previous next

2% of the text is displayed below. If you wish to view the entire text, please click here

Forms of Conjugation

179. The forms of the several conjugations from which, by adding the verb-endings in § 166, all the moods and tenses can be made are as follows:—

a. The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add ā- to the root to form the present stem:1 as, amā-re; with a few whose root ends in a (†for, fā-rī; flō, flā-re; , nā-re; stō, stā-re).

  1. The stem-vowel ā- is lost before : as, amō = †amā- y ō; and in the present subjunctive it is changed to ē: as, amē-s , amē-mus .
  2. The perfect stem regularly adds v, the supine stemt, to the present stem: as, amā-v-ī , amā-t-um . For exceptions, see § 209. a.
b. The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add ē- to the root to form the present stem: as, monē-re; with a few whose root ends in ē; as, fle-ō , flē-re; ne-ō, nē-re; re-or, rē-rī (cf. § 176. e).

  1. In the present subjunctive ā is added to the verb-stem: as, mone-ā-s , mone-ā-mus (cf. § 168. e).
  2. A few verbs form the perfect stem by adding v u ), and the supine stem by adding t, to the present stem: as, dēlē-v-ī , dēlē-t-um . But most form the perfect stem by adding v u ) to the root, and the supine stem by adding t to a weaker form of the present stem, ending in ĭ: as, mon-u-ī , monĭ-t-um. For lists, see § 210.
c. The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular, see § 197) which add ĕ- to the root to form the present stem: as, tegĕre , capĕ-re; with a few whose root ends in e: as, se-rĕ-re for †se-se-re (reduplicated from SE, cf. sătum ).

  1. The stem-vowel ĕ is regularly lost before , and becomes u2 before -nt and ĭ before the other endings of the indicative and imperative: as, teg-ō , tegi-t , tegu-nt; in the imperfect indicative it becomes ē: as, tegēbam , tegē-bās , etc.; in the future, ē: as, tegē-s (except in the first person singular, tega-m, tega-r); in the present subjunctive, ā: as, tegā-s . Verbs in -iō lose the i before a consonant and also before ĭ, ī, and ĕ (except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). Thus, capi-at , capi-unt , capi-ēbat, capi-ēs , capi-et , capi-ent; but, cap-it (not †capi-it ), cap-eret .

  2. All varieties of perfect and supine stems are found in this conjugation. See lists, § 211. The perfect is not formed from the present stem, but from the root.
d. The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add ī- to the root to form the present stem: as, audī-re .3 In these the perfect and supine stems regularly add v, t, to the verb-stem: as, audī-v-ī , audīt-um .4 Endings like those of the third conjugation are added in the third person plural of the present (indicative and imperative), in the imperfect and future indicative, and in the present subjunctive: as, audi-unt, audi-ēbat, audi-ētis, audi-at, the i being regularly short before a vowel.

e. The Present Imperative Active (second person singular) is the same as the present stem: as, amā , monē , tegĕ , audī . But verbs in -iō of the third conjugation omit i: as, capĕ (not †capie ).

f. The tenses of completed action in the Active voice are all regularly formed by adding the tense-endings (given in § 166) to the perfect stem: as, amāv-ī , amāv-eram , amāv-erō , amāv-erim , amāv-issem , amāv-isse .

g. The tenses of completed action in the Passive voice are formed by adding to the perfect participle the corresponding tenses of continued action of the verb esse : as, perfect amātus sum; pluperfect amātus eram , etc.

Synopsis of the Verb

180. The following synopsis shows the forms of the verb arranged according to the three stems (§ 164). Amō , a regular verb of the first conjugation, is taken as a type. PRINCIPAL PARTS: Active, amō , amāre , amāvī , amātum . Passive, amor, amārī , amātus sum .

Present stem, amā-
PRES. amō amo-r
IMPERF. amā-bam amā-bar
FUT. amā-bō amā-bor
PRES. ame-m ame-r
IMPERF. amā-rem amā-rer
PRES. amā amā-re
FUT. amā-tō amā-tor
PRES. amā-re amā-rī
PRES. amā-ns GERUNDIVE ama-ndus
GERUND ama-ndī
Perfect stem, amāv- Supine stem, amāt-
PERF. amāv-ī amāt-us sum
PLUPERF. amāv-eram amāt-us eram
FUT. PERF. amāv-erō amāt-us erō
PERF. amāv-erim amāt-us sim
PLUPERF. amāv-issem amāt-us essem
PERF. amāv-isse
Supine stem, amāt-
PERF. amāt-us esse
FUT. amāt-ūrus esse amāt-um īrī
FUT. amāt-ūrus PERF. amāt-us
SUPINE amāt-um amāt-ū

Peculiarities of Conjugation

181. In tenses formed upon the Perfect Stem, v between two vowels is often lost and contraction takes place.

a. Perfects in -āvī, -ēvī, -ōvī, often contract the two vowels into ā, ē, ō, respectively: as, amāsse for amāvisse; amārim for amāverim; amāssem for amāvissem; cōnsuērat for cōnsuēverat; flēstis for flēvistis; nōsse for nōvisse . So in perfects in -vī, where the v is a part of the present stem: as, commōrat for commōverat .

Note.--The first person of the perfect indicative (as, amāvī ) is never contracted, the third very rarely.

b. Perfects in -īvī regularly omit v, but rarely contract the vowels except before st and ss, and very rarely in the third person perfect:—

  1. audieram for audīveram; audīsse for audīvisse; audīstī for audīvistī; abiit for abīvit; abiērunt for abīvērunt .

Note 1.--The forms sīris , sīrit, sīrītis, sīrint, for sīveris etc. (from sīverō or sīverim), are archaic.

Note 2.--In many forms from the perfect stem is, iss, sis , are lost in like manner, when s would be repeated if they were retained: as, dīxtī for dīxistī (x = cs); trāxe for trāxisse; ēvāstī for ēvāsistī; vīxet for vīxisset; ērēpsēmus for ērēpsissēmus; dēcēsse for dēcessisse . These forms belong to archaic and colloquial usage.

182. Four verbs, dīcō , dūcō , faciō , ferō ,—with their compounds, drop the vowel-termination of the Imperative, making dīc , dūc, făc , fĕr; but compounds in -ficiō retain it, as, cōnfice .

Note.--The imperative forms dīce, dūce, face (never fere ), occur in early Latin.

a. For the imperative of sciō , the future form

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: