Forms of Conjugation[*] 179. The forms of the several conjugations from which, by adding the verb-endings in § 166, all the moods and tenses can be made are as follows:— [*] a. The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add ā- to the root to form the present stem:1 as, amā-re; with a few whose root ends in a (†for, fā-rī; flō, flā-re; nō, nā-re; stō, stā-re).
- The stem-vowel ā- is lost before -ō: as, amō = †amā-（ y ）ō; and in the present subjunctive it is changed to ē: as, amē-s , amē-mus .
- The perfect stem regularly adds v, the supine stemt, to the present stem: as, amā-v-ī , amā-t-um . For exceptions, see § 209. a.
- In the present subjunctive ā is added to the verb-stem: as, mone-ā-s , mone-ā-mus (cf. § 168. e).
- A few verbs form the perfect stem by adding v（ u ), and the supine stem by adding t, to the present stem: as, dēlē-v-ī , dēlē-t-um . But most form the perfect stem by adding v（ u ) to the root, and the supine stem by adding t to a weaker form of the present stem, ending in ĭ: as, mon-u-ī , monĭ-t-um. For lists, see § 210.
- The stem-vowel ĕ is regularly lost before -ō, and becomes u2 before -nt and ĭ before the other endings of the indicative and imperative: as, teg-ō , tegi-t , tegu-nt; in the imperfect indicative it becomes ē: as, tegēbam , tegē-bās , etc.; in the future, ē: as, tegē-s (except in the first person singular, tega-m, tega-r); in the present subjunctive, ā: as, tegā-s . Verbs in -iō lose the i before a consonant and also before ĭ, ī, and ĕ (except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). Thus, capi-at , capi-unt , capi-ēbat, capi-ēs , capi-et , capi-ent; but, cap-it (not †capi-it ), cap-eret .
- All varieties of perfect and supine stems are found in this conjugation. See lists, § 211. The perfect is not formed from the present stem, but from the root.
Synopsis of the Verb[*] 180. The following synopsis shows the forms of the verb arranged according to the three stems (§ 164). Amō , a regular verb of the first conjugation, is taken as a type. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, amō , amāre , amāvī , amātum . Passive, amor, amārī , amātus sum .
|PRESENT STEM amā-||PERFECT STEM amāv-||SUPINE STEM amāt-|
|Present stem, amā-|
|Perfect stem, amāv-||Supine stem, amāt-|
|FUT. PERF.||amāv-erō||amāt-us erō|
|Supine stem, amāt-|
|FUT.||amāt-ūrus esse||amāt-um īrī|
Peculiarities of Conjugation[*] 181. In tenses formed upon the Perfect Stem, v between two vowels is often lost and contraction takes place. [*] a. Perfects in -āvī, -ēvī, -ōvī, often contract the two vowels into ā, ē, ō, respectively: as, amāsse for amāvisse; amārim for amāverim; amāssem for amāvissem; cōnsuērat for cōnsuēverat; flēstis for flēvistis; nōsse for nōvisse . So in perfects in -vī, where the v is a part of the present stem: as, commōrat for commōverat .
[*] Note.--The first person of the perfect indicative (as, amāvī ) is never contracted, the third very rarely.[*] b. Perfects in -īvī regularly omit v, but rarely contract the vowels except before st and ss, and very rarely in the third person perfect:—
- audieram for audīveram; audīsse for audīvisse; audīstī for audīvistī; abiit for abīvit; abiērunt for abīvērunt .
[*] Note 1.--The forms sīris , sīrit, sīrītis, sīrint, for sīveris etc. (from sīverō or sīverim), are archaic.
[*] Note 2.--In many forms from the perfect stem is, iss, sis , are lost in like manner, when s would be repeated if they were retained: as, dīxtī for dīxistī (x = cs); trāxe for trāxisse; ēvāstī for ēvāsistī; vīxet for vīxisset; ērēpsēmus for ērēpsissēmus; dēcēsse for dēcessisse . These forms belong to archaic and colloquial usage.[*] 182. Four verbs, dīcō , dūcō , faciō , ferō ,—with their compounds, drop the vowel-termination of the Imperative, making dīc , dūc, făc , fĕr; but compounds in -ficiō retain it, as, cōnfice .
[*] Note.--The imperative forms dīce, dūce, face (never fere ), occur in early Latin.[*] a. For the imperative of sciō , the future form