with the greater part of the keie was burnt in the yeare 1304. The Woodkeie, the Merchant keie, Osmontowne, so called of certeine Easterlings or Normans, Ostmanni. properlie the Danes that were called Ostmanni. They planted themselues hard by the water side neere Dublin, and discomfited at Clontarfe in a skirmish diuerse of the Irish. The names of the Irish capteins slaine were Brian Borrough, Miagh macke Bren, Tadie Okellie, Dolin Ahertegan, Gille Barramede. These 1050. were Irish potentates, and before their discomfiture they ruled the rost. They were interred at Kilmainanne ouer against the great crosse. There arriued a fresh supplie of Easterlings at Dublin in the yeare 1095, and setled themselues on the other 1095. Ostmantowne, why so called. side of the ciuitie, which of them to this daie is called Ostmantowne, that is, the towne of the Ostmannes, whereof there ariseth great likelihood to haue béene a separat towne from the citie, being parted from Dublin by the Liffie, as Southworke is seuered from London by Thames. Saint Thomas his stréet; this street was burnt by mishap in the yeare 1343. The New buildings, the New stréet, Saint Francis his stréet, the Kowme, Saint Patrike his street, the backeside of Saint Sepulchres, Saint Keuen his street, the Poule, or Paulmilstréet, Saint Brigids stréet, the Shéepe street, aliâs the Ship stréet. For diuerse are of opinion, that the sea had passage that waie, and thereof to be called the Ship stréet.

This as it séemesh not wholie impossible, considering that the sea floweth and ebbeth hard by it: so it carieth a more colour of truth with it, because there haue béene found there certeine iron rings fastned to the towne wall, to hold and graple botes withall. Saint Verberosses lane, vp to Saint Nicholas his stréet, now inclosed, Saint Michaell his lane, beginning at Saint Michaell his pipe, Christchurch lane, The lanes. Saint Iohn his lane, Ram lane, aliâs the Schoolehouse lane, Saint Audoen his lane, Kesers lane. This lane is stéepe and slipperie, in which otherwhiles, they that make more hast, than good spéed, clinke their bums to the stones. And therefore the ruder sort, whether it be through corruption of spéech, or for that they giue it a nickename, commonlie term it, not so homelie, as trulie, Kisse arsse lane. Rochell lane, aliâs Backelane, on the southside of the flesh shambles, the Cookestréet lane, Frapper lane, Giglottes hill, Marie lane, Saint Tullocke his lane, Scarlet lane, aliâs Isouds lane, Saint Pulchers lane, Saint Kenin his lane, the White friers lane, Saint Stephan his lane, Hogs lane, the Sea lane, Saint George his lane, where in old time were builded diuerse old and ancient monuments. And as an insearcher of antiquities may (by the view there to be taken) coniecture, the better part of the suburbs of Dublin should séeme to haue stretched that waie. But the inhabitants being dailie and hourelie molested and preided by their prolling mounteine neighbors, were forced to suffer their buildings fall in decaie, and embaied themselues within the citie wals.

Among other monuments, there is a place in that lane called now Collets innes, The old Escacar. which in old time was the Escaxar or Excheker. Which should implie that the princes court would not haue béene kept there, unlesse the place had béene taken to be cocksure. But in fine it fell out contrarie. For the baron sitting there solemnlie, and as it seemed, retchleslie: the Irish espieng the oportunitie, rushed into the court in plumps, where surprising the vnweaponed multitude, they committed horrible slaughters by sparing none that came vnder their dint: and withall, as far as their Scarborough leasure could serue them, they ransacke the prince his thesaure, vpon which mishap the excheker was from thense remooued. There hath beene also in that lane a chappell dedicated to saint George, likelie to haue béene S. George his chappeli. founded by some worthie knight of the garter. The maior with his brethren was accustomed with great triumphs and pageants yéerelie on saint George his feast to repaire to that chappell, and there to offer. This chappell hath beene of late razed, and the stones therof by consent of the assemblie turned to a common ouen, conuerting the ancient monument of a doutie, aduenturous, and holie knight, to the colerake swéeping of a pufloafe baker. The great bridge going to Ostmantowne, The bridges. saint Nicholas his bridge, the Poule gate bridge, repared by Nicholas Stanihurst about the yeere one thousand fiue hundred forty & foure, the Castell bridge, S. 1554. Iames his bridge.

The castell of Dublin was builded by Henrie Loundres (sometime archbishop of The castell. Dublin, and lord iustice of Ireland) about the yéere of our Lord one thousand two hundred and twentie. This castell hath beside the gate house foure goodlie 1220. Bermingham his tower. and substantiall towers, of which one of them is named Bermingham his tower, whether it were that one of the Berminghams did inlarge the building thereof, or else that he was long in duresse in that tower. This castell hath béene of late 1566. much beautified with sundrie and gorgious buildings in the time of sir Henrie Sidneie, sometimes lord deputie of Ireland. In the commendation of which buildings an especiall welwiller of his lordships penned these verses:

"Gesta libri referunt multorum clara virorum,
Laudis & in chartis stigmata fixa manent.
Verum Sidnæi laudes hæc saxa loquuntur,
Nec iacet in solis gloria tanta libris.
Si libri pereant, homines remanere valebunt,
Si percent homines, ligna manere queunt.
Lignaque si pereant, non ergò saxa peribunt,
Saxaque si pereant tempore, tempus erit.
Si pereat tempus, minimè consumitur æuum,
Quod cum principio, sed sine fine manet.
Dum libri florent, homines dum viuere possunt,
Dum quoque cum lignis saxa manere valent,
Dum remanet tempus, dum denique permanet seuum,
Laus tua, Sidnæi, digna perire nequit."

There standeth neere the castell ouer against a void roome called Preston his innes, a tower named Isouds tower. It tooke the name of la Beale Isoud, daughter Isouds tower. to Anguish king of Ireland. It séemeth to haue béene a castle of pleasure for the kings to recreat themselues therein. Which was not vnlike, considering that a meaner tower might serue such single soule kings as were at those daies in Ireland. There is a village hard by Dublin, called of the said la Beale, chappell Isoud.

Chappell Isoud. Saint Pulchers, the archbishop of Dublin his house, as well pleasantlie sited as Saint Pulchers. gorgeouslie builded. Some hold opinion, that the beautifuller part of this house was of set purpose fired by an archbishop, to the end the gouernors (which for the more part laie there) should not haue so goodliking to the house: not far disagréeing from the policie that I heard a noble man tell he used, who hauing a surpassing good horse, and such a one as ouer ran in a set race other choise horses, did bobtaile him vpon his returne to the stable, least anie of his fréends casting a fantasie to the beast, should craue him. The noble man being so bountifullie giuen, as that of liberalitie he could not, & of discretion he would séeme to giue his fréend the repulse in a more weightie request than that were.

Saint Stephans gréene, Hogging gréene, the Steine, Ostmantowne gréene. In The names of the fields adioining to Dublin. the further end of this field is there a hole commonlie termed Scald brothers hole, a labyrinth reaching two large miles vnder the earth. This hole was in old time frequented by a notorious théefe named Scaldbrother, wherein he would hide all Scaldbrother. the bag and baggage that he could pilfer. The varlet was so swift on foot, as he hath eftsoones outrun the swiftest and lustiest yoong men in all Ostmantowne, maugre their heads, bearing a pot or a pan of theirs on his shoulders to his den. And now and then, in derision of such as pursued him, he would take his course vnder the gallows, which standeth verie nigh his caue (a fit signe for such an inne) and so being shrowded within his lodge, he reckoned himselfe cocksure, none being found at that time so hardie as would aduenture to intangle himselfe within so intricat a maze. But as the pitcher that goeth often to the water, commeth at length home broken: so this lustie youth would not surcease from open catching, forcible snatching, and priuie prolling, till time he was by certeine gaping groomes that laie in wait for him, intercepted, fléeing toward his couch, hauing upon his apprehension no more wrong doone him, than that he was not sooner hanged on that Scaldbrother executed. gallowes, through which in his youth and iolitie he was woont to run. There standeth in Ostmantowne gréene an hillocke, named little Iohn his shot. The Little John. occasion proceeded of this.

In the yéere one thousand one hundred foure score and nine, there ranged three 1189 Robert Hood. robbers and outlaws in England, among which Robert Hood and little Iohn were cheefeteins, of all theeues doubtlesse the most courteous. Robert Hood being betraied at a nunrie in Scotland called Bricklies, the remnant of the crue was scattered, and euerie man forced to shift for himselfe. Wherevpon little Iohn was faine to flée the realme by sailing into Ireland, where he soiornied for a few daies at Dublin. The citizens being doone to vnderstand the wandering outcast to be an excellent archer, requested him hartilie to trie how far he could shoot at randon: who yéelding to their behest, stood on the bridge of Dublin, and shot to that mole hill, leaning behind him a monument, rather by his posteritie to be woondered, than possiblie by anie man liuing to be counterscored. But as the repaire of so notorious a champion to anie countrie would soone be published, so his abode could not be long concealed: and therefore to eschew the danger of lawes, he fled into Scotland, Little Iohn deceased. where he died at a towne or village called Morauie. Gerardus Mercator in his cosmographie affirmeth, that in the same towne the bones of an huge and mightie man are kept, which was called little Iohn, among which bones, the hucklebone or hipbone was of such largenesse, as witnesseth Hector Boetius, that he thrust his arme through the hole thereof. And the same bone being suted to the other parts of his bodie, did argue the man to haue béene fourteene foot long, which was a pretie length for a little Iohn. Whereby appeereth that he was called little Iohn ironicallie, like as we terme him an honest man whom we take for a knaue in graine.

Neere to the citie of Dublin are the foure ancient manors annexed to the crowne, The king his land which are named to this daie, the Kings land; to wit, Newcastell, Massaggard, Eschire, and Crumlin. The manor of Crumlin paieth a great chéefe rent to the Crumlin. prince than anie of the other three, which procéeded of this. The seneschall being offended with the tenants for their misdemeanor, tooke then vp very sharplie in the court, and with rough and minatorie spéeches began to menace them. The lobbish and desperat clobberiousnesse, taking the matter in dudgeon, made no more words, but knockt their seneschall on the costard, and left him there spralling on the ground for dead. For which detestable murther their rent was inhansed, and they paie at this daie nine pence an acre, which is double to anie of the other thrée manors.

Waterford was founded by Sitaracus (as is aforesaid) in the yeere one hundred Waterford. Manapia. fiftie and fiue. Ptolome nameth it Manapia, but whie he appropriateth that name to this citie, neither dooth he declare, nor I ghesse. This city is properlie builded, and verie well compact, somewhat close by reason of their thicke buildings and narrow stréets. The hauen is passing good, by which the citizens through the intercourse of forren traffike in short space atteine to abundance of wealth. The soile about it is not all of the best, by reason of which the aire is not verie subtill, yea nathelesse the sharpnesse of their wittes séemeth to be nothing rebated or duld by reason of the grossenesse of the aire. For in good sooth the townesmen, and namelie students are pregnant in conceiuing, quicke in taking, and sure in kéeping. The citizens are verie héedie and warie in all their publike affaires, slow in the determining of matters of weight, louing to looke yer they leape. In choosing their magistrate, they respect not onlie his riches, but also they weigh his experience. And therefore they elect for their maior neither a rich man that is yoong, nor an old man that is poore. They are cheerfull in the interteinment of strangers, hartie one to another, nothing giuen to factions. They lone no idle benchwhistlers, nor luskish faitors: for yoong and old are wholie addicted to thriuing, the men commonlie to traffike, the women to spinning and carding. As they distill the best Aqua vitœ, so they spin the choisest rug in Ireland. A fréend of mine being of late demurrant in London, and the weather by reason of an hard hoare frost being somwhat nipping, repaired to Paris garden, clad in one of these Waterferd rugs. The mastifs had no sooner espied him, but déeming he had béene a beare, would faine haue baited him. And were it not that the dogs were partlie muzzled, and partlie chained, he doubted not, but that he should haue béene well tugd in this Irish rug; wherevpon he solemnlie vowed neuer to see beare baiting in anie such wéed. The citie of Waterford hath continued to the crowne of England so loiali, that it is not found registred since the conquest to haue béene distained with the smallest spot, or dusked with the least freckle of treason; notwithstanding the sundrie assaults of traitorous attempts: and therefore the cities armes are deckt with this golden word, Intacta manei: a posie as well to be hartilie followed, as The posie of Waterford. greatlie admired of all true and loiall townes.

Limerike called in Latine Limericum was builded by Yuorns, as is before mentioned, Limerike. about the yéere one hundred fiftie and fiue. This citie coasteth on the sea hard vpon the riuer Sennan, whereby are most notablie seuered Mounster and Connaght: Sennan the riuer of Limerike. Limerike whie so called. the Irish name this citie Loumneagh, and thereof in English it is named Limerike. The towne is planted in an Iland, which plot in old time, before the building of the citie was stored with grasse. During which time it happened, that one of the Irish potentates, raising warre against another of his peers, incamped in that Ile, hauing so great a troope of horssemen, as the horsses eate vp the grasse in foure and twentie hours. Wherevpon for the notorious number of horses, the place is called Loum ne augh; that is, the horse bare, or a place made bare or eaten vp by horses. The verie maine sea is thrée score miles distant from the towne, and yet the riuer is so nauigable, as a ship of two hundred tuns may saile to the keie of the citie. The riuer is termed in Irish Shaune amne, that is, the old riuer; for shaune is old, & amne is a riuer, deducted of the Latine word Amnis. The building of Limerike is sumptuous and substantiall.

Corke, in Latine Coracium or Corracium, the fourth citie of Ireland happilie Corke. planted on the sea. Their hauen is an hauen roiall. On the land side they are incombred with euill neighbors, the Irish outlaws, that they are faine to watch their gates hourlie, to kéepe them shut at seruice times, at meales from sun to sun, nor suffer anie stranger to enter the citie with his weapon, but the same to leaue at a lodge appointed. They walke out at seasons for recreation with power of men furnished. They trust not the countrie adioining, but match in wedlocke among themselues onelie, so that the whole citie is welnigh linked one to the other in affinitie. Drogheda, accounted the best towne in Ireland, and trulie not far behind Drogheda. some of their cities. The one moitie of this towne is in Meth, the other planted on the further side of the water lieth in Ulster. There runneth a blind prophesie on this towne, that Rosse was, Dublin is, Drogheda shall be the best of the three.

Rosse, an hauen towne in Mounster not far from Waterford, which séemeth to Rosse. haue béene in ancient time a towne of great port. Whereof sundrie & probable coniectures are giuen, as well by the old ditches that are now a mile distant from the wals of Rosse, betweene which wals and ditches the reliks of the ancient wals, gates, and towers, placed betweene both are yet to be seene. The towne is builded in a barren soile, and planted among a crue of naughtie and prolling neighbours. And in old time when it florished, albeit the towne were sufficientlie peopled, yet as long as it was not compassed with wals, they were formed with watch & ward, to keepe it from the gréedie snatching of the Irish enimies. With whome as they were generallie molested, so the priuat cousening of one pezzant on a sudden, incensed them to inuiron their towne with strong and substantiall wals. There repaired one of the Irish to this towne on horssebacke, and espieng a peece of cloth on a merchants stall, tooke hold thereof, and bet the cloth to the lowest price he could. As the merchant and he stood dodging one with the other in cheaping the ware, the horsseman considering that he was well mounted, and that the merchant and he had growne to a price, made wise as though he would haue drawne to his purse, to haue defraied the monie. The cloth in the meane while being tucked vp and placed before him, he gaue the spur to his horsse and ran awaie with the cloth, being not imbard from his posting pase, by reason the towne was not perclosed either with ditch or wall. The townesmen being pinched at the heart, that one rascal in such scornefull wise should giue them the slampaine, not so much weieng the slendernesse of the losse, as the shamefulnesse of the foile, they put their heads togither, consulting how to preuent either the sudden rushing, or the posthast flieng of anie such aduenturous rakehell hereafter.

In which consultation a famous Dido, a chast widow, a politike dame, a bountifull gentlewoman, called Rose, who representing in sinceritie of life the swéetnesse Rose of Rosse. of that hearbe whose name she bare, vnfolded the deuise, how anie such future mischance should be preuented: and withall opened hir coffers liberallie, to haue it furthered: two good properties in a councellor. Hir deuise was, that the towne should incontinentlie be inclosed with wals, & there withall promised to discharge the charges, so that they would not sticke to find out labourers. The deuise of this worthie matrone being wise, and the offer liberall, the townesmen agreed to follow the one, and to put their helping hands to the atchiuing of the other. The worke was begun, which thorough the multitude of hands séemed light. For the whole towne was assembled, tag and rag, cut and long taile: none exempted, but such as were bedred and impotent. Some were tasked to delue, others appointed with mattocks to dig, diuerse allotted to the vnheaping of rubbish, manie bestowed to the cariage of stones, sundrie occupied in tempering of morter, the better sort busied in ouerseeing the workmen, ech one according to his vocation imploied, as though the ciuitie of Carthage were afresh in building, as it is featlie verified by the golden poet Virgil, and neatlie Englished by master doctor Phaer.

The Moores with courage went to worke,
some vnder burdens grones:
Some at the wals and towrs with hands
were tumbling vp the stones.
Some measurd out a place to build
their mansion house within:
Some lawes and officers to make
in parlment did begin.
An other had an hauen east,
and deepe they trench the ground,
Some other for the games and plaies
a statelie place had found.
And pillers great they cut for kings,
to garnish foorth their wals.
And like as bees among the flours,
when fresh the summer fals,
In shine of sunne applie their worke,
when growne is vp their yoong:
Or when their hiues they gin to stop,
and honie sweet is sproong,
That all their caues and cellars close
with dulcet liquor fils,
Some doo outlade, some other bring
the stuffe with readie wils.
Sometime they ioine, and all at once
doo from their mangers fet
The slothful drones, that would consume,
and nought would doo to get.
The worke it heats, the honie smels,
of flours and thime ywet.

But to returne from Dido of Carthage, to Rose of Rosse, and hir worke. The labourers were so manie, the worke, by reason of round and excheker paiment, so well applied, the quarrie of faire marble so neere at hand (for they affirme, that out of the trenches and ditches hard by their rampiers, the stones were had: and all that plot is so stonie, that the foundation is an hard rocke) that these wals with diuerse braue turrets were suddenlie mounted, and in manner sooner finished, than to the Irish enimies notified: which I wisse was no small corsie to them. These wals in circuit are equall to London wals. It hath three gorgeous gates, Bishop his gate, on the east side: Algate, on the east southeast side: and Southgate, on the south part. This towne was no more famoused for these wals, than for a notable woodden bridge that stretched from the towne vnto the other side of the water, which must haue béene by reasonable surueie twelue score, if not more. Diuerse of the poales, logs, and stakes, with which the bridge was vnderpropt, sticke to this daie in the water. A man would here suppose, that so flourishing a towne, so firmelie builded, so substantiallie walled, so well peopled, so plentiouslie with thriftie artificers stored, would not haue fallen to anie sudden decaie.

But as the secret and déepe iudgements of God are veiled within the couerture Rosse decaied. of his diuine maiestie, so it standeth not with the dulnesse of man his wit, to beat his braines in the curious insearching of hidden mysteries. Wherefore I, as an historian vndertaking in this treatise, rather plainelie to declare what was doone, than rashlie to inquire why it should be doone: purpose, by God his assistance, to accomplish, as néere as I can, my datie in the one, leauing the other to the friuolous deciding of busie heads. This Rose, who was the foundresse of these former rehearsed wals, had issue thrée sonnes (howbeit some hold opinion, that they were but hir nephues) who being bolstered out thorough the wealth of their moother, and supported by their traffike, made diuerse prosperous voiages into forren countries. But as one of the thrée chapmen was imploied in his traffike abroad, so the prettie poplet his wife began to be a fresh occupieng giglot at home, and by report tell so farre acquainted with a religious cloisterer of the towne, as that he gat within the lining of hir smocke. Both the parties wallowing ouerlong in the stinking puddle of adulterie, suspicion began to créepe in some townesmens brains: and to be briefe, it came so farre, thorough the iust iudgement of God, to light, whether it were that she was with child in hir husband his absence, or that hir louer vsed hir fondlie in open presence, as the presumption was not onelie vehement, but also the fact too apparent: hir vnfortunat husband had no sooner notice giuen him vpon his returne of these sorowfull newes, than his fingers began to nibble, his teeth to grin, his eies to trickle, his eares to dindle, his head to dazell, insomuch as his heart being scared with gelousie, and his with installed thorough phrensie, he became The pangs of gelousie. as mad as a March hare.

But how heauilie soeuer hir husband tooke it, dame Rose and all hir friends (which were in effect all the townesmen, for that she was their common benefactresse) were galled at their hearts, as well to heare of the enormious adulterie, as to sée the bedlem pangs of brainsicke gelousie. Wherevpon diuerse of the townesmen grunting and grudging at the matter, said that the fact was horrible, and that it were a deed of charitie vtterlie to grub awaie such wild shrubs from the towne: and if this were in anie dispunishable wise raked vp in the ashes, they should no sooner trauerse the seas, than some other would inkindle the like fire afresh, and so consequentlie dishonest their wiues, and make their husbands to become changelings, as being turned from sober mood to be hornewood, because rutting wiues make often rammish husbands, as our prouerb dooth inferre. Others soothing their fellowes in these mutinies turned the priuat iniurie vnto a publike quarrell, and a number of the townesmen conspiring togither flocked in the dead of the night, well appointed, to the abbeie, wherein the frier was cloistered (the monument of which abbeie is yet to be séene at Rosse on the south side) where vndersparring the gates, and bearing vp the dormitorie doore, they stabbed the adulterer with the rest of the couent thorough with their weapons. Where they left them goaring in their bloud, roaring in their cabbins, and gasping vp their flitting ghosts in their couches.

The vprore was great, and they to whome the slaughter before hand was not imparted, were wonderfullie thereat astonied. But in especiall the remnant of the cleargie bare verie hollow hearts to the townesmen; and how freendlie their outward countenances were, yet they would not with inward thought forget nor forgiue so horrible a murther, but were fullie resolued, whensoeuer oportunitie serued them, to sit in their skirts, by making them soulfe as sorowfull a kyrie. These thrée brethren not long after this bloudie exploit, sped them into some outlandish. countrie to continue their trade. The religious men being doone to vnderstand, as it seemed, by some of their neighbors, which foresailed them homeward, that these thrée brethren were readie to be imbarked, slunkt priuilie out of the towne, and resorted to the mouth of the hauen, néere a castell, named Hulke tower, Hulke tower. which is a notable marke for pilots, in directing them which waie to sterne their ships, and to eschew the danger of the craggie rocks there on euerie side of the shore peking. Some iudge that the said Rose was foundresse of this tower, and of purpose did build it for the safetie of hir children, but at length it turned to their bane. For these reuengers nightlie did not misse to laie a lanterne on the top of the rocks, that were on the other side of the water. Which practise was not long by them continued, when these three passengers bering saile with a lustie gale of wind, made right vpon the lanterne, not doubting, but it had béene the Hulke tower. But they tooke their marke so farre amisse, as they were not ware, till time their ship was dasht and pasht against the rocks, and all the passengers ouerwhirled in the sea.

This heauie hap was not so sorowfull vnto the townesmen, as it was gladsome to the religious, thinking that they had in part cried them acquittance, the more that they, which were drowned, were the archbrochers of their brethrens bloud. Howbeit they would not crie hoa here, but sent in post some of their couent to Rome, where they inhansed the slaughter of the fraternitie so heinouslie, and concealed their owne prankes so couertlie, as the pope excommenged the towne, the towne accurssed the friers: so that there was such curssing and banning of all hands, and such dissentious hurlie burlie raised betwéene themselues, as the estate of that flourishing towne was turned arsie versie, topside the otherwaie, and from abundance of prosperitie quite exchanged to extreame penurie.

The wals stand to this daie, a few streets and houses in the towne, no small parcell The present estate of Rosse. thereof is turned to orchards and gardens. The greater part of the towne is stéepe and steaming vpward. Their church is called Christs church, in the north side whereof is placed a monument called the king of Denmarke his toome: whereby coniecture may rise, that the Danes were founders of that church. This Rosse is called Rosse Noua, or Rosse Ponti, by reason of their bridge. That New Rosse, old Rosse. which they call old Rosse, beareth east thrée miles from this Rosse, into the countrie of Weisford, an ancient manour of the earle of Kildares. There is the third Rosse on the other side of the water, called Rosse Ibarcan, so named, for that it Rosse Ibarcan. standeth in the countrie of Kilkennie, which is diuided into thrée parts, into Ibircan, Ida, & Idouth. Weisford a hauen towne not far from Rosse, I find no Weisford. great matters thereof recorded, but onelie that it is to be had in great price of all the English posteritie, planted in Ireland, as a towne that was the first fostresse and harboresse of the English conquerors.

Kilkennie, the best vplandish towne, or (as they terme it) the properest drie Kilkennie. town in Ireland, it is parted into the high towne, and the Irish towne. The Irish towne claimeth a corporation apart from the high towne, whereby great factions grow dailie betwéene the inhabitants. True it is, that the Irish towne is the ancienter, and was called the old Kilkennie, being vnder the bishop his becke, as they are or ought to be at this present. The high towne was builded by the English after the conquest, and had a parcell of the Irish towne thereto vnited, by the bishop his grant, made vnto the founders vpon their earnest request. In the 1400 Robert Talbot. yeare 1400, Robert Talbot a worthie gentleman, inclosed with wals the better part of this towne, by which it was greatlie fortified. This gentleman deceased in the yeare 1415. In this towne in the chore of the frier preachers, William Marshall William Marshall. earle marshall and earle of Penbroke was buried, who departed this life in the yeare 1231. Richard brother to William, to whome the inheritance descended, within thrée yeares after deceased at Kilkennie, being wounded to death in a field giuen in the heath of Kildare. in the yeare 1234, the twelfe of Aprill, and was intoomed 1234. with his brother, according to the old epitaph héere mentioned:

"Hîc comes est positus Richardus vulnere fossus,
Cuius sub fossa Kilkenia continet ossa."

This towne hath thrée churches, saint Kennies church, our ladies church, aliàs The churches of Kilkennie. S Maries church; and S. Patrikes church with the abbeie of S. John. S Kennies church is their chéefe and cathedrall church, a worthie foundation as well for gorgeous buildings, as for notable liuings. In the west end of the churchyard of late haue beene founded a grammar schoole by the right honorable Pierce or Peter The grammar schoole. Pierce Butler. Margaret Fitzgerald. Butler erle of Ormond and Ossorie, and by his wife the countesse of Ormond, the ladie Margaret fitz Gerald, sister to Girald fitz Girald the earle of Kildare that last was. Out of which schoole haue sprouted such proper impes, through the painefull diligence, and the laboursome industrie of a famous lettered man M. Peter White Peter White. (sometime fellow of Oriall college in Oxford, and schoolemaister in Kilkennie) as generallie the whole weale publike of Ireland, and especiallie the southerne parts of that Iland are greatlie thereby furthered. This gentlemans method in training vp youth was rare and singular, framing the education according to the scholers veine. If he found him frée, he would bridle him like a wise Isocrates from his booke; if he perceiued him to be dull, he would spur him forward; if he vnderstood that he were the woorse for beating, he would win him with rewards: finallie, by interlasing studie with recreation, sorrow with mirth, paine with pleasure, sowernesse with sweetnesse, roughnesse with mildnesse, he had so good successe in schooling his pupils, as in good sooth I may boldlie bide by it, that in the realme of Ireland was no grammar schoole so good, in England I am well assured none better. And bicause it was my happie hap (God and my parents be thanked) to haue béene one of his crue, I take it to stand with my dutie, sith I may not stretch mine abilitie in requiting his good turnes, yet to manifest my good will in remembring his paines. And certes, I acknowledge my selfe so much bound and beholding to him and his, as for his sake I reuerence the meanest stone cemented in the wals of that famous schoole. This towne is named Kilkennie, of an holie and Kilkennie whie so called. The life of Kanicus. learned abbat called Kanicus, borne in the countrie of Kilkennie, or (as it is in some bookes recorded) in Connaght. This prelat being in his suckling yeres fostered, through the prouidence of God, with the milke of a cow, and baptized and bishoped by one Luracus, thereto by Gods especiall appointment deputed, grew in tract of time to such deuotion and learning, as he was reputed of all men to be as well a mirrour of the one, as a paragon of the other: whereof he gaue sufficient coniecture in his minoritie. For being turned to the kéeping of sheepe, and his fellow shéepheards, wholie yéelding themselues like luskish vagabunds to slouth and sluggishnesse, yet would he still find himselfe occupied in framing with osiars and twigs, little wodden churches, and in fashioning the furnitures thereto apperteining. Being stept further in yeares, he made his repaire into England, where cloistering himselfe in an abbeie, wherof one named Doctus was abbat, he was wholie wedded to his booke, and to deuotion: wherein he continued so painefull and diligent, as being on a certeine time penning a serious matter, and hauing not fullie drawne the fourth vocall, the abbeie bell tingd to assemble the couent to some spirituall exercise. To which he so hastened, as he left the letter in semicirclewise vnfinished, vntill he returned backe to his booke. Soone after being promoted to ecclesiasticall orders, he trauelled by the consent of his fellow moonks to Rome, and in Italie he gaue such manifest proofe of his pietie, as to this daie in some parts thereof he is highlie renowmed.

Thomas towne, a proper towne builded in the countie of Kilkennie, by one Thomas towne. Thomas Fitzantonie. Thomas Fitzantonie an Englishman. The Irish thereof name it Ballie mac Andan: that is, the towne of Fitzantonie. This gentleman had issue two daughters, the one of them was espoused to Denne, the other married to Archdeacon, or Mackodo, whose heires haue at this daie the towne betwéene them in coparcenarie. But bicause the reader may sée in what part of the countrie the cities and cheefe townes stand, I take it not far amisse to place them in order as insueth.

Drogheda, Carregfargus, Downe, Armagh, Arglash, Cloagher, Muncighan, The names of the cheéefe townes in Vlster. The names of the cheéefe townes in Leinster. Doonnegaule, Karreg mac Rosse, Newrie, Carlingford, Ardie, Doondalke, Louth. Dublin, Bulrudrie, Luske, Swords, Tashaggard, Lions, Newcastle, Rathcoule, Oughter arde, Naas, Clane, Mainooth, Kilcocke, Rathaimgan, Kildare, Luianne, Castletowne, Philips towne, Mariborough, Kilcullen, Castle Marten, Thistledermot, Kilca, Athie, Catherlaugh, Leighelen, Gauranne, Thomas towne, Enestiocke, Cashelle, Callanne, Kilkennie, Knocktofer, Rosse, Clonuelle, Weiseford, Ferne, Fidderd, Enescortie, Tathmon, Wickloa, Ackloa. Waterford, Lismore, Doongaruan, Cheéefe towns in Mounster. Cheéefe towns in Connaght. Cheéefe towns in Meéeth. Cheéefe towns in Westmeéeth. 1542 Yoghill, Corke, Limerike, Kilmallocke. Aloane, Galuoie, Anrie, Louaghriagh, Clare, Toame, Sligagh, Rossecomman, Arcdowne. Trimme, Doonshaghlenne, Rathlouth, Nauanne, Abooie, Scrine, Taraugh, Kemles, Doonboine, Gréenocke, Duléeke. Molingare, Fowre, Loughseude, Kilkeniwest, Moilagagh, Deluinne.

In the foure and thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the eight, it was enacted in a parlement holden at Dubline before sir Anthonie Sentleger knight, lord deputie of Ireland, that Méeth should be diuided, and made two shires, one of them to be called the countie of Meeth, the other to be called the countie of Westméeth, and that there should be two shiriffes and officers conuenient within the same shires, as is more exprest in the act.

Loughfoile, the Banne, Wolderfrith, Craregfergus, Strangford, Ardglas, Lougheuen, The names of the chiefe hauen towns in Ireland. Carlingford, Kilkeale, Dundalke, Kilclogher, Dunane, Drogheda, Houlepatrike, Nanie, Baltraie, Brimore, Balbriggen, Roggers towne, Skerrish, Rush, Malahide, Banledooile, Houth, Dublin, Dalkée, Wickincloa, Arckloa, Weisford, Bagganbun, the Passage, Waterford, Dungaruan, Rosse noua, Youghille, Corke mabegge, Corke, Kinsale, Kierie, Rosse Ilbere, Dorrie, Baltinimore, Downenere, Downeshead, Downelounge, Attannanne, Craghanne, Downenebwine, Balineskililiedge, Daugine Ichouse, Tralie, Seninne, Cassanne, Kilnewine, Limerike, Innis. kartée, Belalenne, Arinenewine, Glanemaugh, Balliweiham, Binwarre, Dowris, Woran, Roskam, Galwaie, Killinillie, Innesbosinne, Owran, Moare, Kilcolken, Burske, Belleclare, Rathesilbene, Bierweisowre, Buraueis hare, Ardne makow, Rosbare, Kilgolinne, Wallalele, Rabranne, Strone, Burweis now, Zaltra, Kalbalie, Ardnocke, Adrowse, Sligaghe, Innes Bowsenne.

Cambrensis obserued in his time, that when the sea dooth eb at Dublin, it ebbeth Camb. lib. 1. top. dist. 2. rub. 3. & 4. also at Bristow, and floweth at Milford and Weisford. At Wickloa the sea ebbeth when in all other parts it commonlie floweth. Furthermore this he noted, that the riuer which runneth by Wickloa vpon a low eb is salt, but in Arckloa the next hauen towne, the riuer is fresh when the sea is at full. He writeth also, that not far from Arckloa standeth a rocke, and when the sea ebbeth in one side thereof, it floweth in the other side as fast. Cambrensis insearcheth diuerse philosophicall reasons in finding out the cause, by obseruing the course of the moone, who is the empresse of moisture. But those subtilties I leaue for the schoolestréets.

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