[*] 158. The Participles are used as follows:— [*] a. The Present Participle (ending in -ns) has commonly the same meaning and use as the English participle in -ing; as, vocāns, calling; legentēs, reading. (For its inflection, see egēns , § 118.) [*] b. The Future Participle (ending in -ūrus) is oftenest used to express what is likely or about to happen: as, rēctūrus, about to rule; audītūrus, about to hear. [*] c. The Perfect Participle (ending in -tus, -sus) has two uses:—
- It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle: as, tēctus, sheltered; acceptus, accepted; ictus, having been struck; and often has simply an adjective meaning: as, acceptus, acceptable.
- It is used with the verb to be (
) to form certain tenses of the passive: as, vocātus est, he was
(has been) called.
[*] Note.--There is no Perfect Active or Present Passive Participle in Latin. For substitutes see §§ 492, 493.
- It is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or propriety (ought or must): as, audiendus est, he must be heard.
- In the oblique cases the Gerundive commonly has the same meaning as the Gerund (cf. § 159. a), though its construction is different. (For examples, see § 503 ff.)