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VERBS: CONJUGATION OF THE VERB

153. The inflection of the Verb is called its Conjugation.


Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number

154. Through its conjugation the Verb expresses Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, and Number.

a. The Voices are two: Active and Passive.

b. The Moods are four: Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive.1

Note.--The Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative are called Finite Moods in distinction from the Infinitive.

c. The Tenses are six, viz.:—

  1. For continued action, Present, Imperfect, Future.
  2. For completed action, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect.
The Indicative Mood has all six tenses, but the Subjunctive has no future or future perfect, and the Imperative has only the present and the future. The Infinitive has the present, perfect, and future.

d. The Persons are three: First, Second, and Third.

e. The Numbers are two: Singular and Plural.


Noun and Adjective Forms

155. The following Noun and Adjective forms are also included in the inflection of the Latin Verb:—

a. Four Participles,2 viz.:—

Active: the Present and Future Participles.

Passive: the Perfect Participle and the Gerundive.3

b. The Gerund: this is in form a neuter noun of the second declension, used only in the oblique cases of the singular.

c. The Supine: this is in form a verbal noun of the fourth declension in the accusative (-um) and dative or ablative (-ū4 singular.

1 The Infinitive is strictly the locative case of an abstract noun, expressing the action of the verb (§ 451).

2 The Participles are adjectives in inflection and meaning, but have the power of verbs in construction and in distinguishing time.

3 The Gerundive is also used as an adjective of necessity, duty, etc. (§ 158. d). In late use it became a Future Passive Participle.

4 Originally locative.

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