Expolitio, when we abide still in one place, and yet seeme to speake divese things, many times repeating one sentence but yet with other words, sentences, exornations, and figures: it differeth saith Malancton, from Smonunia, forasmuch as that repeateth a sentence or thing onely with changed words: but this both with like wordes, lik esentences, and like things, having also many exornations to the garnishing thereof. Cornificius teacheth that of this figure, there be two kindes, the one when we rehearse againe the verie same thing, but not after the same manner, for there is nothing more wearisome, and that may sooner bring satietie and irksomenesse to the hearer, then Tautologia, which is a wearisome repetition of all
one word. But tarrying still in one place, we do varie one thing or sentence diverse maner of waies, and entreat of it with sundry fashions of speech. This first kind is three maner of waies waried.
The first by shift and chaunge of words, which is called Sinonimia, whereof hath bene said.
Secondly by altering of pronounciation, that is to say, when the Orator doth occupie or repeat the same wordes and sentences with a certaine alteration and chaunge of his voice and gesture. Sextus Roscius is convicted that he slew his father. Now this is said with a plaine pronunciation: Did Sextus Roscius slay his father? with an interrogation, which is full of marvelling: and likewise that which the Orator hath uttered in hot and vehement speech, he may repeat again with coole and quiet words.
Thirdly by alteration of the handling or entreating, as when the Orator conveyeth his speech either to Prosopopeia, Sermocinatio, Exusciatio, or to any other such like figure. Cicero when he had reckened up many mischievous deedes of Catiline, and many of his wicked doinges practiced against the commen wealth, and had accused him most greevously in the Senate, he commanded him to get out of the Citie, he changeth the handling of his sentence, and translateth his speech to Prosopopeia: whereby he faineth the country chiding with Catiline, and rehearseth in order all his ungracious, mischeevous, and unluckie deeds, enerprised against it, accusing him sore, and willing him to depart out of it. There hath saith he, no abhominable or wicked deede bene heard or seene these many yeares but through thee: no naughtie factes without thee: thou onely hast slaine many Citizens, and never yet punished: thou hast vexed and robbed thy fellowes, and nothing said unto thee: thou hast not only bene able to neglect lawes and statutes, but also to overthrow them and breake them in peeces, with much more following.
The second kinde of expolition.
The second kinde of expolition is, when we speake one thing with many changes, which as some Authours do teach, consisteth of seven parts: and what these parts be, this example now following doth shewe. Whereby the Authour to Herenius teacheth verie plainly the whole reason of publishing, thus: A wise man will shunne no perill for the common wealth. Therefore as oft times it commeth to passe, that when he which will not die for the common wealth, doth of necessitie die with it. And because all commodities are received of the country, no discommoditie ought to be esteemed great or greevous for the country, wherefore they do unwisely which shun ye perill which must needs be bidden for the country: for neither can they avoyd the discommodities, and against their own Cittie they are found unthankfull. But they which with their own perill do willingly resist the perils of their country, are judged wise men, for that they both render that honour to the common wealth which they owe unto it, and had also rather die for many, than with many.
For it is a verie unreasonable thing to restore life received of nature, to nature when she compelleth, and not to give it to thy country when she craveth it: forasmuch as thou hast by thy countrey preserved it, and when thou maist with great vertue and honour die for thy ocuntry, to choose rather to live by dishonour and cowardnesse, and where as thou canst be content to put thy selfe in daunger for thy friends parents, and the rest of thy kinsfolk, to be unwilling to enter into danger for the common wealth, in which both this and that most reverende name of countrey is contained. Therefore as he is worthie to be contemned, which in failing had rather save himselfe then the shippe, so is he worthie to be balmed, which in jeopardie of the common wealth provideth more for his private safetie then for the common preservation. From a broken ship many have escaped from the shipwrack of the ocuntry no man can well escape: which me thinke Decius did well perceive, who as it is reported, bending himselfe to die for the safetie of his souldiers, ranne into the middest of his enemies, whereby he let his life go, but lost it not: for with a thing of smal value, he redeeme a thing of great price: he gave his life, he gained his countrey: he parted with his life, he obtained glory: which published with high praise, the elder it waxeth, the more & more it shall shine.
Now forasmuch as it is shewed by reason, and proved by example, that we ought to venture our lives for the common wealth, those men are to judged wise, which shun no perill for the safetie of their country.
Now albeit the Author hath given this example, yet an Orator is not alwaies so straitly bound, as to observe everie point hereof: but hath a larger libertie to use it, as it may seeme best unto him.
The use of this figure.
The vertue of this figure is great and well worthie to bee reckoned and esteemed among the most principall ornaments of eloquence, both in respect of the great copie of words, and matter, and also of the diversitie of proofes and pleasant varietie: the use of it is verie generall and fit for any great and weightie cause.
In using exposition it is verie necessarie to avoid Tautologies, to which the use of this exornation is much subject which may be easily prevented by preparation, and the furniture of other figure.
And also it behoveth him that shall use this figure to provide aforehand both the platforme and the matter, lest his reasons and proofes be to seeke, or his examples unreadie, or his similitudes unprepared, or his conclusion in the wildernesse God knoweth where.