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238. Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from roots and verb-stems by means of the endings—

a. Added to roots or forms conceived as roots—

NOM. -or, M. -ēs, F. -us, N.
GEN. -ōris -is -eris or -oris
STEM ōr- (earlier ōs- i- er- (earlier ( e/os-

Note.--Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: as facinus from a supposed root FACIN.

tim-or, fear; timēre, to fear.
am-or, love; amāre, to love.
sēd-ēs, seat; sedēre, to sit.
caed-ēs, slaughter; caedere, to kill.
genus, birth, race; GEN, to be born (root of gignō, bear).

b. Apparently added to roots or verb-stems—

NOM. -, F. -tiō (-siō), F. -tūra (-sūra), F. -tus, M.
GEN. -iōnis -tiōnis (-siōnis -tūrae (-sūrae -tūs (-sūs
STEM iōn- tiōn- (siōn- tūrā- (sūrā- tu- (su-

Note 1.-- -tiō, -tūra, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the same phonetic change (cf. § 236. a. N. 1). Hence they are conveniently associated with the supine stem (see § 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no corresponding verb in use: as, senātus, senate (cf. senex ); mentiō, mention (cf. mēns ); fētūra, offspring (cf. fētus ); litterātūra, literature (cf. litterae ); cōnsulātus, consulship (cf. cōnsul ).

Note 2.--Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf. § 234. 2.3.); - is a compound formed by adding ōn- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally i): as, diciō (cf. -dicus and dicis ); -tiō is a compound formed by adding ōn- to stems in ti-: as, gradātiō (cf. gradātim ); -tūra is formed by adding -ra, feminine of -rus, to stems in tu-: as, nātūra from nātus; statūra from status (cf. figūra , of like meaning, from a simple u<*> stem, †figu-s; and mātūrus, Mātūta).

leg-, a collecting (levy), a legion; legere, to collect.
reg-, a direction, a region; regere, to direct.
vocā-tiō, a calling; vocāre, to call.
mōlī-tiō, a toiling; mōlīrī, to toil.
scrīp-tūra, a writing; scrībere, to write.
sēn-sus (for † sent-tus ), feeling; sentīre, to feel.

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