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How William Fitzaldelme is sent from home into England, and Hugh de Lacie put in his place: and how Miles Cogan and Robert Fitzstephans haue the kingdome of Corke giuen vnto them.

WILLIAM Fitzaldelme, who during his abode and being in this land, had doone nothing worthie the commendation, sauing that he caused the staffe called Iohns staffe to be fetched from Armach, and brought to Dublin; he (I saie) and Miles Cogan, with Robert Fitzstephans were sent for by the king to come home. In whose roome the king sent ouer Hugh de Lacie, and made him his deputie ouer the whole land, ioining in commission with him Robert Powre then seneschall of Wexford and Waterford. The king, after the returne of the aforesaid Fitzaldelme and others, thinking and considering with himselfe the good seruice of Miles Cogar, Robert Fitzstephans, and others; as also how necessarie it were, that such noble seruitors and valiant men were placed among the Irish people, wherby to keepe them in good order and dutifull obeisance; he gaue to Robert Fitzstephans, and to Miles Cogan in fée for euer to be equallie diuided betwéene them all south. Mounster (1) that is to saie, the whole kingdome of Corke, from the west part of the riuer at Leismore vnto the seas, sauing and reseruing the citie of Corke, and one cantred of land therevnto adioining. Also he gaue vnto Philip de Bruse all the north Mounster, that is to saie, the kingdome of Limerike, sauing and excepting the citie of Limerike it selfe with one cantred thervnto adioining, to haue vnto him and to his heires for euer in fée. These men thus rewarded, confederated themselues togither to ioine and helpe one another, and euerie of thenm maketh the best preparation that he can. Which being in redinesse they tooke shipping and arriued into Ireland in the moneth of Nouember, and landed at Waterford: from thense they coasted along vnto Corke, where they were receiued with much honor both by the citizens, and also by an English gentleman named Richard of London, who was deputie there vnder Fitzaldelme.

As soone as they had pacified and quieted Dermon (2) Mac Artie prince of Desmond, and the residue of the noble men and gentlemen in those parties, Fitzstephans and also Miles Cogan diuided betwéene them the seauen cantreds, which were néerest to the towne: for these they kept and held in best peace and rest. Fitzstephans had the thrée cantreds which laie in the east part, and Cogan had the foure which laie in the west, the one hauing the more because they were the worser, and the other had the fewer cantreds that were the better soile and ground. The citie it selfe remained in their ioint gouernement, and the residue of the cantreds being foure and twentie remained in common, and the profits thereof growing they equallie diuided betwéene them. A cantred both in English and in What a cantred is. Irish is so much land as conteineth one hundred villages, as is in our topographie declared, which is commonlie called an hundred. These things thus doone, they bring and conduct Philip de Bruse vnto Limerike. Fitzstephans had with him twentie gentlemen and fortie horssemen, Miles Cogan had twentie gentlemen & fiftie horsemen, Philip de Bruse had twentie gentlemen & thrée score horssemen, besides a great number of bowmen & footmen, which they all had when they were come to Limerike, which was about fortie miles from Corke, & onlie the riuer of Shenin was betwéene them and the citie: the same at their comming was set on fire before their eies by the citizens themselues. Neuerthelesse, Stephans and Miles offered to aduernture ouer the water, and to enter the towne; or if Philip thought it so good, they would there build a castell vpon the riuers side right ouer against the towne. But Philip albeit le were a valiant and a good man, yet considering with himselfe how dangerous the place was, being in the middle of the enimies, and farre remoted from all succors and helpe, without which he was not able with his small companie to defend and kéepe the same, as also being partlie persuaded by the counsell and aduise of his companie, thought it better to returne home in safetie, than to dwell in the middle of his enimies in continuall perill and danger. And it is not to be much maruelled that in this iourneie he had so euill successe: for whie he had gathered & reteined to him the notablest murtherers, théeues, & seditious persons that were in all Southwales, and the marches of the same, and these were of best credit with him, and he most ruled by them.

About this time Amere duke Fitzstephans son, a lustie yoong gentleman and a towardlie, died at Corke in March, to the great sorrow and gréefe of all his fréends. Neere about this time was found and seene a great tode at Waterford, wherof was made much woondering, as is in our topographie declared. Also within the space of Thrée eclipses of the sun in three yeres. thrée yeares there was seene thrée eclipses of the sun, howbeit these were not vniuersall, but particular eclipses scene onelie in the land. After that Fitzstephans and Miles Cogan had quietlie and peaceablie gouerned and ruled the kingdome of Desmond fiue yéeres togither, and by their prudence and modestie had restrained the hastie forwardnesse, and rash disposition of their yoong men, Miles and Rafe the sonne of Fitzstephans a lustie yong gentleman, and who had maried Miles daughter, went toward Lisemore, there to méet & to haue a parlée with Waterford men: as they sate in the fields waiting and looking for them, one Machture with whome they should and had appointed to haue lien at his house the next night following, suddenlie and vnwares came stealing vpon them, and there traitorouslie slue them, and fiue of their companie. By meanes whereof the whole countrie foorthwith was in an vproare, insomuch that Dermon Mac Artie, and all the Irishrie in those parties, as also the traitor Machture, were out: and denieng to be anie longer the kings loiall subiects, made wars against Fitzstephans, who now once againe felt the course of fortunes disposition. And these so much annoied him, that he could neuer recouer himselfe againe, vntill that his nephue Reimond, who succéeded him in the gouernement there, came and rescued him: yet that notwithstanding, he was neuer his owne man, neither could he be at a perfect peace and rest.

And by the waie this is to be noted and considered, that as the northerne men be warlike and valiant; so are the southerne men craftie and subtill, the one seeking honor, the other deliting in craft & deceit; the one valiant, the other wilie; the one of great courage, the other set all on treason and falshood. But to the matter. When Reimond hard how fortune frowned vpon his vncle Fitzstephans, and what distresse he was in, being shut vp in the citie of Corke, and his enimies assailing him round about, forthwith assenbleth his companie, and hauing in readinesse twentie gentlemen, and one hundred of footmen and bowmen, he taketh shipping at Wexford, and sailing along the coasts, maketh towards Corke with all the hast he can, that he might relieue and comfort his friends, and be a terror vnto his enimies. And in the end hauing ofttimes incountered with the enimies, some he killed, some he droue out of the countrie, and some he compelled (which was the greater number) to submit themselues and to sue for peace: and thus in the end after great stormes and tempest followed a faire wether and a calme. Verie shortlie after Richard of Cogan, brother vnto Miles, & nothing inferior vnto him in valiantnesse, or anie other respect: came into Ireland with a iollie picked companie and chosen men, being sent to the king to supplie his brothers roome. Also in the end of the same winter, and in the moneth of Februarie (3) Philip Barrie nephue to Fitzstephans, a verie honest and a wise gentleman, came ouer with a lustie companie of chosen men, as well for the aid of his vncle, as also for the recouerie of his land in Olethan, which was perforce taken awaie (4) from Fitzstephans, as also afterwards from Rafe Fitzstephans sonne. In the same passage also came Gerald an other nephue of Fitzstephans, and brother vnto vnto Philip Barrie, who with his good aduise and counsell did verie much pleasure and helpe both his vncle and brother: for he was learned and a great traueller, in searching to learne the site and nature of that land, as also the first origine of that nation, and whose name the title of the booke beareth. About this time Herrie of Mont Moris professed himselfe a moonke in the monasterie of the Trinitie in Canturburie, and gaue to the same in franke and pure almes all his patronages and impropriations of all his churches, lieng by the sea coasts betwéene Waterford & Wexford, and so became a moonke, & liued a solitarie life in a religious habit: who as he changed his habit, so would God he had changed his mind! & as he hath laid awaie his secular weeds, had cast off his malicious disposition!

(1) The gift which the king gaue vnto these two gentlemen of this countrie is yet extant vnder his broad seale, and was giuen by the name of the kingdome of Corke, being bounded from the riuer which fléeteth by Lisemore towards the citie of Limerike, vnto Knocke Brendon vpon the seas on the west, to be holden of the king, and of his heires by thrée score knights fées. The citie it selfe without cantred of land was reserued to the king, sauing that they two had the custodie thereof. This kingdome in course of time for want of heires male of them, came to two daughters. The one of theim was married to Carew and the other to Courcie, & they in the right of their wiues inioied the same during their lines; and after them their heires, vntill such time as by a diuision growing amongest the Englishmen, the Irishrie expelled them, and recouered the countrie vnto themselues.

(2) These Mac Arties are yet remaining in the said prouince of Corke, and they be now dispersed into sundrie families, but the chiefest of them is named Mac Artie More, and he in the tinie of king Henrie the eight was aduanced to the honor and degree of an earle, being called the earle Clan Artie, which in common speech by interposition of the letter C is pronounced Clancartie.

(3) In this point there is a varietie among the writers, some writing that Fitzstephans should take amaie the land from Philip Barrie, and giue it to his son Rafe; and to recouer this out of their hands, the said Philip came ouer with such power and force as he could make. Some write againe that the land after that it was giuen to Philip Barrie, he departing into England left it in the custodie and charge of Robert Fitzstephans, who when he listed not or could not keepe it anie longer, deliuered the custodie thereof to his sonne Rafe: who as his father so was he wearie to kéepe the same. And for that cause Philip Barrie minding to inioie, and to make the best therof, with such force and helpe as he had gotten, came ouer both to helpe his vncle, & also to fortifie & build holds & castels vpon his said land, whereby he might be the better able to defend and kéepe the same: and this séemeth to be the truth of the historie.

(4) This Philip of Barrie, hauing seized vpon lands and possessions in Ireland, his posteritie haue euer since continued in that land; and nothing degenerating from their first ancestor, haue from age and to age béene noble and valiant gentlemen, and who for their fidelitie and good seruices, were aduanced to honour and made vicounts: and in that title of honor doo continue still. But would to God they were not so nuzled, rooted, and altogither seasoned in Irishrie! the name and honor being onelie English, all the rest for the most part Irish.

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