How Dermon Mac Morogh king of Leinster fled out of his countrie vnto Henrie the second king of England for aid and succour.

CHAP. 1.

DERMON (1) Mac Morogh prince of (2) Leinster & gouernour of the fift part or portion of Ireland, did in our time possesse & inioie the east part of the land, which bordereth and lieth towards England: being disseuered from the same by the maine seas. This man from his verie youth, and first entrie into his kingdome, was a great oppressor of his gentlemen, and a cruell tyrant ouer his nobles: which bred vnto him great hatred and malice. Besides this, there befell to him an other mischéefe: for Ororike prince of (3) Meth was gone in a iornie, leauing his wife the daughter of Omolaghlin behind, in a certeine Iland in Meth: there to remaine and tarie vntill his returne. She (I saie) and this Dermon had béene long inamoured and in loue the one with the other: and she watching a time how to haue loue and lust satisfied, taketh the aduantage of hir husbands absence, and yéeldeth hir selfe to be rauished, bicause she would be rauished: for by hir owne procurement and intisings, she became and would needs be a preie vnto the preier. Such is the variable & fickle nature of a woman, by whome all mischiefes in the world (for the most part) doo happen and come, as maie appeare by (4) Marcus Antonius, and by the destruction of (5) Troie. King Ororike being aduertised hereof, was foorthwith maruellouslie troubled & in a great choler, but more grieued for shame of the fact than for sorrow or hurt; and therefore is fullie determined to be auenged: and foorthwith assembleth all his people and neighbors, as also procured into his aid and for his helpe Rothorike king of (6) Connagh and then monarch of all Ireland. The people of Leinster considering in what distresse their prince was, and how on euerie side he was beset of his enimies, they also call to mind the old sores and griefes, which they of long time had dissembled: & to be auenged & awrecked thereof, they make league and become friends with their enimies, and vtterlie leaue and forsake their king. Dermon séeing himselfe thus forsaken and left destitute, and that fortune frowned vpon him (for he had oftentimes incountered with his enimies and euer had the woorst) determined at length, as to his last refuge to flie ouer the seas, and to séeke for some better chance. By this euent and sequele of this man, as also by manie other like examples it appeareth, that it is better for a prince to rule ouer a people, which of a good will and loue doo obeie him, than ouer such as be froward and stubborne. This (6) Nero well felt and (7) Domitianus well knew (8) and Henrie duke of Saxonie and Bauire well tried. It is more necessarie and expedient for a prince to be rather beloued than feared. In deed it is good to be feared; so that the feare doo procéed rather from a good will than of compulsion. For whatsoeuer is outwardlie onelie and to the shew loued and receiued, the same of consequence must be feared: but whatsoeuer is feared, that is not forthwith loued. Wherefore feare must be so tempered with loue, that neither a remisse good will doo wax into a coldnesse, neither feare grounded vpon a rash insolencie be turned and become tyrannie. Loue did inlarge the empire of (9) Augustus, but feare shortened the life of (10) Iulius Cesar. Well, Mac Morogh following fortune, and yet in hope that once againe she will turne hir whéele, hauing wind and wether at will, taketh ship, passeth ouer the seas, and went vnto Henrie the second king of England, and most humblie and earnestlie praieth his helpe and succor. Who being then in the remote places in France and Aquitaine, and busied in great and weightie affaires: yet most courteouslie he receiued him and liberallie rewarded him. And the king hauing at large and orderlie heard the causes of his exile and of his repaire vnto him, he tooke his oth of allegiance and swore him to be his true vassall and subiect: and therevpon granted and gaue him his letters patents in maner and forme as followeth. Henrie king of England, duke of Normandie and Aquitaine, and earle of Aniou,
Henrie the 2. king of Englands stile and letter. vnto all his subiects, Englishmen, Normans, Scots, and all other nations and people being his subiects sendeth greeting. Whensoeuer these our letters shall come vnto you, know ye that we haue receiued Dermon prince of Leinster into our protection, grace, and fauour: wherefore whosoeuer within our iurisdiction will aid and helpe him, our trustie subiect, for the recouerie of his land, let him be assured of our fauour and licence in that behalfe.

(1) Dermon is in Latine Dermitius, and Morogh is in Latine Murchardes, and are méere Irish names: and for a difference giuen commonlie to a child at his birth or christening: Mac Morogh is a word compounded of Mac which is a sonne and of Morogh the proper name of a man, and so Mac Morogh is the sonne of Morogh: the Latine name is Murchardides, which is to saie De Murcharde, or of Morogh: according to the Welsh phrase in which the word ap is vsed in the same sense. And this is common to the Irish & Welsh, for they call not anie man by the name of his familie or nation as is vsed in England: but by the name of difference giuen to his father, as in this example: Dermon being Moroghs sonne is called Dermon Mac Morogh. But this name of Mac Morogh is since turned and become the name of a familie or nation: for by reason that this Mac Morogh was a noble and valiant man aboue all the rest of his nation in his daies: therefore his sequele and posteritie haue euer since and doo yet kéepe that name. Some are of the mind that Morogh and Maurice are one name: but the Latine differences importeth the contrarie, and the one is a meere Irish name, and the other a Welsh, and borowed out of Wales.

(2) Leinster in Latine Lagenia, is one of the fiue parts or portions of Ireland (for into so manie is the whole land diuided.) It lieth vpon the east seas, and extendeth in length from the further point of the territorie of Dublin, which is at the riuer of the Boine by Drogheda in the north, vnto the riuer of the Surie which fléeteth by the citie of Waterford in the south. In it are one and thirtie cantreds otherwise named baronies or hundreds. It was sometimes diuided into fiue, but now into seauen counties, that is, Dublin, Kildare, Catherlogh, Kils kennie, Wexford, Leax, now called the queenes countie, and Offalie called the kings countie. There are also in it one archbishop; namelie Dublin, and foure bishopriks; that is, Kildare, Fernes, Leighlin, and Ossorie.

(3) Meth in Latine Media is one of the fiue portions of Ireland according to the first diuision. It is the least portion being but of eightéene cantreds, but yet the best and most fertile, and lieth for the most part all within the English pale: and euer since the conquest of king Henrie the second, hath béene subiect and obedient to the English lawes and gouernement: and bicause it lieth as it were in the nauill or bowels of the land, it taketh the name accordinglie, being called Media, which is the middle. In it is but one bishop and the suffragan, and under the primat or archbishop of Ardmach. His see is at Trim and his house at Arbraghin. There was no prince sole gouernour of this as was of the other portions: bicause it was alwaies allowed & allotted to the monarch, whome they called Maximum regem, or Regem Hiberniœ, as a surplus towards his diet.

(4) Marcus Antonius was a famous and a noble Romane, excelling in wisdome, knowledge and learning all the Romane princes in his daies; as also a verie noble and a valiant man in the fields, hauing atteined to great victories and atchiued to sundrie conquests. And yet notwithstanding being maried to Cleopatra queene of Egypt, he so doted vpon hir, and was so bewitched in loue of hir: that leauing all his woonted manners, he consumed his whole time in hir companie, and in the end was more infamous for his vitious, disordered, and loose life, than before commended for his prowesse and vertue.

(5) Troia called also Ilion, was an ancient and a famous citie in Asia the lesse, and situated in the prouince of Dardania, builded by Tros the sonne of king Ericthonius, who called it after his owne name. It was a citie verie large, strong, and rich, and in those daies thought impregnable; & yet by means that Helena was rauished, the same was in the end vtterlie subuerted and destroied: the historie is this. Priamus the king of Troie had by his wife Hecuba a sonne named Paris or Alexander: he dreamed on a time that Mercurius should bring vnto him the thrée ladies, Venus, Iuno, and Minerua, that he should giue his iudgement which was the fairest and most beautifull of them. Then Venus, to haue the iudgement for hir and in hir behalfe, did promise him that he should haue for the same the fairest woman in all Gréece. Not long after, Paris being in his fathers court in Troie, there were great spéeches made of Helena and of hir passing beautie. She was wife to Menelaus king of Sparta in Gréece. Whervpon Paris calling to memorie his former dreame, and also inflamed with a feruent desire to see so faire a ladie, maketh preparation both of ships and of men to saile into Greece. Howbeit, some write that he was sent by the king his father in an ambassage to king Menelaus: but whether it was so or not, certeine it is he went thither, and was receiued with all countesie, and had his interteinement in king Menelaus house. Paris hauing viewed and beholden quéene Helena, he was not so much warmed before vpon the onelie report of hir, as now inflamed with hir passing forme and beautie; and taking the aduantage of king Menelaus absence, perforce taketh Helena, spoileth the kings house, and carieth all awaie with him. Menelaus at his returne home, being dismaied at so sudden a change and chance, and gréened with such an iniurie, sendeth his messenger first to Paris, and then his ambassadours to king Priamus for it stitution and amends. But when no intreatie could take place nor requests be heard, the Grecians not minding to beare with such an iniurie, doo all consent to be auenged thereof; and therefore with all their force and power doo prepare to giue warres vnto Troie, and make choise of Agamemnon the kings brother to be their capteine. The warres were crueil and long, and endured for the space of ten yeares, but in the end Troie was taken, spoiled, and also destroied.

(6) Nero, whose name at the first was Claudius Domitius, was in his youthfull yeares well disposed to good letters, & giuen to honest exercises. And Claudius the emperor hauing good liking of him, adopted him to be emperour, and married him vnto his daughter. After the death of Claudius, he being emperour, did gouerne well enough the first fiue yeares: but thensefoorth he waxed so vicious, and became so horrible in all dissolute wantonnesse, prodigalitie, monstruous lecherie, couetousnesse, and all other most wicked vices: that he séemed to be borne to the destruction of the whole world. And in the end he was and became so odious to the whole world, that it was decréed by the senat, and sentence giuen, that he should be beaten and whipped to death. Which thing he perceiuing, fled out of Rome, and finding none that would kill him, did runne himselfe thorough with his owne sword, saieng; "Most wickedlie haue I liued, and most shamfullie shall I die."

(7) Domitianus, the brother of Titus, and sonne of Vespasian the emperors, was nothing like vnto them, but altogither resembled & was of the nature and disposition of Nero: for at the first entrie into the empire, he did to his commendation sundrie good acts; but in the end he became so wicked a man and so crueil a tyrant, that he generallie was hated of all men, and abhorred of his owne familie, of whom some of them, to rid the common wealth from so wicked a member, did murther and kill him in his owne chamber.

(8) This Henrie was the sonne of Henrie the third of that name, and emperor of Rome, he was king of the Romans in his fathers time, and emperor next after him. His father died, he being verie yoong, and left him to the gouernement of the empresse his mother; who during his minoritie did rule and gouerne the empire in verie good order: but when he himselfe came to the sole gouernment, great dissentions fell betwéene him and his nobles, bicause he contemned, despised, & oppressed them. He gaue himselfe to wantonnesse and pleasure, and little estéemed the execution of iustice; by means whereof he had manie enimies, who sought what they might to depose him both of empire and of his life. The pope also and he were for the most part in continuall debates and strifes, and who was the chéefe cause whie he was so ouerset and hated of his nobles. And being thus ouermatched and in the hatred both of the temporall and ecclesiasticall estates, he for verie sorrow languished and pined awaie, and so died.

(9) Augustus was the sonne of Octauianus a senator in Rome, who married Accia the daughter of Iulius Cesar, and was first named Octauianus Iulius Cesar. His vncle hauing no son, adopted him, made him his heire, and appointed him to be his successor in the empire. After the death of the said Iulius, the state by reason he was so cruellie murthered, was maruelouslie troubled and in great perils. But this Octauianus hauing atteined to sit in Iulius Cesars seat, did so prudentlie order and direct his gouernement, that he did not onelie reduce and restore the eitie and empire of Rome to a quietnesse; but also increased the same with the conquests of sundrie nations. Such also were his excellent vertues in wisedome, magnanimitie, courtesie, affabilitie, & liberalitie, and such others; that all people were not onelie rauished in loue with him, but also came and resorted of all nations vnto Rome, to visit, see, and heare him. And hauing stablished the empire in quietnesse, inlarged it with manie nations, & increased vnto himselfe the vniuersall loue of all people, the senat gaue him not onelie the name of Augustus, but gaue vnto him also the titles of the highest and greatest honors, and was called "Summus pontifix perpetuus dictator & pater patriæ," and yéelded vnto him the whole power and empire of the sole monarch of the world, now reposing that in him alone, which rested before in the senat and people of Rome. These be the fruites when a prudent magistrat and a wise gouernour ruleth in loue and gouerneth in wisedome.

(10) Iulius Cesar was the sonne of Lucius Iulino a noble Romane, and came and descended of the ancient house of the Iulies, who were of the race of Aeneas: he was as noble a man as euer Rome brought fourth, and excellent in all respects: most valiant and fortunate in the warres, and verie prudent in the cinill gouernement, verie well learned, and a notable orator: he deserued well of his common wealth, for he inriched the same with the conquests which he made ouer sundrie nations. But his ambitious mind and immoderate desire to reigne alone, and to be the sole monarch of the world, drowned all the good vertues which were in him, and for which all the nations feared him, the citizens of Rome hated him, and the senators enuied him: and in the end a conspiracie was made for the murthering of him, and by the senators executed. For he on a certeine daie, vpon occasion being come into the senat house, and mistrusting nothing, although he wanted not sufficient warnings before giuen him, was there wounded in two and thirtie places to death, and so murthered.

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