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How the Irish people being vanquished are to be gouerned.

AS there be means and policies to be vsed in conquering this people, who are now more light in their bodies than inconstant in mind: so when they are vanquished, they must in an order be ruled and gouerned. First and principallie therefore it is to be considered, that whosoeuer shall be gouernor ouer them, that he be wise, constant, discreet, and a staied man; that in time of peace, and when they are contented to liue vnder law and in obedience, they maie be gouerned by law, directed by right, and ruled by iustice; as also to be stout and valiant, readie and able with force seuerelie to punish all such as (contrarie to their dutie and allegiance) shall either rebell and breake out, or otherwise liue in disordered maner. Moreouer, when anie haue doone amisse, and contrarie to dutie haue rebelled, and doo yet afterwards knowledge their follie, and yeelding themselues haue obteined pardon; that in no wise you doo afterwards euill intreat them, neither yet laie their former faults to their charges, neither cast them in the teeth of their follies: but hauing taken such assurance of them as you maie, to intreat them with all courtesies and gentlenesse, that by such good means they maie the better be induced and incouraged to kéepe themselues within their dutie, for loue of their good gouernement which they sée: and yet be afraid to doo euill for feare of punishment, which they are to receiue for their euill and lewd dooings. And if they will not thus order and gouerne them, but confound their dooings, being slacke to punish the euill, and quicke to oppresse the good and obedient, to flatter them in their rebellions and outrages, and to spoile them in peace; to fauor them in their treasons and treacheries, and to oppresse them when they line in loialtie, as we haue seene manie so to haue doone: surelie these men so disorderedlie confounding all things, they in the end shall be confounded themselues. And bicause harms foreséene do least annoie & hurt, let them which be wise looke well, that in time of peace they doo prepare for the warres. For after the Alcion daies and calme seas doo follow stormes and tempests: and therefore, when they haue vacant times and leisure, let them build and fortifie castels, cut downe and open the passes, and doo all such other things as the nature of warres requireth to be preuented. For this people being vncerteine, craftie, and subtill, vnder colour of peace, are woont alwaies to be studieng and deuising of mischiefs. And also bicause it is good to be wise by another mans harme, & warie by other mens examples. For nothing dooth better teach a
No better teachers than examples. man than examples, and the paterns of things doone afore time. Let not them for get what became of these woorthie men, Miles of Cogan, Rafe Fitzstephans, Hugh de Lacie, Roger Powre, and others, who when they thought of least danger they were in most perill: and when they thought themselues in most satetie, they were intrapped and destroied. For as we haue said in our Topographie; this people is a craftie and a subtile people, and more to be feared when it is peace, than when it is open warres: for their peace indéed is but enimitie, their policies but craft, their friendships but coloured, and therefore the more to be doubted and feared. And by experience the same in some part hath béene prooued: and therfore, as Euodius saith, "Let the fall and ruine of things past be forewarnings of things to come."

And bicause herein a man can not be too wise nor warie, it were good that an order were taken (as it is in Sicilia) that none of them should weare anie weapon at all, no not so much as a staffe in then hands to walke by. For euen with that weapon, though it be but slender, they will (if they can) take the aduantage, and bewreake their malice and cankered stomachs. Finallie, forsomuch as the kings of England haue a iust title, and a full right to the land of Ireland in sundrie and diuerse respects; and considering also that the same is chieflie mainteined by the intercourse and traffike of merchandizes out of England; and without the same cannot releeue and helpe it selfe; it were verie expedient that for the acknowledging of the one, and for the inioieng of the other, as also for the supporting of the continuall charges of the king of England there yearelie bestowed: that there be a yearelie tribute paied and answered vnto the kings of England, either in monie, or in such commodities as that land breedeth, aswell for the continuance of the title in memorie, as also for the auoiding of manie inconueniences. And because time weareth awaie, and men doo dailie perish and die, that this order for the perpetuall honour of the king and of his realme, and the memoriall of this conquest, the same be ingrossed and registred in a publike instrument to indure for euer. And thus hauing spoken what we know, and witnessed what we haue séene, we doo here end this historie, leauing vnto others of better knowledge and learning, to continue the same as to them shall be thought most néedfull and conuenient.

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