Onedismus called of the Latines Exprobratio, is a form of speech by which the speaker upbraideth his adversary of ingratitude, and impietie.
An apt example of this figure Virgil hath elegantly expressed by Dido Queene of Carthage, upbraiding Aeneas with the great and manifold benefites which he had received of her, and accusing him of unkindnesse & cruelty now purposed toward her, and by comparing these together she increaseth her wrath & in the middest of her flaming furie the bursteth forth and exclaimeth against him thus:
No Goddess never was thy Dam, nor thou of Dardans kinde.
Thou traytor wretch but under rockes, and mountaines rough unkinde.
Thou wert begort, some broode thou art of Beast or Monster wild.
Some Tigers thee did nurce and gave to thee their milke unmilde.
And a little after she addeth:
No stedfast truth there is, this naked miser by I tooke,
Whome seas had cast to shore, and of my Realme a part I gave,
His fleet I did releeve, and from their death his people save.
The Prophet Esay by this forme of speech in a similitude of a Vineyard frutefully planted and carefully fenced, doth set before the peoples eies, Gods goodnesse and mercy towards them. And by the wild and evill frute, which that vineyard brought forth, he accuseth them of most sinful ingratitude.
The use of this figure.
The use hereof is
easily seene, and may therefore be the sooner noted: it tendeth most
specially to reprove and rebuke ingratitude, a most ill weede
wheresoever it groweth, and therefore well woerthy to be pluckt up by
the rootes, with the weedehooke of rebuke and shame.
Wisedome and charity ought to direct the use of this figure, lest it be used for every little displeasure as foolish persons
Not for smal displeasures.
are wont to do, making a new account of an old reckoning,
which is an absurditie offending against good manners, a folly repugning wisedome, and an effect of mallice opposed against charitie.