previous next

CONJUNCTIONS

222. Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf. § 219), are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, quod , an old accusative; dum , probably an old accusative (cf. tum, cum); vērō , an old neuter ablative of vērus; nihilōminus, none the less; proinde , lit. forward from there. Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case-forms.

223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Coördinate and Subordinate:—

a. Coördinate, connecting coördinate or similar constructions (see § 278. 2. a). These are:—

  1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, et, and; aut, or; neque, nor.
  2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, sed, but.
  3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for.
  4. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore.
b. Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see § 278. 2. b). These are:—

  1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, , if; nisi, unless.
  2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition: as, ac , as if.
  3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, quamquam, although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.).
  4. Temporal: as, postquam, after.
  5. Consecutive, expressing result: as, ut, so that.
  6. Final, expressing purpose: as, ut, in order that; , that not.
  7. Causal, expressing cause: as, quia, because.
224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctions1 and conjunctive phrases:—


COÖRDINATE


a. Copulative and Disjunctive

et , -que, atque ( ac ), and.

et ... et; et ... -que ( atque ); -que ... et; -que ... -que (poetical), both ... and.

etiam , quoque , neque nōn ( necnōn ), quīn etiam , itidem ( item ), also.

cum ... tum; tum ... tum, both ... and; not only ... but also.

quā ... quā, on the one hand ... on the other hand.

modo ... modo, now ... now.

aut ... aut; vel ... vel (-ve), either ... or.

sīve ( seu ) ... sīve, whether ... or.

nec ( neque ) ... nec ( neque ); neque ... nec; nec ... neque (rare), neither ... nor.

et ... neque, both ... and not.

nec ... et; nec ( neque ) ... -que, neither (both not) ... and.


b. Adversative

sed , autem , vērum , vērō , at, atquī, but.

tamen , attamen , sed tamen , vērum tamen, but yet, nevertheless.

nihilōminus, none the less.

at vērō, but in truth; enimvērō, for in truth.

cēterum, on the other hand, but.


c. Causal

nam , namque , enim , etenim, for.

quāpropter , quārē , quamobrem , quōcircā, unde, wherefore, whence.


d. Illative

ergō, igitur , itaque , ideō , idcircō , inde , proinde, therefore, accordingly.


SUBORDINATE


a. Conditional

, if; sīn, but if; nisi ( ), unless, if not; quod , but if.

modo , dum , dummodo, modo, if only, provided.

dummodo (dum , modo ), provided only not.


b. Comparative

ut , utī , sīcut, just as; velut, as, so as; prout , praeut, ceu, like as, according as.

tamquam ( tanquam ), quasi, ut , ac , velut , velutī , velut , as if.

quam , atque ( ac ), as, than.


c. Concessive

etsī , etiamsī , tametsī, even if; quamquam ( quanquam ), although.

quamvīs , quantumvīs , quamlibet , quantumlibet, however much.

licet (properly a verb), ut , cum ( quom ), though, suppose, whereas.


d. Temporal

cum ( quom ), quandō, when; ubi , ut, when, as; cum prīmum , ut prīmum , ubi prīmum , simul , simul ac , simul atque, as soon as; postquam ( posteāquam ), after.

prius ... quam , ante ... quam, before; nōn ante ... quam, not ... until.

dum , ūsque dum , dōnec , quoad, until, as long as, while.


e. Consecutive and Final

ut ( utī ), quō, so that, in order that.

, ut , lest (that ... not, in order that not); nēve ( neu ), that not, nor.

quīn (after negatives), quōminus, but that (so as to prevent), that not.


f. Causal

quia , quod , quoniam († quom-iam ), quandō, because.

cum ( quom ), since.

quandōquidem , quidem , quippe , ut pote, since indeed, inasmuch as.

proptereā ... quod, for this reason ... that.

On the use of Conjunctions, see §§ 323, 324.


INTERJECTIONS

225. Some Interjections are mere natural exclamations of feeling; others are derived from inflected parts of speech, e.g. the imperatives em, lo (probably for eme, take); age, come, etc. Names of deities occur in herclē , pol (from Pollux ), etc. Many Latin interjections are borrowed from the Greek, as euge, euhoe, etc.

226. The following list comprises most of the Interjections in common use:—

ō, ēn, ecce , ehem, papae , vāh (of astonishment).

, ēvae, ēvoe, euhoe (of joy).

heu , ē˘heu, vae, alas (of sorrow).

heus, eho, ehodum, ho (of calling); st, hist.

êia , euge (of praise).

prō (of attestation): as, prō pudor, shame!

1 Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list of Correlatives. § 152.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: