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264. A Compound Word is one whose stem is made up of two or more simple stems.

a. A final stem-vowel of the first member of the compound usually disappears before a vowel, and usually takes the form of i before a consonant. Only the second member receives inflection.1

b. Only noun-stems can be thus compounded. A preposition, however, often becomes attached to a verb.

265. New stems are formed by Composition in three ways:—

    The second part is simply added to the first:—
    1. su-ove-taurīlia (sūs, ovis, taurus), the sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull (cf. § 255. a).
    2. septen-decim (septem, decem), seventeen.
    The first part modifies the second as an adjective or adverb (Determinative Compounds):—
    1. lāti-fundium (lātus, fundus), a large landed estate.
    2. omni-potēns (omnis, potēns), omnipotent.
    The first part has the force of a case, and the second a verbal force (Objective Compounds):—
    1. agri-cola ( ager , field, † cola akin to colō , cultivate), a farmer.
    2. armi-ger ( arma , arms, † ger akin to gerō , carry), armor-bearer.
    3. corni-cen ( cornū , horn, † cen akin to canō , sing), horn-blower.
    4. carni-fex ( carō , flesh, †fexakin to faciō, make), executioner.
a. Compounds of the above kinds, in which the last word is a noun, may become adjectives, meaning possessed of the quality denoted:—
  1. āli-pēs (āla, wing, pēs, foot), wing-footed.
  2. māgn-animus (māgnus, great, animus, soul), great-souled.
  3. an-ceps (amb-, at both ends, caput, head), double.

Note.--Many compounds of the above classes appear only in the form of some further derivative, the proper compound not being found in Latin.

Syntactic Compounds

266. In many apparent compounds, complete words—not stems—have grown together in speech. These are not strictly compounds in the etymological sense. They are called Syntactic Compounds. Examples are:—

a. Compounds of faciō , factō , with an actual or formerly existing nounstem confounded with a verbal stem in ē-. These are causative in force.

  1. cōnsuē-faciō, habituate (cf. cōnsuē-scō, become accustomed).
  2. cale-faciō, cale-factō, to heat (cf. calē-scō, grow warm).

b. An adverb or noun combined with a verb:—

  1. bene-dīcō (bene, well, dīcō, speak), to bless.
  2. satis-faciō (satis, enough, faciō, do), to do enough (for).

c. Many apparent compounds of stems:—

  1. fide-iubeō (fide, surety, iubeō, command), to give surety.
  2. mān-suētus (manuī, to the hand, suētus, accustomed), tame.
  3. Mārci-por ( Mārcī puer ), slave of Marcus.
  4. Iuppiter (†, old vocative, and pater), father Jove.
  5. anim-advertō ( animum advertō ), attend to, punish.

d. A few phrases forced into the ordinary inflections of nouns:—

  1. prō-cōnsul, proconsul (for prō cōnsule, instead of a consul).
  2. trium-vir, triumvir (singular from trium virōrum ).
  3. septen-triō, the Bear, a constellation (supposed singular of septem triōnēs, the Seven Plough-Oxen).

In all these cases it is to be observed that words, not stems, are united.

267. Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a Particle to some other part of speech.

a. Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the prepositions retain their original adverbial sense:—

  1. ā, ab , AWAY: ā-mittere, to send away.
  2. ad, TO, TOWARDS: af-ferre ( ad-ferō ), to bring.
  3. ante , BEFORE: ante-ferre, to prefer; ante-cellere, to excel.
  4. circum , AROUND: circum-mūnīre, to fortify completely.
  5. com-, con- ( cum ), TOGETHER or FORCIBLY: cōn-ferre, to bring together; collocāre, to set firm.
  6. , DOWN, UTTERLY: -spicere, despise; -struere, destroy.
  7. ē, ex, OUT: ef-ferre ( ec-ferō ), to carry forth, uplift.
  8. in (with verbs), IN, ON, AGAINST: īn-ferre, to bear against.
  9. inter , BETWEEN, TO PIECES: inter-rumpere, to interrupt.
  10. ob , TOWARDS, TO MEET: of-ferre, to offer; ob-venīre, to meet.
  11. sub , UNDER, UP FROM UNDER: sub-struere, to build beneath; sub-dūcere, to lead up
  12. super, UPON, OVER AND ABOVE: super-fluere, to overflow.

Note 1.--In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their crdinary force as prepositions, especially ad , in, circum , trāns , and govern the case of a noun: as, trānsīre flūmen, to cross a river (see § 388. b).

Note 2.--Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before two: as, faciō , cōnficiō , cōnfectus; iaciō, ēiciō , ēiectus . But long a is retained: as, perāctus .

b. VERBS are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, which do not appear as prepositions in Latin:—

  1. amb- (am-, an-), AROUND: amb-īre, to go about (cf. ἀμφί, about).
  2. dis-, -, ASUNDER, APART: dis-cēdere, to depart (cf. duo, two); -vidĕre, to divide.
  3. por-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. porrō, forth).
  4. red-, re-, BACK, AGAIN: red-īre, to return; re-clūdere, to open (from claudō, shut); re-ficere, to repair (make again).
  5. sēd-, -, APART: -cernō, to separate; cf. sēd-itiō, a going apart, secession ( , īre, to go).

c. Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the verbs to which they correspond:—

  1. per-fuga, deserter; cf. per-fugiō.
  2. trā-dux, vine-branch; cf. trā-dūcō ( trāns-dūcō ).
  3. ad-vena, stranger; cf. ad-veniō.
  4. con-iux ( con-iūnx ), spouse; cf. con-iungō.
  5. in-dex, pointer out; cf. in-dīcō.
  6. prae-ses, guardian; cf. prae-sideō.
  7. com-bibō, boon companion; cf. com-bibō, -ĕre.

d. An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix.

  1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat; in-, not, ar regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives:—

    Note.-- Per and sub , in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs: as, per-terreō, terrify; sub-rīdeō, smile. In īgnōscō, pardon, in- appears to be the negative prefix.

    per-māgnus, very large. in-nocuus, harmless.
    per-paucī, very few. in-imīcus, unfriendly.
    sub-rūsticus, rather clownish. īn-sānus, insane.
    sub-fuscus, darkish. īn-fīnītus, boundless.
    prae-longus, very long. im-pūrus, impure.

  2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone:—
    1. in-ermis, unarmed (cf. arma, arms).
    2. im-bellis, unwarlike (cf. bellum, war).
    3. im-pūnis, without punishment (cf. poena, punishment).
    4. in-teger, untouched, whole (cf. tangō, to touch, root TAG).
    5. in-vītus, unwilling (probably from root seen in -s, thou wishest).

1 The second part generally has its usual inflection; but, as this kind of composition is in fact older than inflection, the compounded stem sometimes has an inflection of its own (as, cornicen, -cinis; lūcifer , -ferī; iūdex , -dicis), from stems not occurring in Latin. Especially do compound adjectives in Latin take the form of i-stems: as, animus, exanimis; nōrma, abnōrmis (see § 73). In composition, stems regularly have their uninflected form: as, īgni-spicium, divining by fire. But in o- and ā-stems the final vowel of the stem appears as i-, as in āli-pēs (from āla, stem ālā-); and i- is so common a termination of compounded stems, that it is often added to stems which do not properly have it: as, flōri-comus, flower-crowned (from flōs, flōr-is, and coma, hair).

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