[*] 4. Consonants are further classified as in the following table:
|Voiced ( mediae ）||b||d||g|
|Mutes||Voiceless ( tenues ）||p||t||c (k, q）|
|Nasals||m||n||n (before c, g, q）|
|Fricatives||(Spirants)||f 1||s, z|
- Mutes are pronounced by blocking entirely, for an instant, the passage of the breath through the mouth, and then allowing it to escape with an explosion (distinctly heard before a following vowel). Between the explosion and the vowel there may be a slight puff of breath （ h ), as in the Aspirates (ph, th, ch).2
- Labials are pronounced with the lips, or lips and teeth.
- Dentals (sometimes called Linguals) are pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching or approaching the upper front teeth.
- Palatals are pronounced with a part of the upper surface of the tongue touching or approaching the palate.3
- Fricatives (or Spirants) are consonants in which the breath passes continuously through the mouth with audible friction.
- Nasals are like voiced mutes, except that the mouth remains closed and the breath passes through the nose.