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217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows:—

a. Adverbs of Place


Note.--The demonstrative adverbs hīc , ibi , istīc , illīc , and their correlatives, correspond in signification with the pronouns hīc , is, iste , ille (see § 146), and are often equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition: as, inde = ab , etc. So the relative or mterrogative ubi corresponds with quī ( quis ), ali-cubi with aliquis , ubiubi with quisquis , sī-cubi with sīquis (see §§ 147-151, with the table of correlatives in § 152).

hīc, here. hūc, hither. hinc, hence. hāc, by this way.
ibi, there. , thither. inde, thence. , by that way.
istīc, there. istūc, thither. istinc, thence. istā, by that way.
illīc, there. illūc, thither. illinc, thence. illā ( illāc ), by that way.
ubi, where. quō, whither. unde, whence. quā, by what way.
alicubi, somewhere. aliquō, somewhither, alicunde, from some- aliquā, by some way.
to) somewhere. where.
ibīdem, in the same eōdem, to the same indidem, from the eādem, by the same
place. place. same place. way.
alibī, elsewhere, in aliō, elsewhere, to aliunde, from an- aliā, in another
another place. another place. other place. way.
abiubi, wherever. quōquō, whitherso- undecunque, whence- quāquā, in whatever
ever. soever. way.
ubivīs, anywhere, quōvīs, anywhere, undique, from every quāvīs, by whatever
where you will. whither you will. quarter. way.
sĭcubi, if anywhere. sīquō, if anywhere sīcunde, if from any- sīquā, if anywhere.
anywhither). where.
<*>ēcubi, lest any- nēquō, lest any- nēcunde, lest from nēquā, lest any-
where. whither. anywhere. where.

ūsque, all the way to; usquam, anywhere; nusquam, nowhere; citrō, to this side; intrō, inwardly; ultrō, beyond (or freely, i.e. beyond what is required); porrō, further on.

quōrsum (for quō vorsum, whither turned?), to what end? hōrsum, this way; prōrsum, forward (prōrsus, utterly); intrōrsum, inwardly; retrōrsum, backward; sūrsum, upward; deorsum, downward; seorsum, apart; aliōrsum, another way.

b. Adverbs of Time

quandō, when? (interrogative); cum ( quom ), when (relative); ut, when, as; nunc, now; tunc ( tum ), then; mox, presently; iam, already; dum, while; iam diū , iam dūdum , iam prīdem, long ago, long since.

prīmum ( prīmō ), first; deinde ( posteā ), next after; postrēmum ( postrēmō ), finally; posteāquam , postquam, when (after that, as soon as).

umquam ( unquam ), ever; numquam ( nunquam ), never; semper, always.

aliquandō, at some time, at length; quandōque ( quandōcumque ), whenever; dēnique, at last.

quotiēns ( quotiēs ), how often; totiēns, so often; aliquotiēns, a number of times.

cotīdiē, every day; hodiē, to-day; herī, yesterday; crās, to-morrow; prīdiē, the day before; postrīdiē, the day after; in diēs, from day to day.

nōndum, not yet; necdum, nor yet; vixdum, scarce yet; quam prīmum, as soon as possible; saepe, often; crēbrō, frequently; iam nōn, no longer.

c. Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause

quam, how, as; tam, so; quamvīs, however much, although; paene, almost; magis, more; valdē, greatly; vix, hardly.

cūr , quārē, why; ideō , idcircō , proptereā, on this account, because; , therefore; ergō, itaque , igitur, therefore.

ita , sīc, so; ut ( utī ), as, how; utut , utcumque, however.

1 All these adverbs were originally case-forms of pronouns. The forms in -bi and -ic are locative, those in -ō and -ūc, -ā and -āc, ablative (see § 215); those in -inc are from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle -ce added (thus illim, illin-c ).

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