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104. Many nouns vary either in Declension or in Gender.

105. Nouns that vary in Declension are called heteroclites. 1

a. Colus (F.), distaff; domus (F.), house (see § 93), and many names of plants in -us, vary between the Second and Fourth Declensions.

b. Some nouns vary between the Second and Third: as, iūgerum , -ī, -ō, ablative -ō or -e, plural -a, -um, -ibus; Mulciber, genitive -berī and -beris; sequester, genitive -trī and -tris; vās , vāsis , and (old) vāsum , -ī (§ 79. e).

c. Some vary between the Second, Third, and Fourth: as, penus , penum , genitive penī and penoris , ablative penū.

d. Many nouns vary between the First and Fifth (see § 98. c).

e. Some vary between the Third and Fifth. Thus, requiēs has genitive -ētis, dative wanting, accusative -ētem or -em, ablative -ē (once -ēte); famēs, regularly of the third declension, has ablative famē (§ 76. N. 1), and pūbēs (M.) has once dative pūbē (in Plautus).

f. Pecus varies between the Third and Fourth, having pecoris , etc., but also nominative pecū , ablative pecū; plural pecua, genitive pecuum .

g. Many vary between different stems of the same declension: as, femur (N.), genitive -oris, also -inis (as from † femen ); iecur (N.), genitive iecinoris, iocinoris , iecoris; mūnus (N.), plural mūnera and mūnia .

106. Nouns that vary in Gender are said to be heterogeneous. 2

a. The following have a masculine form in -us and a neuter in -um: balteus , cāseus , clipeus , collum , cingulum , pīleus, tergum , vāllum , with many others of rare occurrence.

b. The following have in the Plural a different gender from that of the Singular:—

Note.--Some of these nouns are heteroclites as well as heterogeneous.

balneum (N.), bath; balneae (F.), baths (an establishment).
caelum (N.), heaven; caelōs (M. acc., Lucr.).
carbasus (F.), a sail; carbasa (N.) (-ōrum), sails.
dēlicium (N.), pleasure; dēliciae (F.), pet.
epulum (N.), feast; epulae (F.), feast.
frēnum (N.), a bit; frēnī (M.) or frēna (N.), a bridle.
iocus (M.), a jest; ioca (N.), iocī (M.), jests.
locus (M.), place; loca (N.), locī (M., usually topics, passages in books).
rāstrum (N.), a rake; rāstrī (M.), rāstra (N.), rakes.

107. Many nouns are found in the Plural in a peculiar sense:—

aedēs , -is (F.), temple; aedēs , -ium, house.
aqua (F.), water; aquae, mineral springs, a watering-place.
auxilium (N.), help; auxilia, auxiliaries.
bonum (N.), a good; bona, goods, property.
carcer (M.), dungeon; carcerēs, barriers (of race-course).
castrum (N.), fort; castra, camp.
comitium (N.), place of assembly; comitia, an election (town-meeting).
cōpia (F.), plenty; cōpiae, stores, troops.
fidēs (F.), harp-string; fidēs, lyre.
fīnis (M.), end; fīnēs, bounds, territories.
fortūna (F.), fortune; fortūnae, possessions.
grātia (F.), favor (rarely, thanks); grātiae, thanks (also, the Graces).
hortus (M.), a gardon; hortī, pleasure-grounds.
impedīmentum (N.) hindrance; impedīmenta, baggage.
littera (F.), letter (of alphabet); litterae, epistle, literature.
locus (M.), place [plural loca (N.)]; locī,3 topics, places in books.
lūdus (M.), sport; lūdī, public games.
mōs (M.), habit, custom; mōrēs, character.
nātālis (M.), birthday; nātālēs, descent, origin.
opera (F.), work; operae, day-laborers (“hands”).
[ ops ,] opis (F.), help (§ 103. f. 1); opēs, resources, wealth.
pars (F.), part; partēs, part (on the stage), party.
rōstrum (N.), beak of a ship; rōstra, speaker's platform.
sāl (M. or N.), salt; salēs, witticisms.
tabella (F.), tablet; tabellae, documents, records.

1 That is, “nouns of different inflections” ( ἔτερος , another, and κλινω , to inflect).

2 That is, “of different genders” (ἕτερος, another, and γένος, gender).

3 In early writers the regular plural.

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