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53. Nouns of the Third Declension end in a, e, ī, ō, y, c, l, n, r, s, t, x.

54. Stems of the Third Declension are classed as follows:—

I. Consonant Stems a. Mute stems. b. Liquid and Nasal stems.

II. I-Stems a. Pure i-stems. b. Mixed i-stems.

55. The Nominative is always derived from the stem.

The variety in form in the Nominative is due to simple modi fications of the stem, of which the most important are—

  1. Combination of final consonants: as of c (or g ) and s to form x; dux , ducis , stem duc-; rēx , rēgis , stem rēg-.
  2. Omission of a final consonant: as of a final nasal; leō , leōnis , stem leōn-; ōrātiō , ōrātiōnis , stem ōrātiōn-.
  3. Omission of a final vowel: as of final i; calcar , calcāris , stem calcāri-.
  4. Change of vowel in the final syllable : as of a toe; prīnceps (for -caps), prīncipis , stem prīncip- (for -cap-).


Mute Stems

56. Masculine and Feminine Nouns with mute stems form the Nominative by adding s to the stem.

A labial ( p ) is retained before s: as, prīncep-s .

A lingual (t, d) is dropped before s: as, mīles (stem mīlit-), cūstōs (stem cūstōd-).

A palatal (c, g) unites with s to form x: as, dux (for † duc-s ), rēx (for † rēg-s ).

a. In dissyllabic stems the final syllable often shows e in the nominative and i in the stem: as, prīnceps , stem prīncip- (for -cap-).

57. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:

prīnceps , C., chief rādīx, F., root mīles, M., soldier
STEM prīncip- STEM rādīc- STEM mīlit-

NOM. prīnceps rādīx mīles -s
GEN. prīncipis rādīcis mīlitis -is
DAT. prīncipī rādīcī mīlitī -ī
ACC. prīncipem rādīcem mīlitem -em
ABL. prīncipe rādīce mīlite -e
NOM. prīncipēs rādīcēs mīlitēs -ēs
GEN. prīncipum rādīcum mīlitum -um
DAT. prīncipibus rādīcibus mīlitibus -ibus
ACC. prīncipēs rādīcēs mīlitēs -ēs
ABL. prīncipibus rādīcibus mīlitibus -ibus

cūstōs , C., guard dux , C., leader rēx , M., king
STEM cūstōd- STEM duc- STEM rēg-

NOM. cūstōs dux x -s
GEN. cūstōdis ducis rēgis -is
DAT. cūstōdī ducī rēgī -ī
ACC. cūstōdem ducem rēgem -em
ABL. cūstōde duce rēge -e

NOM. cūstōdēs ducēs rēgēs -ēs
GEN. cūstōdum ducum rēgum -um
DAT. cūstōdibus ducibus rēgibus -ibus
ACC. cūstōdēs ducēs rēgēs -ēs
ABL. cūstōdibus ducibus rēgibus -ibus

a. In like manner are declined—

  1. ariēs, -etis (M.), ram; comes, -itis (c.), companion; lapis , -idis (M.), stone; iūdex , -icis (M.), judge; cornīx , -īcis (F.), raven, and many other nouns.

58. Most mute stems are Masculine or Feminine. Those that are neuter have for the Nominative the simple stem. But,—

a. Lingual Stems (t, d) ending in two consonants drop the final mute: as, cor (stem cord-), lac (stem lact-). So also stems in ăt- from the Greek: as, poēma (stem poēmat-).

b. The stem capit- shows u in the nominative (caput forcapot).

59. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:—

cor , N., heart caput , N., head poēma , N., poem
STEM cord- STEM capit- STEM poēmat-

NOM. cor caput poēma -----
GEN. cordis capitis poēmatis -is
DAT. cordī capitī poēmatī -ī
ACC. cor caput poēma -----
ABL. corde capite poēmate -e
NOM. corda capita poēmata -a
GEN. ----- capitum poēmatum -um
DAT. cordibus capitibus poēmatibus -ibus
ACC. corda capita poēmata -a
ABL. cordibus capitibus poēmatibus -ibus

60. The following irregularities require notice:—

a. Greek neuters with nominative singular in -a (as poēma ) frequently end in -īs in the dative and ablative plural, and rarely in -ōrum in the genitive plural; as, poēmatīs (for poēmatibus ), poēmatōrum (for poēmatum ).

b. A number of monosyllabic nouns with mute stems want the genitive plural (like cor ). See § 103. g. 2.

Liquid and Nasal Stems (l, n, r

61. In Masculine and Feminine nouns with liquid and nasal stems the Nominative is the same as the stem.

Exceptions are the following:—

  1. Stems in ōn- drop n in the nominative: as in legiō , stem legiōn-.
  2. Stems in din- and gin- drop n and keep an original ō in the nominative: as in virgō , stem virgin-.1
  3. Stems in in- (not din- or gin-) retain n and have e instead ofi in the nominative: as in cornicen, stem cornicin-.2
  4. Stems in tr- have -ter in the nominative: as, pater , stem patr-.3
62. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:—

cōnsul , M., consul leō , M., lion virgō , F., maiden pater , M., father
STEM cōnsul- STEM leōn- STEM virgin- STEM patr-

Note 1.--Stems in ll-, rr- (N.) lose one of their liquids in the nominative: as, far, farris; mel, mellis .

Note 2.--A few masculine and feminine stems have a nominative in -s as well as in -r: as, honōs or honor, arbōs or arbor.

Note 3.-- Canis, dog, and iuvenis, youth, have -is in the nominative.

NOM. cōnsul leō virgō pater -----
GEN. cōnsulis leōnis virginis patris -is
DAT. cōnsulī leōnī virginī patrī -ī
ACC. cōnsulem leōnem virginem patrem -em
ABL. cōnsule leōne virgine patre -e
NOM. cōnsulēs leōnēs virginēs patrēs -ēs
GEN. cōnsulum leōnum virginum patrum -um
DAT. cōnsulibus leōnibus virginibus patribus -ibus
ACC. cōnsulēs leōnēs virginēs patrēs -ēs
ABL. cōnsulibus leōnibus virginibus patribus -ibus

63. In Neuter nouns with liquid or nasal stems the Nominative is the same as the stem.


  1. Stems in in- havee instead of i in the nominative: as in nōmen , stem nōmin-.
  2. Most stems in er- and or- have -us in the nominative: as,genus, stem gener-.4
64. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:—

nomen , N., name genus, N., race corpus, N., body aequor , N., sea
STEM nomin- STEM gener- STEM corpor- STEM aequor-

NOM. nōmen genus corpus aequor
GEN. nōminis generis corporis aequoris
DAT. nōminī generī corporī aequorī
ACC. nōmen genus corpus aequor
ABL. nōmine genere corpore aequore
NOM. nōmina genera corpora aequora
GEN. nōminum generum corporum aequorum
DAT. nōminibus generibus corporibus aequoribus
ACC. nōmina genera corpora aequora
ABL. nōminibus generibus corporibus aequoribus

So also are declined opus , -eris, work; pīgnus, -eris or -oris, pledge, etc.

Note.--The following real or apparent liquid and nasal stems have the genitive plural in -ium, and are to be classed with the i-stems: imber , linter, ūter , venter; glīs, mās, mūs, [†rēn]; also vīrēs (plural of vīs : see § 79).


65. Nouns of this class include—

  1. Pure i-Stems: a. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic5 nouns in -is and four in -er.

    b. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar.

  2. Mixed i-Stems, declined in the singular like consonant stems, the plural like i-stems.

Pure i-Stems

66. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic nouns in -is form the Nominative singular by adding s to the stem.

Four stems in bri- and tri- do not add s to form the nominative, but drop i and insert e before r. These are imber , linter, ūter , venter.

67. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:—

sitis , F., thirst turris , F., tower īgnis , M., fire imber , M., rain
STEM siti- STEM turri- STEM īgni- STEM imbri-

NOM. sitis turris īgnis imber
GEN. sitis turris īgnis imbris
DAT sitī turrī īgnī imbrī
ACC sitim turrim (-em īgnem imbrem
ABI sitī turrī (-e īgnī (-e imbrī (-e
NOM. turrēs īgnēs imbrēs
GEN. turrium īgnium imbrium
DAT. turribus īgnibus imbribus
ACC turrīs (-ēs īgnīs (-ēs imbrīs (-ēs
ABL. turribus īgnibus imbribus

68. In Neuters the Nominative is the same as the stem, with final i changed to e: as, mare, stem mari-. But most nouns6 in which the i of the stem is preceded by āl or ār lose the final vowel and shorten the preceding ā: as, animăl, stem animāli-.7

a. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar have -ī in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural: as, animal, animālī , -ia, -ium.

69. Nouns of this class are declined as follows:—

sedīle , N., seat animal, N., animal calcar , N., spur
STEM sedīli- STEM animāli- STEM calcāri-

NOM. sedīle animal calcar -e or ----
GEN. sedīlis animālis calcāris -is
DAT. sedīlī animālī calcārī -ī
ACC. sedīle animal calcar -e or ----
ABL. sedīlī animālī calcārī -ī
NOM. sedīlia animālia calcāria -ia
GEN. sedīlium animālium calcārium -ium
DAT. sedīlibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus
ACC. sedīlia animālia calcāria -ia
ABL. sedīlibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus

Mixed i-Stems

70. Mixed i-stems are either original i-stems that have lost their i-forms in the singular, or consonant stems that have assumed i- forms in the plural.

Note.--It is sometimes impossible to distinguish between these two classes.

71. Mixed i-stems have -em in the accusative and -e in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive8 and -īs or -ēs in the accusative plural. They include the following:—

  1. Nouns in -ēs, gen. -is.9
  2. Monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a consonant: as, ars , pōns, arx .
  3. Polysyllables in -ns or -rs: as, cliēns , cohors .
  4. Nouns in -tās, genitive -tātis (genitive plural usually -um10: as, cīvitās .
  5. Penātēs, optimātēs , and nouns denoting birth or abode (patrials) in -ās, -īs, plural -ātēs, -ītēs: as, Arpīnās , plural Arpīnātēs;Quirīs, plural Quirītēs .
  6. The following monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a vowel: dōs, fraus , glīs, līs , mās,mūs, nix, nox , strix, vīs .
72. Nouns of this class are thus declined:—

nūbēs , F., cloud urbs , F., city nox , F., night cliēns , M., client aetās , F., age
STEM nūb(i)- STEM urb(i)- STEM noct(i)- STEM client(i)- STEM aetāt(i)-

NOM. nūbēs urbs nox cliēns aetās
GEN. nūbis urbis noctis clientis aetātis
DAT. nūbī urbī noctī clientī aetātī
ACC. nūbem urbem noctem clientem aetātem
ABL. nūbe urbe nocte cliente aetāte
NOM. nūbēs urbēs noctēs clientēs aetātēs
GEN. nūbium urbium noctium clientium 11 aetātum 12
DAT. nūbibus urbibus noctibus clientibus aetātibus
ACC. nūbīs-ēs urbīs-ēs noctīs-ēs clientīs-ēs aetātīs-ēs
ABL. nūbibus urbibus noctibus clientibus aetātibus

Summary of i-Stems

73. The i-declension was confused even to the Romans themselves, nor was it stable at all periods of the language, early Latin having i-forms which afterwards disappeared. There was a tendency in nouns to lose the i-forms, in adjectives to gain them. The nominative plural (-īs)13 was most thoroughly lost, next the accusative singular (-im), next the ablative (-ī); while the genitive and accusative plural (-ium, -īs) were retained in almost all.

74. I-stems show the i of the stem in the following forms:—

a. They have the genitive plural in -ium (but some monosyllables lack it entirely). For a few exceptions, see § 78.

b. All neuters have the nominative and accusative plural in -ia.

c. The accusative plural (M. or F.) is regularly -īs.

d. The accusative singular (M. or F.) of a few ends in -im (§ 75).

e. The ablative singular of all neuters, and of many masculines and feminines, ends in -ī (see § 76).

75. The regular case-ending of the Accusative singular of i- stems (M. or F.) would be -im: as, sitis , sitim (cf. stella , -am; servus , -um); but in most nouns this is changed to -em (following the consonant declension).

a. The accusative in -im is found exclusively—

  1. In Greek nouns and in names of rivers.
  2. In būris , cucumis , rāvis , sitis , tussis , vīs .
  3. In adverbs in -tim (being accusative of nouns in -tis), as, partim; and in amussim.
b. The accusative in -im is found sometimes in febris , puppis , restis , turris , secūris , sēmentis , and rarely in many other words.

76. The regular form of the Ablative singular of i-stems would be -ī: as, sitis , sitī; but in most nouns this is changed to -e.

a. The ablative in -ī is found exclusively—

  1. In nouns having the accusative in -im (§ 75); also secūris .
  2. In the following adjectives used as nouns: aequālis , annālis , aquālis , cōnsulāris , gentīlis , molāris , prīmipīlāris , tribūlis .
  3. In neuters in -e, -al, -ar: except baccar , iubar , rēte , and sometimes mare. b. The ablative in -ī is found sometimes—

Note 1.--The ablative offamēs is always famē(§ 105. e). The defective māne has sometimes mānī (§ 103. b. N.) as ablative.

Note 2.--Most names of towns in -e (as, Praeneste, Tergeste) and Sōracte , a mountain, have the ablative in -e. Caere has Caerēte.

Note 3.--Canis and iuvenis have cane, iuvene

77. The regular Nominative plural of i-stems is -ēs,15 but -īs is occasionally found. The regular Accusative plural -īs is common, but not exclusively used in any word. An old form for both cases is -eis (diphthong).

78. The following have -um (not -ium) in the genitive plural:

  1. Always, canis , iuvenis ,16 ambāgēs , mare (once only, otherwise wanting), volucris; regularly, sēdēs , vātēs .
  2. Sometimes, apis , caedēs , clādēs , mēnsis , struēs , subolēs .
  3. Very rarely,—patrials in -ās, -ātis; -īs, -ītis; as, Arpīnās , Arpīnātum , Samnīs,Samnītum.

Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension

79. In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nominative or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined:—

bōs , C. senex , M. carō , F. os , N. vīs , F.
ox, cow old man flesh bone force

NOM. s senex carō os s
GEN. bŏvis senis carnis ossis s (rare)
DAT. bovī senī carnī ossī vī (rare)
ACC. bovem senem carnem os vim
ABL. bove sene carne osse
cattle PLURAL strength
NOM. bovēs senēs carnēs ossa vīrēs
GEN. boum senum carnium ossium vīrium
DAT. bus (bū bus senibus carnibus ossibus vīribus
ACC. bovēs senēs carnēs ossa vīrīs (-ēs
ABL. bus (bū bus senibus carnibus ossibus vīribus

sūs , C. Iuppiter , M. nix, F. iter , N.
swine Jupiter snow march

NOM. s Iuppiter 17 nix iter
GEN. suis Iovis nivis itineris
DAT. suī Iovī nivī itinerī
ACC. suem Iovem nivem iter
ABL. sue Iove nive itinere
NOM. suēs nivēs itinera
GEN. suum nivium itinerum
DAT. ˘bus (su ibus nivibus itineribus
ACC. suēs nivēs itinera
ABL. ˘bus (su ibus nivibus itineribus

a. Two vowel-stems in ū-, grū- and -, which follow the third declension, add s in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems: grūs has also a nominative gruis; sūs has both suibus and sū˘bus in the dative and ablative plural, grūs has only gruibus .

b. In the stem bov- (bou-) the diphthong ou becomes ō in the nominative (bōs, bŏvis).

In nāv- (nau-) an i is added ( nāvis , -is), and it is declined like turris (§ 67).

In Iŏv- (= Ζεύς) the diphthong ( ou ) becomes ū in Iū-piter (for -păter), genitive Iŏvis , etc.; but the form Iuppiter is preferred.

c. In iter , itineris (N.), iecur, iecinoris ( iecoris ) (N.), supellēx , supellēctilis (F.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem; in senex , senis , from a longer; so that these words show a combination of forms from two distinct stems.

d. In nix, nivis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the g uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form x. In the other cases the stem assumes the form niv- and it adds i in the genitive plural.

e. Vās (N.), vāsis , keeps s throughout; plural vāsa , vāsōrum . A dative plural vāsibus also occurs. There is a rare singular vāsum .

The Locative Case

80. The Locative form for nouns of the third declension ends in the singular in -ī or -ē, in the plural in -ibus: as, rūrī, in the country; Carthāginī or Carthāgine, at Carthage; Trallibus, at Tralles. 18

Greek Nouns of the Third Declension

81. Many nouns originally Greek—mostly proper names— retain Greek forms of inflection. So especially—

  1. Genitive singular in -os, as, tigridos .
  2. Accusative singular in -a, as, aethera .
  3. Vocative singular like the stem, as, Periclē , Orpheu, Atlā.
  4. Nominative plural in -ĕs, as, hērōĕs.
  5. Accusative plural in -ăs, as, hērōăs .
82. Some of these forms are seen in the following examples:—

hērōs, M., hero lampas , F., torch basis, F., base tigris , C., tiger nāis , F., naiad
STEM hērō- STEM lampad- STEM basi- STEM tigrid- tigri- STEM nāid-

NOM. hērōs lampas basis tigris nāis
GEN. hērōis lampados baseōs tigris(-id os nāidos
DAT. hērōī lampadī basī tigrī nāidī
ACC. hērōa lampada basin tigrin(-id a nāida
ABL. hērōe lampade basī tigrī(-id e nāide
NOM. hērōĕs lampadĕs basēs tigrēs nāidĕs
GEN. hērōum lampadum basium-eōn tigrium nāidum
D.,A.19 hērōibus lampadibus basibus tigribus nāidibus
ACC. hērōăs lampadăs basīs((--eis tigrīs(-id ăs nāidăs

Note.--The regular Latin forms may be used for most of the above.

NOM. Dīdō Simoīs Capys
GEN. Dīdōnis(Dīd ūs Simoentis Capyos
DAT. Dīdōnī(Dīdō Simoentī Capyī
ACC. Dīdōnem(-ō) Simoenta Capyn
ABL. Dīdōne(-ō) Simoente Capyë
VOC. Dīdō Simoīs Capy
NOM. Orpheus Periclēs Paris
GEN. Orpheī(-e ōs Periclis-ī Paridis
DAT. Orpheī(-e ō Periclī-i Paridī
ACC. Orphea-um Periclem-ea, -ēn Paridem, Parim(-i n
ABL. Orpheō Pericle Paride, Parī
VOC. Orpheu Periclēs-ē Pari

83. Other peculiarities are the following:—

a. Delphīnus, -ī (M.), has also the form delphīn, -īnis; Salamīs, -is (F.) has acc. Salamīna .

b. Most stems in ĭd- (nom. -is) often have also the forms of i-stems: as tigris , gen. -ĭdis (-ĭdos) or -is; acc. -ĭdem (-ĭda) or -im (-in); abl. -ĭde or -ī. But many, including most feminine proper names, have acc. -idem (-ida); abl. -ide,—not -im or -ī. (These stems are irregular also in Greek.)

c. Stems in on- sometimes retain -n in the nominative: as, Agamemnōn (or Agamemnō ), genitive -ŏnis, accusative -ŏna.

d. Stems in ont- form the nominative in -ōn: as, horizōn, Xenophōn; but a few are occasionally Latinized into ōn- (nom. -ō): as, Dracō, -ōnis; Antiphō, -ōnis.

e. Like Simoīs are declined stems in ant-, ent-, and a few in ūnt- (nominative in -ās, -īs, -ūs): as, Atlās, -antis; Trapezūs, -ūntis.

f. Some words fluctuate between different declensions: as Orpheus between the second and the third.

g. -ōn is found in the genitive plural in a few Greek titles of books: as, Metamorphōseōn, of the Metamorphoses (Ovid's well-known poem); Geōrgicōn, of the Georgics (a poem of Virgil).

Gender in the Third Declension

84. The Gender of nouns of this declension must be learned by practice and from the Lexicon. Many are masculine or feminine by nature or in accordance with the general rules for gender (p. 15). The most important rules for the others, with their principal exceptions, are the following:—20

85. Masculine are nouns in -or, -ōs, -er, -ĕs (gen. -itis), -ex (gen. -ĭcis): as, color, flōs, imber , gurges ( gurgitis ), vertex ( verticis ).

Exceptions are the following:—

a. Feminine are arbor; cōs, dōs; linter.

b. Neuter are ador , aequor , cor , marmor; ōs ( ōris ); also os ( ossis );

cadāver, iter , tūber, ūber , vēr; and names of plants and trees in -er: as, acer, papāver.

86. Feminine are nouns in -ō, -ās, -ēs, -is, -ūs, -x, and in -s preceded by a consonant: as, legiō , cīvitās , nūbēs , avis , virtūs , arx , urbs . The nouns in -ō are mostly those in - and -, and abstract and collective nouns in -.

Exceptions are the following:—

a. Masculine are leō , leōnis; ligō,-ōnis; sermō , -ōnis; also cardō , harpagō margō , ōrdō , turbō; and concrete nouns in -: as, pugiō , ūniō , papiliō; 21

acīnacēs , ariēs, celēs , lebēs , pariēs , pēs;

Nouns in -nis and -guis: as, īgnis , sanguis; also axis, caulis , collis , cucumis , ēnsis, fascis , follis , fūstis , lapis , mēnsis , orbis , piscis , postis , pulvis , vōmis;


calix , fornix , grex , phoenīx, and nouns in -ex (gen. -icis) (§ 85);

dēns, fōns , mōns , pōns.

Note.--Some nouns in -is and -ns which are masculine were originally adjectives or participles agreeing with a masculine noun: as, Aprīlis (sc. mēnsis ), M., April; oriēns (sc. sōl ), M., the east; annālis (sc. liber ), M., the year-book.

b. Neuter are vās ( vāsis ); crūs , iūs , pūs, rūs , tūs.

87. Neuter are nouns in -a, -e, -l, -n, -ar, -ur, -ŭs: as, poēma , mare, animal, nōmen , calcar , rōbur, corpus; also lac and caput .

Exceptions are the following:—

a. Masculine are sāl, sōl , pecten, vultur , lepus .

b. Feminine is pecus (gen. -udis).

1 These differences depend in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and in part upon the influence of analogy.

2 These differences depend in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and in part upon the influence of analogy.

3 These, no doubt, had originally ter- in the stem, but this had become weakened to tr- in some of the cases even in the parent speech. In Latin only the nominative and vocative singular show the e. But cf.Māspitris andMāspiteris ([r]s-piter), quoted by Priscian as old forms.

4 These were originally s-stems (cf. § 15. 4).

5 I.e. having the same number of syllables in the nominative and genitive singular.

6 Such are animal, bacchānal, bidental , capital, cervīcal, cubital , lupercal, minūtal , puteal , quadrantal , toral, tribūnal, vectīgal; calcar, cochlear, exemplar, lacūnar, laquear , tūcar, lūminar, lupānar , palear , pulvīnar , torcular . Cf. the plurals dentālia , frontālia , genuālia , spōnsālia; altāria, plantāria , speculāria , tālāria; also many names of festivals, as, Sāturnālia.

7 Exceptions are augurāle , collāre , fōcāle , nāvāle , penetrāle , rāmāle , scūtāle , tībiāle; alveāre, capillāre . cochleāre.

8 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

9 These are acīnacēs , aedēs , alcēs , caedēs , cautēs , clādēs , compāgēs , contāgēs , famēs, fēlēs , fidēs (plural),indolēs, lābēs , luēs , mēlēs , mōlēs, nūbēs , palumbēs , prōlēs , prōpāgēs , pūbēs , sēdēs , saepēs , sordēs , strāgēs , struēs , subolēs , tābēs , torquēs, tudēs , vātēs , vehēs , veprēs , verrēs , vulpēs; aedēs has also nominative aedis .

10 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having -ium, some -um, and some both.

11 Rarely clientum .

12 Also aetātium . Cf.§ 71. 4.

13 An old, though not the original ending (see p. 32. footnote 2).

14 Always in the formula aquā et īgnī interdīcī (§ 401).

15 The Indo-European ending of the nominative plural, -ĕs (preserved in Greek in consonant stems, as ὄρτυξ, ὄρτυγ-ες), contracts with a stem-vowel and gives -ēs in the Latin i-declension (cf, the Greek plural ὄεις). This -ēs was extended to consonant stems in Latin.

16 Canis and iuvenis are really n-stems

17 Also Iüpiter.

18 The Indo-European locative singular ended in -ĭ, which became -ĕ in Latin. Thus the Latin ablative in -e is, historically considered, a locative. The Latin ablative in -ī (from -īd) was an analogical formation (cf. -ā from -ād, -ō from -ōd), properly belonging to i-stems. With names of towns and a few other words, a locative function was ascribed to forms in -ī (as, Carthāginī ), partly on the analogy of the real locative of o-stems (as, Corinthī , § 49. a); but forms in -ĕ also survived in this use. The plural -bus is properly dative or ablative, but in forms like Trallibus it has a locative function. Cf. Philippīs (§ 49. a), in which the ending -īs is, historically considered, either locative, or instrumental, or both, and Athēnīs (§ 43. c), in which the ending is formed on the analogy of o-stems.

19 Dative, hērōisin (once only).

20 Some nouns of doubtful or variable gender are omitted.

21 Many nouns in -ō (gen. -ōnis) are masculinby signification: as, gerō, carrier restiō, ropemaker: and family names (originally nicknames): as, Cicerō, Nāsō . See §§ 236. c, 255.

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