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215. Further examples of Adverbs and other Particles which are in origin case-forms of nouns or pronouns are given below. In some the case is not obvious, and in some it is doubtful.

  1. Neuter Accusative forms: nōn (for -oinom, later ūnum), not; iterum (comparative of i-, stem of is), a second time; dēmum (superlative of , down), at last.
  2. Feminine Accusatives: partim, partly. So statim, on the spot; saltim, at least (generally saltem ), from lost nouns in -tis (genitive -tis). Thus -tim became a regular adverbial termination; and by means of it adverbs were made from many noun- and verb-stems immediately, without the intervention of any form which could have an accusative in -tim: as, sēparātim, separately, from sēparātus, separate. Some adverbs that appear to be feminine accusative are possibly instrumental: as, palam, openly; perperam, wrongly; tam, so; quam, as.
  3. Plural Accusatives: as, aliās, elsewhere; forās, out of doors (as end of motion). So perhaps quia, because.
  4. Ablative or Instrumental forms: quā, where; intrā, within; extrā, outside; quī, how; aliquī, somehow; forīs, out of doors; quō, whither; adeō, to that degree; ultrō, beyond; citrō, this side (as end of motion); retrō, back; illōc (for † illō-ce ), weakened to illūc, thither. Those in -trō are from comparative stems (cf. ūls, cis , re-).
  5. Locative forms: ibi, there; ubi, where; illī , illī-c, there; peregrī ( peregrē ), abroad; hīc (for † -ce ), here. Also the compounds hodiē (probably for † hōdiē ), to-day; perendiē, day after to-morrow.
  6. Of uncertain formation: (1) those in -tus (usually preceded by i ), with an ablative meaning: as, funditus, from the bottom, utterly; dīvīnitus, from above, providentially; intus, within; penitus, within; (2) those in -dem, -dam, -: as, quidem, indeed; quondam, once; quandō (cf. dōnec ), when; (3) dum (probably accusative of time), while; iam, now.
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