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205. Some verbs have lost the Present System, and use only tenses of the Perfect, in which they are inflected regularly. These are—

coepī ,1 I began ōdī ,2 I hate meminī ,3 I remember
PERFECT coepī ōdī meminī
PLUPERFECT coeperam ōderam memineram
FUTURE PERFECT coeperō ōderō meminerō
PERFECT coeperim ōderim meminerim
PLUPERFECT coepissem ōdissem meminissem
PERFECT coepisse ōdisse meminisse
FUTURE coeptūrus esse ōsūrus esse
PERFECT coeptus, begun ōsus, hating or hated
FUTURE coeptūrus ōsūrus, likely to hate

a. The passive of coepī is often used with the passive infinitive: as, coeptus sum vocārī, I began to be called, but coepī vocāre, I began to call. For the present system incipiō is used.

Note.--Early and rare forms are coepiō , coepiam , coeperet , coepere .

b. The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of ōdī and meminī have the meanings of a Present, Imperfect, and Future respectively:—

  1. ōdī, I hate; ōderam, I hated (was hating); ōderō, I shall hate.

Note 1.--A present participle meminēns is early and late.

Note 2.-- Nōvī and cōnsuēvī (usually referred to nōscō and cōnsuēscō) are often used in the sense of I know (have learned) and I am accustomed (have become accustomed) as preteritive verbs. Many other verbs are occasionally used in the same way (see 476. N.).

1 Root AP (as in apīscor ) with co (n-).

2 Root OD, as in ŏdium.

3 Root MEN, as in mēns.

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