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222. Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf. § 219), are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, quod , an old accusative; dum , probably an old accusative (cf. tum, cum); vērō , an old neuter ablative of vērus; nihilōminus, none the less; proinde , lit. forward from there. Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case-forms.

223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They are of two classes, Coördinate and Subordinate:—

a. Coördinate, connecting coördinate or similar constructions (see § 278. 2. a). These are:—

  1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, et, and; aut, or; neque, nor.
  2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, sed, but.
  3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for.
  4. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore.
b. Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends (see § 278. 2. b). These are:—

  1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, , if; nisi, unless.
  2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition: as, ac , as if.
  3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, quamquam, although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.).
  4. Temporal: as, postquam, after.
  5. Consecutive, expressing result: as, ut, so that.
  6. Final, expressing purpose: as, ut, in order that; , that not.
  7. Causal, expressing cause: as, quia, because.
224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list includes the common conjunctions1 and conjunctive phrases:—


a. Copulative and Disjunctive

et , -que, atque ( ac ), and.

et ... et; et ... -que ( atque ); -que ... et; -que ... -que (poetical), both ... and.

etiam , quoque , neque nōn ( necnōn ), quīn etiam , itidem ( item ), also.

cum ... tum; tum ... tum, both ... and; not only ... but also.

quā ... quā, on the one hand ... on the other hand.

modo ... modo, now ... now.

aut ... aut; vel ... vel (-ve), either ... or.

sīve ( seu ) ... sīve, whether ... or.

nec ( neque ) ... nec ( neque ); neque ... nec; nec ... neque (rare), neither ... nor.

et ... neque, both ... and not.

nec ... et; nec ( neque ) ... -que, neither (both not) ... and.

b. Adversative

sed , autem , vērum , vērō , at, atquī, but.

tamen , attamen , sed tamen , vērum tamen, but yet, nevertheless.

nihilōminus, none the less.

at vērō, but in truth; enimvērō, for in truth.

cēterum, on the other hand, but.

c. Causal

nam , namque , enim , etenim, for.

quāpropter , quārē , quamobrem , quōcircā, unde, wherefore, whence.

d. Illative

ergō, igitur , itaque , ideō , idcircō , inde , proinde, therefore, accordingly.


a. Conditional

, if; sīn, but if; nisi ( ), unless, if not; quod , but if.

modo , dum , dummodo, modo, if only, provided.

dummodo (dum , modo ), provided only not.

b. Comparative

ut , utī , sīcut, just as; velut, as, so as; prout , praeut, ceu, like as, according as.

tamquam ( tanquam ), quasi, ut , ac , velut , velutī , velut , as if.

quam , atque ( ac ), as, than.

c. Concessive

etsī , etiamsī , tametsī, even if; quamquam ( quanquam ), although.

quamvīs , quantumvīs , quamlibet , quantumlibet, however much.

licet (properly a verb), ut , cum ( quom ), though, suppose, whereas.

d. Temporal

cum ( quom ), quandō, when; ubi , ut, when, as; cum prīmum , ut prīmum , ubi prīmum , simul , simul ac , simul atque, as soon as; postquam ( posteāquam ), after.

prius ... quam , ante ... quam, before; nōn ante ... quam, not ... until.

dum , ūsque dum , dōnec , quoad, until, as long as, while.

e. Consecutive and Final

ut ( utī ), quō, so that, in order that.

, ut , lest (that ... not, in order that not); nēve ( neu ), that not, nor.

quīn (after negatives), quōminus, but that (so as to prevent), that not.

f. Causal

quia , quod , quoniam († quom-iam ), quandō, because.

cum ( quom ), since.

quandōquidem , quidem , quippe , ut pote, since indeed, inasmuch as.

proptereā ... quod, for this reason ... that.

On the use of Conjunctions, see §§ 323, 324.


225. Some Interjections are mere natural exclamations of feeling; others are derived from inflected parts of speech, e.g. the imperatives em, lo (probably for eme, take); age, come, etc. Names of deities occur in herclē , pol (from Pollux ), etc. Many Latin interjections are borrowed from the Greek, as euge, euhoe, etc.

226. The following list comprises most of the Interjections in common use:—

ō, ēn, ecce , ehem, papae , vāh (of astonishment).

, ēvae, ēvoe, euhoe (of joy).

heu , ē˘heu, vae, alas (of sorrow).

heus, eho, ehodum, ho (of calling); st, hist.

êia , euge (of praise).

prō (of attestation): as, prō pudor, shame!

1 Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list of Correlatives. § 152.

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