[*] 263. The following four classes of verbs regularly derived from other verbs have special meanings connected with their terminations.
[*] Note.--These classes are all really denominative in their origin, but the formations had become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were often formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a noun-stem.
- Inceptives or Inchoatives add -scō
1 to the present stem of
verbs. They denote the beginning of an
action and are of the Third Conjugation. Of some there is no
simple verb in existence:—
- calē-scō, grow warm, from caleō, be warm.
- labā-scō, begin to totter, from labō, totter.
- scī-scō, determine, from sciō, know.
- con-cupī-scō, conceive a desire for, from cupiō, desire.
- alē-scō, grow, from alō, feed.
- So īrā-scor, get angry; cf. īrā-tus .
- iuvenē-scō, grow young; cf. iuvenis, young man.
- mītē-scō, grow mild; cf. mītis, mild.
- vesperā-scit, it is getting late; cf. vesper, evening.
[*] Note 2.--Inceptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect and supine systems of simple verbs: as, calēscō, grow warm, caluī; ārdēscō, blaze forth, ārsī; proficīscor, set out, profectus .
- Intensives or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem
and end in-tō or -itō (rarely -sō). They denote a forcible or repeatedaction, but this special sense often disappears.
Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in
-itō (not -ātō).
- iac-tō, hurl, from iaciō, throw.
- dormī-tō, be sleepy, from dormiō, sleep.
- vol-itō, flit, from volō, fly.
- vēndi-tō, try to sell, from vēndō, sell.
- quas-sō, shatter, from quatiō, shake.
- cap-essō, lay hold on, from capiō, take.
- fac-essō, do (with energy), from faciō, do.
- pet-esso, pet-issō, seek (eagerly), from petō, seek.
- arcessō , arcessĕre , arcessīvī , arcessītum, summon.
- lacessō , lacessĕre , lacessīvī , lacessītum, provoke.
- Diminutives end in -illō, and denote a feeble or pettyaction:—
[*] Note 2.--Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed diminutive nouns.
- Desideratives end in -turiō (-suriō), and express longing or wishing.They are
of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in common
- par-turiō, be in labor, from pariō, bring forth.
- ē-suriō (for † ed-turiō ), be hungry, from edō, eat.