[*] 221. The uses of the Prepositions are as follows:—
- Ā, ab, away from,1 from, off from, with the ablative. a. Of place: as,ab urbe profectus est, he set out from the city. b. Of time: (1) from: as,ab hōrā tertiā ad vesperam, from the third hour till evening; (2) just after: as,ab eō magistrātū, after [holding] that office. c. Idiomatic uses: ā reliquīs differunt, they differ from the others; ā parvulīs, from early childhood; prope ab urbe, near (not far from) the city; līberāre ab, to set free from; occīsus ab hoste (periit ab hoste), slain by an enemy; ab hāc parte, on this side; ab rē êius, to his advantage; ā rē pūblicā, for the interest of the state.
- Ad, to, towards, at, near, with the accusative (cf. in, into). a. Of place: as,ad urbem vēnit, he came to the city; ad merīdiem, towards the south; ad exercitum, to the army; ad hostem, toward the enemy; ad urbem, near the city. b. Of time: as,ad nōnam hōram, till the ninth hour. c. With persons: as,ad eum vēnit, he came to him. d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia dēscendunt, they resort to punishment; ad haec respondit, to this he answered; ad tempus, at the [fit] time; adīre ad rem pūblicam, to go into public life; ad petendam pācem, to seek peace; ad latera, on the flank; ad arma, to arms; ad hunc modum, in this way; quem ad modum, how, as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hōc, besides; omnēs ad ūnum, all to a man; ad diem, on the day.
- Ante, in front of, before, with the accusative (cf. post, after). a. Of place: as,ante portam, in front of the gate; ante exercitum, in advance of the army. b. Of time: as,ante bellum, before the war. c. Idiomatic uses: ante urbem captam, before the city was taken; ante diem quīntum (a.d.v.) Kal., the fifth day before the Calends; ante quadriennium, four years before or ago; ante tempus, too soon (before the time).
- Apud, at, by, among, with the accusative. a. Of place (rare and archaic): as,apud forum, at the forum (in the marketplace). b. With reference to persons or communities: as,apud Helvētiōs, among the Helvetians; apud populum, before the people; apud aliquem, at one's house; apud sē, at home or in his senses; apud Cicerōnem, in [the works of] Cicero.
- Circā, about, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, circiter). a. Of place: templa circā forum, the temples about the forum; circā sē habet, he has with him (of persons). b. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers): circā eandem hōram, about the same hour; circā īdūs Octōbrīs, about the fifteenth of October; circā decem mīlia, about ten thousand. c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. dē ): circā quem pūgna est, with regard to whom, etc.; circā deōs neglegentior, rather neglectful of (i.e. in worshipping) the gods.
- Circiter, about, with the accusative. a. Of time or number: circiter īdūs Novembrīs, about the thirteenth of November; circiter merīdiem, about noon.
- Circum, about, around, with the accusative. a. Of place: circum haec loca, hereabout; circum Capuam, round Capua; circum illum, with him; lēgātiō circum īnsulās missa, an embassy sent to the islands round about; circum amīcōs, to his friends round about.
- Contrā, opposite, against, with the accusative. contrā Ītaliam, over against Italy; contrā haec, in answer to this. a. Often as adverb: as,haec contrā, this in reply; contrā autem, but on the other hand; quod contrā, whereas, on the other hand.
- Cum, with, together with, with the ablative. a. Of place: as,—vāde mēcum, go with me; cum omnibus impedīmentīs, with all [their] baggage. b. Of time: as,—prīmā cum lūce, at early dawn (with first light). c. Idiomatic uses: māgnō cum dolōre, with great sorrow; commūnicāre aliquid cum aliquō, share something with some one; cum malō suō, to his own hurt; cōnflīgere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy; esse cum tēlō, to go armed; cum silentiō, in silence.
- Dē, down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from; ex, out of). a. Of place: as,dē caelō dēmissus, sent down from heaven; dē nāvibus dēsilīre, to jump down from the ships. b. Figuratively, concerning, about, of: 2 as,cōgnōscit dē Clōdī caede, he learns of the murder of Clodius; cōnsilia dē bellō, plans of war. c. In a partitive sense (compare ex), out of, of: as,ūnus dē plēbe, one of the people. d. Idiomatic uses: multīs dē causīs, for many reasons; quā dē causā, for which reason; dē imprōvīsō, of a sudden; dē industriā, on purpose; dē integrō, anew; dē tertiā vigiliā, just at midnight (starting at the third watch); dē mēnse Decembrī nāvigāre, to sail as early as December.
- Ex, ē, from (the midst, opposed to in ), out of, with the ablative (cf. ab and dē). a. Of place: as,ex omnibus partibus silvae ēvolāvērunt, they flew out from all parts of the forest; ex Hispāniā, [a man] from Spain. b. Of time: as,ex eō diē quīntus, the fifth day from that (four days after); ex hōc diē, from this day forth. c. Idiomatically or less exactly: ex cōnsulātū, right after his consulship: ex êius sententiā, according to his opinion; ex aequō, justly; ex imprōvīsō, unexpectedly; ex tuā rē, to your advantage; māgnā ex parte, in a great degree; ex equō pūgnāre, to fight on horseback; ex ūsū, expedient; ē regiōne, opposite; quaerere ex aliquō, to ask of some one; ex senātūs cōnsultō, according to the decree of the senate; ex fugā, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it); ūnus ē fīliīs, one of the sons.
- In, with the accusative or the ablative.
- With the accusative, into (opposed to ex ). a. Of place: as,—in Ītaliam contendit, he hastens into Italy. b. Of time, till, until: as,—in lūcem, till daylight. c. Idiomatically or less exactly: in merīdiem, towards the south; amor in (ergā, adversus） patrem, love for his father; in āram cōnfūgit, he fled to the altar (on the steps, or merely to); in diēs, from day to day; in longitūdinem, lengthwise; in lātitūdinem patēbat, extended in width; in haec verba iūrāre, to swear to these words; hunc in modum, in this way; ōrātiō in Catilīnam, a speech against Catiline; in perpetuum, forever; in pêius, for the worse; in diem vīvere, to live from hand to mouth (for the day).
- With the ablative, in, on, among. In very various connections: as,—in castrīs, in the camp (cf. ad castra, to, at, or near the camp); in marī, on the sea; in urbe esse, to be in town; in tempore, in season; in scrībendō, while writing; est mihi in animō, I have it in mind, I intend; in ancorīs, at anchor; in hōc homine, in the case of this man; in dubiō esse, to be in doubt.
- Īnfrā, below, with the accusative. a. Of place: as,ad mare īnfrā oppidum, by the sea below the town; īnfrā caelum, under the sky. b. Figuratively or less exactly: as,—īnfrā Homērum, later than Homer; īnfrā trēs pedēs, less than three feet; īnfrā elephantōs, smaller than elephants; īnfrā īnfimōs omnīs, the lowest of the low.
- Inter, between, among, with the accusative.
- Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative. a. Literally: (1) of motion (archaic): as,ob Rōmam, towards Rome (Ennius); ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of). (2) Of place in which, before, in a few phrases: as,ob oculōs, before the eyes. b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, balancing one thing against another): as,ob mulierem, in pay for the woman; ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of (a similar mercantile idea), for: as,ob eam causam, for that reason; quam ob rem (quamobrem), wherefore, why.
- Per, through, over, with the accusative. a. Of motion: as,—per urbem īre, to go through the city; per mūrōs, over the walls. b. Of time: as,—per hiemem, throughout the winter. c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments: as,—per hominēs idoneōs, through the instrumentality of suitable persons; licet per mē, you (etc.) may for all me. Hence, stat per mē, it is through my instrumentality; so, per sē, in and of itself. d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions: as,—per iocum, in jest; per speciem, in show, ostentatiously.
- Prae, in front of, with the ablative. a. Literally, of place (in a few connections): as,prae sē portāre, to carry in one's arms; prae sē ferre, to carry before one, (hence figuratively) exhibit, proclaim ostentatiously, make known. b. Figuratively, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English for): as,prae gaudiō conticuit, he was silent for joy. c. Of comparison: as,prae māgnitūdine corporum suōrum, in comparison with their own great size.
- Praeter, along by, by, with the accusative. a. Literally: as,praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of); praeter oculōs, before the eyes. b. Figuratively, beyond, besides, more than, in addition to, except: as,praeter spem, beyond hope; praeter aliōs, more than others; praeter paucōs, with the exception of a few.
Prō, in front
of, with the ablative.
- sedēns prō aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of Castor; prō populō, in presence of the people. So prō rōstrīs, on [the front of] the rostra;prō contiōne, before the assembly (in a speech).
- Propter, near, by, with the accusative.
- Secundum ,3 just behind, following, with the accusative. a. Literally: as,īte secundum mē (Plaut.), go behind me; secundum lītus, near the shore; secundum flūmen, along the stream (cf. secundō flūmine, down stream). b. Figuratively, according to: as,secundum nātūram, according to nature.
Sub, under, up
to, with the accusative or the ablative.
- Of motion, with the accusative: as,sub montem succēdere, to come close to the hill. a. Idiomatically: sub noctem, towards night; sub lūcem, near daylight; sub haec dicta, at (following) these words.
- Of rest, with the ablative: as,sub Iove, in the open air (under the heaven, personified as Jove); sub monte, at the foot of the hill. a. Idiomatically: sub eōdem tempore, about the same time (just after it).
- Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, the ablative).
- Super,4 with the accusative or the ablative.
- With the accusative, above, over, on, beyond, upon. a. Of place: super “vāllum praecipitārī” (Iug. 58) , to be hurled over the rampart; super “laterēs coria indūcuntur” (B.C. 2.10) , hides are drawn over the bricks; super “terrae tumulum statuī” (Legg. 2.65) , to be placed on the mound of earth; super “Numidiam” (Iug. 19) , beyond Numidia. b. Idiomatically or less exactly: vulnus super vulnus, wound upon wound; super “vīnum” (Q. C. 8.4) , over his wine.
- With the ablative,
concerning, about (the only use
with this case in prose).
- hāc super rē, concerning this thing; super tālī rē, about such an affair; litterās super tantā rē exspectāre, to wait for a letter in a matter of such importance. a. Poetically, in other senses: līgna super focō largē “repōnēns” (Hor. Od. 1.9.5) , piling logs generously on the fire; nocte super mediā (Aen. 9.61), after midnight.
- Suprā, on top of, above, with the accusative.
Tenus (postpositive), as far as,
up to, regularly with the ablative, sometimes with the
genitive (cf. § 359. b).
- With the ablative: Taurō tenus, as far as Taurus; capulō tenus, up to the hilt.
- With the genitive: Cumārum tenus (Fam. 8.1.2), as far as Cumae.
[*] Note 1.--Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective pronoun, making an adverbial phrase: as, hāctenus, hitherto; quātenus, so far as; dē hāc rē hāctenus, so much for that (about this matter so far).
[*] Note 2.--Tenus was originally a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusative (§ 397. a).
- Trans, across, over, through, by, with the accusative. a. Of motion: as,trāns mare currunt, they run across the sea; trāns flūmen ferre, to carry over a river; trāns aethera, through the sky; trāns caput iace, throw over your head. b. Of rest: as,trāns Rhēnum incolunt, they live across the Rhine.
- Ultrābeyond (on the further side), with the accusative.
- cis Padum ultrāque, on this side of the Po and beyond; ultrā eum numerum, more than that number; ultrā fidem, incredible; ultrã modum, immoderate.