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Edward the third.

VNNETH was the businesse about the witches at an end, when it was signified,
1326 that a gentleman of the familie of the Otoolies in Leinster, named Adam Duffe, 1327 possessed by some wicked spirit of error, denied obstinatelie the incarnation of our sauior, the trinitie of persons in the vnitie of the Godhead, & the resurrection of the Adam Duffe an heretike. flesh; as for the holie scripture, he said it was but a fable: the virgin Marie he affirmed to be a woman of dissolute life, and the apostolike sée erronious. For such assertions he was burnt in Hogging greene beside Dublin. About the same time, Fitzarke Macmorch, and sir Henrie Traherne were taken prisoners. In the yeare following, the lord Thomas Fitziohn erle of Kildare, and the lord Arnold Powre & William earle of Vlster were sent ouer into Ireland, & Roger Outlaw prior of saint The prior of Kilmainan lord iustice. Iohns of Ierusalem in Ireland, commonlie called the prior of Kilmainan, was made lord iustice. This man by reason of variance that chanced to rise betwixt the Giraldins, the Butlers, and Birminghams, on the one side; and the Powres & Burghs on the other, for terming the earle of Kildare a rimer, to pacifie the parties called a parlement, wherein he himselfe was faine to make his purgation of a slander imposed to him, as suspected of heresie.

The bishop of Ossorie had giuen an information against Arnold le Powre, conuented Arnold Powre accused of heresie. & conuicted in his consistorie of certeine hereticall opinions, but bicause the beginning of Powrs accusation concerned the iustices kinsman, and the bishop was mistrusted to prosecute his owne wrong, and the person of the man rather than the fault: a daie was limited for the iustifieng of the bill, the partie being apprehended and respited therevnto. This dealing the bishop (who durst not stirre out of Kilkennie to prosecute his accusation) was reputed parciall: and when by meanes hereof the matter hanged in suspense, he infamed the said prior as an abbettor and fauourer of Arnolds heresie. The prior submitted himselfe to the triall, and therevpon were seuerall proclamations made in court, that it should be lawfull to anie man to come into the court, and to inferre, accuse, and declare what euidence he could, against the lord iustice: but none came. Then passed a decrée by the councell, commanding all bishops, abbats, priors, and the maiors of Dublin, Corke, Limerike, Waterford, and Droghedagh, the shirifs, knights, & seneschals of euerie shire, to appeare at Dublin. From amongst all these, they appointed six inquisitors, which examining the bishops and other persons aforesaid singularlie one by one, found that with an vniuersall consent they deposed for the prior, affirming that (to their iudgements) he was a zelous and a faithfull child of the catholike church. In the meane time, Arnold le Powre the prisoner deceased in the castell, & bicause he stood vnpurged, long he laie vnburied.

In the yeare one thousand thrée hundred twentie and nine, Iohn de Birmingham 1329 The earle of Louth slaine. earle of Louth, and his brother Peter, with many other of that surname, and Richard Talbot of Malahide were slaine on Whitsun euen at Balibragan by men of the countrie. Also the lord Thomas Butler, and diuerse other noblemen were The lord Butler slaine. slaine by Mac Gogoghdan & other Irishmen néere to Molinger. For the Irish as well in Leinster as in Meth made insurrections in that season, and so likewise did they in Mounster vnder the leading of Obren, whom William earle of Vlster and Iames earle of Ormond vanquished. So outragious were the Leinster Irish, that in one church they burnt foure score innocent soules, asking no more but the life of their priest then at masse, whome they notwithstanding sticked with their iauelins, spurned the host, and wasted all with fire: neither forced they of the popes interdiction, nor anie ecclesiasticall censures denounced against them (matters of no small consideration among them namelie in those daies) but maliciouslie perseuered in the course of their furious rage, till the citizens of Wexford somewhat tamed them, and slue foure hundred of them in one skirmish, the rest flieng were all drenched in the water of Slane. In the yeare one thousand thrée hundred and thirtie, the earle 1330 The prior of Kilmainan lord iustice. of Vlster with a great armie made a iournie against Obren, and the prior of Kilmainan lord iustice put Maurice Fitzthomas earle of Desmond in prison in the marshalseie, out of the which he fréelie escaped, and the lord Hugh Lacie returned into Ireland, and obteined the kings peace and fauour.

In the yeare one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and one, the earle of Vlster 1331 passed ouer into England, and great slaughter was made vpon the Irish in Okenslie. Also the castell of Arclo was taken by the Irishmen, and great slaughter made of the English in the Cowlagh by Otothell and others. Also the lord Anthonie Lucie Anthonie Lucie lord iustice. was sent ouer lord iustice into Ireland, and great slaughter was made of the Irish at Thurlis by the knights of the countrie, & at Finnath in Meth, there were manie of them slaine by the English; but yet was the castell of Fernis taken and burnt by the Irish. On the feast daie of the assumption of our ladie, which falleth on the fiftéenth of August, Maurice Fitzthomas earle of Desmond was apprehended at The earle of Desmond apprehended, Limerike by the lord iustice, and sent vnto the castell of Dublin. Moreouer, the lord iustice tooke sir William Birmingham at Clomell by a wile, whilest he was sicke in his bed, & sent him (togither with his sonne Walter Birmingham) vnto the castell 1332 William Birmingham executed. of Dublin, the thirtith of Aprill. In the yeare one thousand three hundred thirtie and two the said sir William was hanged at Dublin, but Walter was deliuered by reason he was within orders.

Campion following such notes as he hath séene, writeth that the death of this Campion. William Birmingham chanced in time of the gouernement of William Outlaw prior of Kilmainan, being lieutenant vnto Iohn lord Darcie, that was made lord iustice (as the said Campion hath noted in the yeare one thousand thrée hundred twentie and nine. Although Marlburrow affirmeth that he came thither to beare that office, in the yeare one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and two, after the lord Lucie was discharged, as hereafter shall be recited. But whensoeuer, or vnder whome soeuer Birmingham was executed, he was accounted an od knight, and such a one as for his valiancie, his match was not lightlie to be anie where found. The castell of Clonmore was taken the same yeare by the Englishmen, and the castell of Bonrath was destroid by the Irish of Thomond. Also Henrie de Mandeuill was taken and sent prisoner to be safelie kept in Dublin. Likewise Walter Burgh with two of his bretheren were taken in Connagh by the earle of Vlster, and sent to the castell of Norburgh.

This yeare the lord Antonie Lucie was discharged of his roome by the king, and so returned with his wife & children into England, and the lord Iohn Darcie was The lord Darcie iustice. sent ouer lord iustice in Lucies place, and great slaughter was made vpon Bren Obren, and Mac Arthie in Mounster, by the English of that countrie. This Iohn Darcie (as should appeare by gifts bestowed vpon him by the king) was in singular fauour with him. Amongst other things which he had of the kings gift, we find that he had the manors of Louth, and Baliogarie, and other lands in Ireland which belonged to the earle of Ew. And for that the said earle was a Frenchman, and tooke part with The earle of Ew. Philip de Valois the kings enimie, they were seized into the kings hand. The earle of Desmond vpon suerties was set at libertie, and by the parlement holden at Dublin in this yeare 1333, was sent ouer into England vnto the king; and William erle of 1333 A parlement. Vlster a yoong gentleman of twentie yeares of age, in going towards Knockfergus the seauenth of Iune, was slaine neere to the foords in Vlster, by his owne people, but his wife and daughter escaped into England: and the daughter was after maried vnto the lord Lionell the kings sonne. She deceased afterwards at Dublin, and left a daughter behind hir that was his heire, maried to Roger Mortimer earle of March, and lord of Trim.

This murther was procured by Robert Fitzmartine Mandeuill, who was the first that presumed to giue to the earle anie wound. To reuenge the death of this earle of The earle of Vlster slaine. Vlster (slaine as yee haue heard beside Knockfergus) the lord iustice Darcie with a great power went into Vlster, to pursue those that through Mandeuils seditious tumults had so traitorouslie murthered their lord. At his setting forward, the said iustice Darcie appointed sir Thomas Burgh treasuror, to gouerne as lieutenant to him Sir Thomas Burgh. in his absence. When the lord iustice had punished the traitors in Vlster, he passed ouer into Scotland, there to make warre against the Scots that were enimies The lord iustice inuadeth Scotland. at that present to the king of England, and on the feast daie of saint Margaret, great slaughter was made of the Scots by the Irishmen: and so what by the king in one part, and the lord iustice of Ireland in another, Scotland was in maner wholie conquered, and Edward Balioll was established king of Scotland. The lord iustice might haue possessed the Iles if they had béene worth the kéeping: into the which Iles, except the said Darcie and the earle of Sussex late lieutenant of Ireland, no gouernor at anie time yet aduentured. At Darcies comming backe into Ireland, and exercising the office of lord iustice, he deliuered Walter Birmingham out of the castell of Dublin.

In the yeare 1336, and tenth of Edward the thirds reigne, on S. Laurence daie, 1336 the Irish of Connagh were discomfited and put to flight by the Englishmen of the countrie there, with the losse of one Englishman, and ten thousand of the enimies. 1337 The lord Iohn Charleton baron came into Ireland to be lord iustice, and with him his brother Thomas bishop of Hereford lord chancellor, and John Rice lord treasuror, Sir Iohn Charleson iustice. and two hundred Welshmen souldiors. The bishop was ordeined afterward lord 1338 The bishop of Hereford lord iustice. 1340 Iohn Darcie lord iustice during life. Calling in of liberties. iustice, in whose time all the Irish of Ireland were at defiance with the English, and shortlie brought againe into quiet by the earles of Kildare and Desmond. The lord Iohn Darcie by the kings letters patents was (during life) ordeined lord iustice of Ireland, in the fourtéenth yeare of king Edward the thirds reigne, which king abused by evill counsell and sinister informers, called in vnder his signet roiall, the franchises, liberties and grants, whatsoeuer had béene deuised, made and ratified to the realme of Ireland, and to euerie each person thereof. This reuoking of liberties was displeasantlie taken. The English of birth and the English of blood falling at words, were divided into factions about it, for which contention the Irish still waited, so as the realme was euen vpon the point to giue ouer all, and to rebell. For redresse whereof, the lord iustice called a parlement at Dublin, to the which the nobles refused to come, and in quiet wise assembled themselues togither at Kilkennie, where they with the commons agreed vpon certeine questions to be demanded of the king by waie of supplication, signifieng in the same partlie their gréefes. Which questions were in effect as followeth.

1 How a realme of warre might be gouerned by one both vnskilfull and vnable Articles or questions. in all warlike seruice?

2 How an officer vnder the king, that entered verie poore, might in one yeare grow to more excessiue wealth, than men of great patrimonie and liuelihood in manie yeares?

3 How it chanced, that sith they were all called lords of their owne, that the souereigne lord of them all was not a pennie the richer for them?

The cheefe of them that thus seemed to repine with the present gouernment, was Thomas Fitzmaurice earle of Desmond, through whose maintenance and bearing out of the matter, the countrie was in great trouble; so as it had not lightlie beéne séene, that such contrarietie in minds and disliking had appeared amongst those of the English race, in that realme at anie time before. Héerewith Rafe Vffort was sent 1343 Rafe Vffort lord iustice. ouer lord iustice, who bringing his wife with him, the countesse of Vlster arriued about the thirtéenth of Julie. This man was verie rigorous, and through persuasion (as was said) of his wife, he was more extreame and couetous than otherwise he The countesse of Vlster. would haue béene, a matter not to be forgotten. For if this ladie had béene as readie to mooue hir husband to haue shewed himselfe gentle and mild in his gouernement, as she was bent to pricke him forward vnto sharpe dealings and rigorous procéedings, she had beene now aswell reported of, as she is infamed by their pens that haue registred the dooings of those times. But to the purpose. This Vffort lord iustice, in paine of forfeiture of all his lands, commanded the earle of The earle of Desmond. Desmond to make his personall appearance at a parlement, which he called to be holden at Dublin, there to begin the seuenth of Iune. And bicause the earle refused to come acording to the summons, he raised the kings standard, and with an armie marched into Mounster, and there seized the earles possessions into the kings hands, letting them foorth to farme for an annuall rent vnto other persons.

And whilest he yet remained in Mounster, he deuised waies how to haue the earle of Desmond apprehended: which being brought to passe, he afterward deliuered him vpon mainprise of these suerties whose names insue. William de Burgh earle of Suerties for the earle of Desmond. Vlster, Iames Butler earle of Ormond, Richard Tute, Nicholas Verdon, Morice Rochford, Eustace le Powre, Gerald de Rochford, Iohn Fitzrobert Powre, Robert Barrie, Maurice Fitzgirald, Iohn Wellesleie, Walter le Fant, Richard Rokelleie, Henrie Traherne, Roger Powre, Iohn Lenfant, Roger Powre, Matthew Fitzhenrie, Richard Walleis, Edmund Burgh sonne to the earle of Vlster, knights: Dauid Barrie William Fitzgirald, Foulke de Fraxinus, Robert Fitzmaurice, Henrie Fitzberkleie, Iohn Fitzgeorge de Roch, Thomas de Lees de Burgh. These (as yée haue heard) were bound for the earle. And bicause he made default, the lord iustice verelie tooke the aduantage of the bond against the mainpernours, foure of them onelie excepted, the two earles and two knights.

The lord iustice is charged with strict dealing by writers in this behalfe, for that Vffort euill spoken of. the same persons had assisted him in his warres against Desmond. But trulie if we shall consider the matter with indifferencie, he did no more than law and reason required. For if euerie suertie vpon forfeiture of his bond should be forborne, that otherwise dooth his duetie, what care would men haue either to procure suerties or to become suerties themselues? But such is the affection of writers, speciallie when they haue conceiued anie misliking towards those of whome they take occasion to speake, so as manie a worthie man hath béene defamed, and with slander greatlie defaced in things wherein he rather hath deserued singular commendation. But howsoeuer this matter was handled touching the earle of Desmond, vpon the death Ioie conceiued for the death of the lord iustice Vffort. of the lord iustice, which insued the next yeare, bonfiers were made, and great ioy shewed through all the relme of Ireland. His ladie verelie (as should appeare) was but a miserable woman, procuring him to extortion and briberie. Much he abridged the prerogatiues of the church, and was so hated, that euen in the sight of the countrie he was robbed without rescue by Mac Cartie, notwithstanding he gathered power, and dispersed those rebels of Vlster. Robert Darcie was ordeined iustice by 1346 Robert Darcie lord iustice. the councell till the kings letters came to sir Iohn Fitzmaurice, who released Fitzthomas earle of Kildare left in durance by Vffort at his death. Fitzmaurice continued not long, but was discharged, and the lord Walter Birmingham elected to succeed in Iohn Fitzmorice iustice. L. Birmingham iustice. that roome, who procured a safe conduct for Desmond to plead his cause before the king, by whom he was liberallie intreated, and allowed towards his expenses there twentie shillings a day at the princes charge. In consideration of which courtesie shewed to his kinsman, the earle of Kildare, accompanied with diuerse lords, knights, and chosen horssemen, serued the king at Calis, a towne thought impregnable, & returned after the winning thereof in great pompe and iollitie.

We find that Thomas Berkeleie, and Reinold lord Cobham, and sir Morice Berkleie 1347 Record. Tur. became mainpernours for the said earle of Desmond, that he should come into England, and abide such triall as the law would award. Iohn Archer prior of Kilmainan 1348 The prior of Kilmainan. Baron Carew iustice. Sir Thomas Rokesbie iustice. Record. Tur. was substituted lieutenant to the lord iustice. To whom succéeded Baron Carew, and after Carew followed sir Thomas Rokesbie knight, vnto whom was assigned aboue his ordinarie retinue of twentie men of armes, a supplie of ten men of armes, and twentie archers on horssebacke, so long as it should be thought néedfull. Great mortalitie chanced this yeare, as in other parts of the world, so especiallie in places about the seacoasts of England and Ireland. In the yeare following 1349 departed this life Alexander Bignor archbishop of Dublin. And the same yeare was Iohn de saint Paule consecrated archbishop of that see. This yeare deceased Kemwrike Iohn de S. Paule archbishop of Dublin. 1350 Kemwrike Shereman. Shereman sometime maior of Dublin, a great benefactor to euerie church and religions house within twentie miles round about the citie. His legacies to the poore and others, beside his liberalitie shewed in his life time, amounted to thrée thousand marks.

In this season dwelled in Vlster a welthie knight one sir Robert Sauage, who the Sir Robert Sauage. rather to preserue his owne, began to wall and fortifie his manor houses with castels and piles against the Irish enemie, exhorting his heire Henrie Sauage to applie that worke so beneficiall for himselfe & his posteritie. "Father (quoth yoong Sauage) I remember the prouerbe 'Better a castell of bones than of stones.' Where strength & courage of valiant men are prest to helpe vs, neuer will I (by the grace of God) cumber my selfe with dead walles. My fort shall be where soeuer yoong blouds be stirring, & where I find roome to fight." The father in a fume let lie the building, and forsware to go anie further forward in it. But yet the want therof and such like hath beene the decaie as well of the Sauages, as of all the English gentlemen in Vlster: as the lacke also of walled townes is one of the principall occasions of the rude wildnesse in other parts of Ireland.

This Sauage, having prepared an armie against the Irish, allowed to euerie souldier before they should buckle with the enimie, a mightie draught of Aqua vitœ, wine, or old ale, and killed in prouision for their returne, béefe, venison, and fowle, great plentie: which dooings diuerse of his capteins misliked, bicause they considered the successe of warre to be vncerteine, and therefore estéemed it better policie to poison the cates, or to doo them awaie, than to kéepe the same; and happilie to féed a sort of roges with such princelie food, if ought should happen to themselues in this aduenture of so few against so manie. Herat smiled the gentleman and said, "Tush ye are too full of enuie: this world is but an in, to the which ye haue no speciall interest, but are onelie tenants at will of the Lord. If it please him to command vs from it as it were from our lodging, and to set other good fellowes in our roomes, what hurt shall it be for vs to leaue them some meat for their suppers? Let them hardlie win it & weare it. If they enter our dwellings, good maner would no lesse but to welcome them with such fare as the countrie bréedeth, and with all my heart much good may it doo them. Notwithstanding I presume so far vpon your noble courages, that verelie my mind giueth me we shall returne at night, & banket our selues with our owne store. And so did, hauing slain 3000 Irishmen.

In the yeare 1355 deceased Maurice Fitzthomas earle of Desmond lord iustice of 1355 The earle of Desmond lord iustice deceased. Thomas Rokesbie lord iustice his saieng. Ireland, who had that office of the kings grant for terme of life. After him succéeded in that roome Thomas de Rokesbie, a knight, sincere and vpright of conscience, who being controlled for suffering himselfe to be serued in tréene cups, answered: "Those homelie cups & dishes paie trulie for that they conteine: I had rather drinke out of tréene cups & paie gold and siluer, than drinke out of gold & make woodden paiment. This yeare began great variance betwixt Richard Rafe primat 1357 Dissention betwixt the primat of Armagh, & the foure orders of friers. Thrée lord iustices. Record. Tur. of Armagh, & foure orders of begging friers, which ended at length by the deaths of the said Richard Rafe, and Richard Kilminton, in the yeare 1360: Rafe deceasing in the popes court, and Kilminton in England. Almerike de S. Amand, Iohn or (as other haue) Iames Butler earle of Ormond, and Maurice Fitzthomas earle of Kildare, were appointed lord iustices of Ireland by turnes. In Ormonds time, and in the thrée and twentith yeare of king Edward the thirds reigne, order was taken that the Irish lords should remaine and dwell in their houses on the marches, to defend the subiects from inuasions of enimies. And further, proclamation went foorth, that no méere Irish borne should be made maior, bailiffe, porter, officer, or minister in anie towne or place within the English dominions: nor that anie archbishop, abbat, prior, or anie other being of the kings allegiance, vpon forfeiture of all that he might forfeit, should aduance anie that was méere Irish borne to the roome of a canon, or to haue anie other ecclesiasticall benefice that laie among the English subiects.

To Maurice Thomas earle of Kildare, when he was ordeined lord iustice, the The earle of Kildare lord iustice. kings letters assigned in yearelie fee for his office 500 pounds, with condition, that the said gouernour should find twentie great horsses to serue in the field, he himselfe to be the twentith man in going against the enimie: which allowance and conditions in those daies (so farre as I can gesse) should séeme to be ordinarie to the office. Lionell duke of Clarence sonne to king Edward the third, came ouer into Ireland to Lionell duke of Clarence. be lord justice there, and was in right of his wife earle of Vlster. He published an inhibition to all of the Irish birth not once to approch his armie, nor to be in anie wise imploied in seruice of the wars. He vanquished Obren, but yet sudenlie (no man vnderstanding how) an hundred of his souldiers were wanting as they laie in garrison, the losse of whom was thought to be occasioned by that displeasant decree afore rehearsed. Wherevpon he tooke better aduise, and receiued the Irish into like fauour, as other lieutenants had them in before that present, shewing a tender loue towards them all, and so euer after prospered in his affaires. He created diuerse knights, as Preston, now knowne by the name of the familie of Gormanston, Holiewood, Talbot, Cusac, de la Hide, Patrike, Robert and Iohn de Fraxinis: all these being gentlemen of worthie fame in chiualrie. The excheker he remooued to Catherlagh, & bestowed in furnishing that towne fiue hundred pounds.

In the yeare 1362 Iohn de S. Paule archbishop of Dublin departed this life the 1362 fift ides of September. And in the yeare following was Thomas Minot consecrated archbishop of that place. Girald Fitzmaurice earle of Desmond was appointed lord 1367 The lord Windsor lieutenant. 1369 Record. Turris. A parlement. A subsidie. iustice, vntill the comming of the lord Windsor, the first lieutenant in Ireland, who came ouer in the yeare 1369. This Windsore called a parlement at Kilkennie, in the which was granted to the king a subsidie of three thousand pounds to be leuied of the people, subjects to the king in that land. And in an other parlement holden by him at Balidoill they granted two thousand pounds to be likewise leuied. Which said sums were granted of the méere and frée good wils of the nobles and communaltie of the land, towards the maintenance of the kings expenses in his warres. Yet the king in the three and fortith yeare of his reigne, directing his letters vnto the said lord Windsor, cōmanded him to surcease from leuieng the foresaid monie, although afterwards he commanded againe that the arrerages should be leuied and paid to his lieutenant the said Windsor.

The third pestilence in Ireland made awaie a great number of people. In the Mortalitie of people. 1370 Conhur. 1372 Sir Richard Ashton lord iustice. 1373 Slaughter. 1375 yeare 1370 the lord Gerald Fitzmorice earle of Desmond, and the lord Iohn Fitzrichard, and the lord Iohn Fitziohn, and manie other noble men were slaine by Obren, and Mac Conmard of Thomond in the moneth of Iulie. In the yeare 1372 sir Richard Ashton was sent ouer to be lord iustice in Ireland. In the yeare following great warre was raised betwixt the English of Meth, and Offeroll, in the which manie vpon both sides were slaine. In Maie, the lord Iohn Husseie baron of Galtrim, Iohn Fitzrichard shiriffe of Meth, and William Dalton were slaine in Kinaleigh. In the yeare 1375 Thomas archbishop of Dublin departed this life, and the same yeare was Robert de Wikeford consecrated archbishop there.

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