Edward the third.
VNNETH was the businesse about the witches at an end, when it was signified,
that a gentleman of the familie of the Otoolies in Leinster, named Adam Duffe,
possessed by some wicked spirit of error, denied obstinatelie the incarnation of our
sauior, the trinitie of persons in the vnitie of the Godhead, & the resurrection of the
Adam Duffe an heretike.
flesh; as for the holie scripture, he said it was but a fable: the virgin Marie he
affirmed to be a woman of dissolute life, and the apostolike sée erronious. For such
assertions he was burnt in Hogging greene beside Dublin. About the same time,
Fitzarke Macmorch, and sir Henrie Traherne were taken prisoners. In the yeare
following, the lord Thomas Fitziohn erle of Kildare, and the lord Arnold Powre &
William earle of Vlster were sent ouer into Ireland, & Roger Outlaw prior of saint
The prior of Kilmainan lord iustice.
Iohns of Ierusalem in Ireland, commonlie called the prior of Kilmainan, was
made lord iustice. This man by reason of variance that chanced to rise betwixt
the Giraldins, the Butlers, and Birminghams, on the one side; and the Powres &
Burghs on the other, for terming the earle of Kildare a rimer, to pacifie the parties
called a parlement, wherein he himselfe was faine to make his purgation of a slander
imposed to him, as suspected of heresie.
The bishop of Ossorie had giuen an information against Arnold le Powre, conuented
Arnold Powre accused of heresie.
& conuicted in his consistorie of certeine hereticall opinions, but bicause the
beginning of Powrs accusation concerned the iustices kinsman, and the bishop was
mistrusted to prosecute his owne wrong, and the person of the man rather than the
fault: a daie was limited for the iustifieng of the bill, the partie being apprehended
and respited therevnto. This dealing the bishop (who durst not stirre out of
Kilkennie to prosecute his accusation) was reputed parciall: and when by meanes
hereof the matter hanged in suspense, he infamed the said prior as an abbettor and
fauourer of Arnolds heresie. The prior submitted himselfe to the triall, and therevpon
were seuerall proclamations made in court, that it should be lawfull to anie man
to come into the court, and to inferre, accuse, and declare what euidence he could,
against the lord iustice: but none came. Then passed a decrée by the councell,
commanding all bishops, abbats, priors, and the maiors of Dublin, Corke, Limerike,
Waterford, and Droghedagh, the shirifs, knights, & seneschals of euerie shire, to
appeare at Dublin. From amongst all these, they appointed six inquisitors, which
examining the bishops and other persons aforesaid singularlie one by one, found
that with an vniuersall consent they deposed for the prior, affirming that (to their
iudgements) he was a zelous and a faithfull child of the catholike church. In the
meane time, Arnold le Powre the prisoner deceased in the castell, & bicause he
stood vnpurged, long he laie vnburied.
In the yeare one thousand thrée hundred twentie and nine, Iohn de Birmingham
The earle of Louth slaine.
earle of Louth, and his brother Peter, with many other of that surname, and
Richard Talbot of Malahide were slaine on Whitsun euen at Balibragan by men of
the countrie. Also the lord Thomas Butler, and diuerse other noblemen were
The lord Butler slaine.
slaine by Mac Gogoghdan & other Irishmen néere to Molinger. For the Irish as
well in Leinster as in Meth made insurrections in that season, and so likewise did
they in Mounster vnder the leading of Obren, whom William earle of Vlster and
Iames earle of Ormond vanquished. So outragious were the Leinster Irish, that in
one church they burnt foure score innocent soules, asking no more but the life of
their priest then at masse, whome they notwithstanding sticked with their iauelins,
spurned the host, and wasted all with fire: neither forced they of the popes interdiction,
nor anie ecclesiasticall censures denounced against them (matters of no small
consideration among them namelie in those daies) but maliciouslie perseuered in the
course of their furious rage, till the citizens of Wexford somewhat tamed them,
and slue foure hundred of them in one skirmish, the rest flieng were all drenched in
the water of Slane. In the yeare one thousand thrée hundred and thirtie, the earle
The prior of Kilmainan lord iustice.
of Vlster with a great armie made a iournie against Obren, and the prior of Kilmainan
lord iustice put Maurice Fitzthomas earle of Desmond in prison in the
marshalseie, out of the which he fréelie escaped, and the lord Hugh Lacie returned
into Ireland, and obteined the kings peace and fauour.
In the yeare one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and one, the earle of Vlster
passed ouer into England, and great slaughter was made vpon the Irish in Okenslie.
Also the castell of Arclo was taken by the Irishmen, and great slaughter made of
the English in the Cowlagh by Otothell and others. Also the lord Anthonie Lucie
Anthonie Lucie lord iustice.
was sent ouer lord iustice into Ireland, and great slaughter was made of the Irish at
Thurlis by the knights of the countrie, & at Finnath in Meth, there were manie of
them slaine by the English; but yet was the castell of Fernis taken and burnt by
the Irish. On the feast daie of the assumption of our ladie, which falleth on the
fiftéenth of August, Maurice Fitzthomas earle of Desmond was apprehended at
The earle of Desmond apprehended,
Limerike by the lord iustice, and sent vnto the castell of Dublin. Moreouer, the
lord iustice tooke sir William Birmingham at Clomell by a wile, whilest he was sicke
in his bed, & sent him (togither with his sonne Walter Birmingham) vnto the castell
William Birmingham executed.
of Dublin, the thirtith of Aprill. In the yeare one thousand three hundred thirtie
and two the said sir William was hanged at Dublin, but Walter was deliuered by
reason he was within orders.
Campion following such notes as he hath séene, writeth that the death of this
William Birmingham chanced in time of the gouernement of William Outlaw prior
of Kilmainan, being lieutenant vnto Iohn lord Darcie, that was made lord iustice
(as the said Campion hath noted in the yeare one thousand thrée hundred twentie
and nine. Although Marlburrow affirmeth that he came thither to beare that office,
in the yeare one thousand thrée hundred thirtie and two, after the lord Lucie was
discharged, as hereafter shall be recited. But whensoeuer, or vnder whome soeuer
Birmingham was executed, he was accounted an od knight, and such a one as for
his valiancie, his match was not lightlie to be anie where found. The castell of
Clonmore was taken the same yeare by the Englishmen, and the castell of Bonrath
was destroid by the Irish of Thomond. Also Henrie de Mandeuill was taken and
sent prisoner to be safelie kept in Dublin. Likewise Walter Burgh with two of his
bretheren were taken in Connagh by the earle of Vlster, and sent to the castell of
This yeare the lord Antonie Lucie was discharged of his roome by the king, and
so returned with his wife & children into England, and the lord Iohn Darcie was
The lord Darcie iustice.
sent ouer lord iustice in Lucies place, and great slaughter was made vpon Bren Obren,
and Mac Arthie in Mounster, by the English of that countrie. This Iohn Darcie
(as should appeare by gifts bestowed vpon him by the king) was in singular fauour
with him. Amongst other things which he had of the kings gift, we find that he had
the manors of Louth, and Baliogarie, and other lands in Ireland which belonged to
the earle of Ew. And for that the said earle was a Frenchman, and tooke part with
The earle of Ew.
Philip de Valois the kings enimie, they were seized into the kings hand. The earle
of Desmond vpon suerties was set at libertie, and by the parlement holden at Dublin
in this yeare 1333, was sent ouer into England vnto the king; and William erle of
Vlster a yoong gentleman of twentie yeares of age, in going towards Knockfergus
the seauenth of Iune, was slaine neere to the foords in Vlster, by his owne people,
but his wife and daughter escaped into England: and the daughter was after maried
vnto the lord Lionell the kings sonne. She deceased afterwards at Dublin, and left
a daughter behind hir that was his heire, maried to Roger Mortimer earle of March,
and lord of Trim.
This murther was procured by Robert Fitzmartine Mandeuill, who was the first
that presumed to giue to the earle anie wound. To reuenge the death of this earle of
The earle of Vlster slaine.
Vlster (slaine as yee haue heard beside Knockfergus) the lord iustice Darcie with a
great power went into Vlster, to pursue those that through Mandeuils seditious
tumults had so traitorouslie murthered their lord. At his setting forward, the said
iustice Darcie appointed sir Thomas Burgh treasuror, to gouerne as lieutenant to him
Sir Thomas Burgh.
in his absence. When the lord iustice had punished the traitors in Vlster, he passed
ouer into Scotland, there to make warre against the Scots that were enimies
The lord iustice inuadeth Scotland.
at that present to the king of England, and on the feast daie of saint Margaret,
great slaughter was made of the Scots by the Irishmen: and so what by the king in
one part, and the lord iustice of Ireland in another, Scotland was in maner wholie
conquered, and Edward Balioll was established king of Scotland. The lord iustice
might haue possessed the Iles if they had béene worth the kéeping: into the which
Iles, except the said Darcie and the earle of Sussex late lieutenant of Ireland, no
gouernor at anie time yet aduentured. At Darcies comming backe into Ireland,
and exercising the office of lord iustice, he deliuered Walter Birmingham out of the
castell of Dublin.
In the yeare 1336, and tenth of Edward the thirds reigne, on S. Laurence daie,
the Irish of Connagh were discomfited and put to flight by the Englishmen of the
countrie there, with the losse of one Englishman, and ten thousand of the enimies.
The lord Iohn Charleton baron came into Ireland to be lord iustice, and with him
his brother Thomas bishop of Hereford lord chancellor, and John Rice lord treasuror,
Sir Iohn Charleson iustice.
and two hundred Welshmen souldiors. The bishop was ordeined afterward lord
The bishop of Hereford lord iustice.
Iohn Darcie lord iustice during life.
Calling in of liberties.
iustice, in whose time all the Irish of Ireland were at defiance with the English, and
shortlie brought againe into quiet by the earles of Kildare and Desmond. The lord
Iohn Darcie by the kings letters patents was (during life) ordeined lord iustice of
Ireland, in the fourtéenth yeare of king Edward the thirds reigne, which king abused
by evill counsell and sinister informers, called in vnder his signet roiall, the franchises,
liberties and grants, whatsoeuer had béene deuised, made and ratified to the
realme of Ireland, and to euerie each person thereof. This reuoking of liberties was
displeasantlie taken. The English of birth and the English of blood falling at words,
were divided into factions about it, for which contention the Irish still waited, so as
the realme was euen vpon the point to giue ouer all, and to rebell. For redresse
whereof, the lord iustice called a parlement at Dublin, to the which the nobles
refused to come, and in quiet wise assembled themselues togither at Kilkennie,
where they with the commons agreed vpon certeine questions to be demanded of the
king by waie of supplication, signifieng in the same partlie their gréefes. Which
questions were in effect as followeth.
1 How a realme of warre might be gouerned by one both vnskilfull and vnable
Articles or questions.
in all warlike seruice?
2 How an officer vnder the king, that entered verie poore, might in one yeare
grow to more excessiue wealth, than men of great patrimonie and liuelihood in
3 How it chanced, that sith they were all called lords of their owne, that the
souereigne lord of them all was not a pennie the richer for them?
The cheefe of them that thus seemed to repine with the present gouernment, was
Thomas Fitzmaurice earle of Desmond, through whose maintenance and bearing
out of the matter, the countrie was in great trouble; so as it had not lightlie beéne
séene, that such contrarietie in minds and disliking had appeared amongst those of
the English race, in that realme at anie time before. Héerewith Rafe Vffort was sent
Rafe Vffort lord iustice.
ouer lord iustice, who bringing his wife with him, the countesse of Vlster arriued
about the thirtéenth of Julie. This man was verie rigorous, and through persuasion
(as was said) of his wife, he was more extreame and couetous than otherwise he
The countesse of Vlster.
would haue béene, a matter not to be forgotten. For if this ladie had béene as
readie to mooue hir husband to haue shewed himselfe gentle and mild in his
gouernement, as she was bent to pricke him forward vnto sharpe dealings and rigorous
procéedings, she had beene now aswell reported of, as she is infamed by their
pens that haue registred the dooings of those times. But to the purpose. This
Vffort lord iustice, in paine of forfeiture of all his lands, commanded the earle of
The earle of Desmond.
Desmond to make his personall appearance at a parlement, which he called to
be holden at Dublin, there to begin the seuenth of Iune. And bicause the earle
refused to come acording to the summons, he raised the kings standard, and with
an armie marched into Mounster, and there seized the earles possessions into
the kings hands, letting them foorth to farme for an annuall rent vnto other
And whilest he yet remained in Mounster, he deuised waies how to haue the earle
of Desmond apprehended: which being brought to passe, he afterward deliuered
him vpon mainprise of these suerties whose names insue. William de Burgh earle of
Suerties for the earle of Desmond.
Vlster, Iames Butler earle of Ormond, Richard Tute, Nicholas Verdon, Morice
Rochford, Eustace le Powre, Gerald de Rochford, Iohn Fitzrobert Powre, Robert
Barrie, Maurice Fitzgirald, Iohn Wellesleie, Walter le Fant, Richard Rokelleie,
Henrie Traherne, Roger Powre, Iohn Lenfant, Roger Powre, Matthew Fitzhenrie,
Richard Walleis, Edmund Burgh sonne to the earle of Vlster, knights: Dauid Barrie
William Fitzgirald, Foulke de Fraxinus, Robert Fitzmaurice, Henrie Fitzberkleie,
Iohn Fitzgeorge de Roch, Thomas de Lees de Burgh. These (as yée haue
heard) were bound for the earle. And bicause he made default, the lord iustice
verelie tooke the aduantage of the bond against the mainpernours, foure of them
onelie excepted, the two earles and two knights.
The lord iustice is charged with strict dealing by writers in this behalfe, for that
Vffort euill spoken of.
the same persons had assisted him in his warres against Desmond. But trulie if we
shall consider the matter with indifferencie, he did no more than law and reason required.
For if euerie suertie vpon forfeiture of his bond should be forborne, that
otherwise dooth his duetie, what care would men haue either to procure suerties or to
become suerties themselues? But such is the affection of writers, speciallie when
they haue conceiued anie misliking towards those of whome they take occasion
to speake, so as manie a worthie man hath béene defamed, and with slander greatlie
defaced in things wherein he rather hath deserued singular commendation. But
howsoeuer this matter was handled touching the earle of Desmond, vpon the death
Ioie conceiued for the death of the lord iustice Vffort.
of the lord iustice, which insued the next yeare, bonfiers were made, and great ioy
shewed through all the relme of Ireland. His ladie verelie (as should appeare) was
but a miserable woman, procuring him to extortion and briberie. Much he abridged
the prerogatiues of the church, and was so hated, that euen in the sight of the countrie
he was robbed without rescue by Mac Cartie, notwithstanding he gathered
power, and dispersed those rebels of Vlster. Robert Darcie was ordeined iustice by
Robert Darcie lord iustice.
the councell till the kings letters came to sir Iohn Fitzmaurice, who released Fitzthomas
earle of Kildare left in durance by Vffort at his death. Fitzmaurice continued
not long, but was discharged, and the lord Walter Birmingham elected to succeed in
Iohn Fitzmorice iustice.
L. Birmingham iustice.
that roome, who procured a safe conduct for Desmond to plead his cause before the
king, by whom he was liberallie intreated, and allowed towards his expenses there
twentie shillings a day at the princes charge. In consideration of which courtesie
shewed to his kinsman, the earle of Kildare, accompanied with diuerse lords, knights,
and chosen horssemen, serued the king at Calis, a towne thought impregnable, &
returned after the winning thereof in great pompe and iollitie.
We find that Thomas Berkeleie, and Reinold lord Cobham, and sir Morice Berkleie
became mainpernours for the said earle of Desmond, that he should come into
England, and abide such triall as the law would award. Iohn Archer prior of Kilmainan
The prior of Kilmainan.
Baron Carew iustice.
Sir Thomas Rokesbie iustice.
was substituted lieutenant to the lord iustice. To whom succéeded Baron
Carew, and after Carew followed sir Thomas Rokesbie knight, vnto whom was
assigned aboue his ordinarie retinue of twentie men of armes, a supplie of ten men
of armes, and twentie archers on horssebacke, so long as it should be thought néedfull.
Great mortalitie chanced this yeare, as in other parts of the world, so especiallie
in places about the seacoasts of England and Ireland. In the yeare following
departed this life Alexander Bignor archbishop of Dublin. And the same yeare was
Iohn de saint Paule consecrated archbishop of that see. This yeare deceased Kemwrike
Iohn de S. Paule archbishop of Dublin.
Shereman sometime maior of Dublin, a great benefactor to euerie church
and religions house within twentie miles round about the citie. His legacies to the
poore and others, beside his liberalitie shewed in his life time, amounted to thrée
In this season dwelled in Vlster a welthie knight one sir Robert Sauage, who the
Sir Robert Sauage.
rather to preserue his owne, began to wall and fortifie his manor houses with castels
and piles against the Irish enemie, exhorting his heire Henrie Sauage to applie that
worke so beneficiall for himselfe & his posteritie. "Father (quoth yoong Sauage) I
remember the prouerbe 'Better a castell of bones than of stones.' Where strength &
courage of valiant men are prest to helpe vs, neuer will I (by the grace of God)
cumber my selfe with dead walles. My fort shall be where soeuer yoong blouds be
stirring, & where I find roome to fight." The father in a fume let lie the building,
and forsware to go anie further forward in it. But yet the want therof and such like
hath beene the decaie as well of the Sauages, as of all the English gentlemen in Vlster:
as the lacke also of walled townes is one of the principall occasions of the rude
wildnesse in other parts of Ireland.
This Sauage, having prepared an armie against the Irish, allowed to euerie
souldier before they should buckle with the enimie, a mightie draught of Aqua vitœ,
wine, or old ale, and killed in prouision for their returne, béefe, venison, and fowle,
great plentie: which dooings diuerse of his capteins misliked, bicause they considered
the successe of warre to be vncerteine, and therefore estéemed it better
policie to poison the cates, or to doo them awaie, than to kéepe the same; and happilie
to féed a sort of roges with such princelie food, if ought should happen to
themselues in this aduenture of so few against so manie. Herat smiled the gentleman
and said, "Tush ye are too full of enuie: this world is but an in, to the which
ye haue no speciall interest, but are onelie tenants at will of the Lord. If it please
him to command vs from it as it were from our lodging, and to set other good
fellowes in our roomes, what hurt shall it be for vs to leaue them some meat for their
suppers? Let them hardlie win it & weare it. If they enter our dwellings, good
maner would no lesse but to welcome them with such fare as the countrie bréedeth,
and with all my heart much good may it doo them. Notwithstanding I presume so
far vpon your noble courages, that verelie my mind giueth me we shall returne at
night, & banket our selues with our owne store. And so did, hauing slain 3000
In the yeare 1355 deceased Maurice Fitzthomas earle of Desmond lord iustice of
The earle of Desmond lord iustice deceased.
Thomas Rokesbie lord iustice his saieng.
Ireland, who had that office of the kings grant for terme of life. After him succéeded
in that roome Thomas de Rokesbie, a knight, sincere and vpright of conscience,
who being controlled for suffering himselfe to be serued in tréene cups, answered:
"Those homelie cups & dishes paie trulie for that they conteine: I had rather
drinke out of tréene cups & paie gold and siluer, than drinke out of gold &
make woodden paiment. This yeare began great variance betwixt Richard Rafe primat
Dissention betwixt the primat of Armagh, & the foure orders of friers.
Thrée lord iustices.
of Armagh, & foure orders of begging friers, which ended at length by the
deaths of the said Richard Rafe, and Richard Kilminton, in the yeare 1360: Rafe
deceasing in the popes court, and Kilminton in England. Almerike de S. Amand,
Iohn or (as other haue) Iames Butler earle of Ormond, and Maurice Fitzthomas
earle of Kildare, were appointed lord iustices of Ireland by turnes. In Ormonds
time, and in the thrée and twentith yeare of king Edward the thirds reigne, order
was taken that the Irish lords should remaine and dwell in their houses on the
marches, to defend the subiects from inuasions of enimies. And further, proclamation
went foorth, that no méere Irish borne should be made maior, bailiffe, porter,
officer, or minister in anie towne or place within the English dominions: nor that
anie archbishop, abbat, prior, or anie other being of the kings allegiance, vpon forfeiture
of all that he might forfeit, should aduance anie that was méere Irish borne to
the roome of a canon, or to haue anie other ecclesiasticall benefice that laie among
the English subiects.
To Maurice Thomas earle of Kildare, when he was ordeined lord iustice, the
The earle of Kildare lord iustice.
kings letters assigned in yearelie fee for his office 500 pounds, with condition, that
the said gouernour should find twentie great horsses to serue in the field, he himselfe
to be the twentith man in going against the enimie: which allowance and conditions
in those daies (so farre as I can gesse) should séeme to be ordinarie to the office.
Lionell duke of Clarence sonne to king Edward the third, came ouer into Ireland to
Lionell duke of Clarence.
be lord justice there, and was in right of his wife earle of Vlster. He published an
inhibition to all of the Irish birth not once to approch his armie, nor to be in anie
wise imploied in seruice of the wars. He vanquished Obren, but yet sudenlie (no
man vnderstanding how) an hundred of his souldiers were wanting as they laie in
garrison, the losse of whom was thought to be occasioned by that displeasant decree
afore rehearsed. Wherevpon he tooke better aduise, and receiued the Irish into like
fauour, as other lieutenants had them in before that present, shewing a tender loue
towards them all, and so euer after prospered in his affaires. He created diuerse
knights, as Preston, now knowne by the name of the familie of Gormanston, Holiewood,
Talbot, Cusac, de la Hide, Patrike, Robert and Iohn de Fraxinis: all these
being gentlemen of worthie fame in chiualrie. The excheker he remooued to Catherlagh,
& bestowed in furnishing that towne fiue hundred pounds.
In the yeare 1362 Iohn de S. Paule archbishop of Dublin departed this life the
fift ides of September. And in the yeare following was Thomas Minot consecrated
archbishop of that place. Girald Fitzmaurice earle of Desmond was appointed lord
The lord Windsor lieutenant.
iustice, vntill the comming of the lord Windsor, the first lieutenant in Ireland, who
came ouer in the yeare 1369. This Windsore called a parlement at Kilkennie, in
the which was granted to the king a subsidie of three thousand pounds to be leuied of
the people, subjects to the king in that land. And in an other parlement holden by
him at Balidoill they granted two thousand pounds to be likewise leuied. Which
said sums were granted of the méere and frée good wils of the nobles and communaltie
of the land, towards the maintenance of the kings expenses in his warres.
Yet the king in the three and fortith yeare of his reigne, directing his letters vnto
the said lord Windsor, cōmanded him to surcease from leuieng the foresaid monie,
although afterwards he commanded againe that the arrerages should be leuied and
paid to his lieutenant the said Windsor.
The third pestilence in Ireland made awaie a great number of people. In the
Mortalitie of people.
Sir Richard Ashton lord iustice.
yeare 1370 the lord Gerald Fitzmorice earle of Desmond, and the lord Iohn Fitzrichard,
and the lord Iohn Fitziohn, and manie other noble men were slaine by
Obren, and Mac Conmard of Thomond in the moneth of Iulie. In the yeare 1372 sir
Richard Ashton was sent ouer to be lord iustice in Ireland. In the yeare following
great warre was raised betwixt the English of Meth, and Offeroll, in the which manie
vpon both sides were slaine. In Maie, the lord Iohn Husseie baron of Galtrim,
Iohn Fitzrichard shiriffe of Meth, and William Dalton were slaine in Kinaleigh.
In the yeare 1375 Thomas archbishop of Dublin departed this life, and the same
yeare was Robert de Wikeford consecrated archbishop there.