COMPOUND WORDS[*] 264. A Compound Word is one whose stem is made up of two or more simple stems. [*] a. A final stem-vowel of the first member of the compound usually disappears before a vowel, and usually takes the form of i before a consonant. Only the second member receives inflection.1 [*] b. Only noun-stems can be thus compounded. A preposition, however, often becomes attached to a verb. [*] 265. New stems are formed by Composition in three ways:—
- The second part is simply added to the first:—
- The first part modifies the second as an adjective or adverb (Determinative Compounds):—
- The first part has the force of a case, and the second a verbal force (Objective Compounds):—
- āli-pēs (āla, wing, pēs, foot), wing-footed.
- māgn-animus (māgnus, great, animus, soul), great-souled.
- an-ceps (amb-, at both ends, caput, head), double.
[*] Note.--Many compounds of the above classes appear only in the form of some further derivative, the proper compound not being found in Latin.
Syntactic Compounds[*] 266. In many apparent compounds, complete words—not stems—have grown together in speech. These are not strictly compounds in the etymological sense. They are called Syntactic Compounds. Examples are:— [*] a. Compounds of faciō , factō , with an actual or formerly existing nounstem confounded with a verbal stem in ē-. These are causative in force.
- cōnsuē-faciō, habituate (cf. cōnsuē-scō, become accustomed).
- cale-faciō, cale-factō, to heat (cf. calē-scō, grow warm).
- bene-dīcō (bene, well, dīcō, speak), to bless.
- satis-faciō (satis, enough, faciō, do), to do enough (for).
- fide-iubeō (fide, surety, iubeō, command), to give surety.
- mān-suētus (manuī, to the hand, suētus, accustomed), tame.
- Mārci-por ( Mārcī puer ), slave of Marcus.
- Iuppiter (†Iū, old vocative, and pater), father Jove.
- anim-advertō ( animum advertō ), attend to, punish.
- prō-cōnsul, proconsul (for prō cōnsule, instead of a consul).
- trium-vir, triumvir (singular from trium virōrum ).
- septen-triō, the Bear, a constellation (supposed singular of septem triōnēs, the Seven Plough-Oxen).
- ā, ab , AWAY: ā-mittere, to send away.
- ad, TO, TOWARDS: af-ferre ( ad-ferō ), to bring.
- ante , BEFORE: ante-ferre, to prefer; ante-cellere, to excel.
- circum , AROUND: circum-mūnīre, to fortify completely.
- com-, con- ( cum ), TOGETHER or FORCIBLY: cōn-ferre, to bring together; collocāre, to set firm.
- dē , DOWN, UTTERLY: dē-spicere, despise; dē-struere, destroy.
- ē, ex, OUT: ef-ferre ( ec-ferō ), to carry forth, uplift.
- in (with verbs), IN, ON, AGAINST: īn-ferre, to bear against.
- inter , BETWEEN, TO PIECES: inter-rumpere, to interrupt.
- ob , TOWARDS, TO MEET: of-ferre, to offer; ob-venīre, to meet.
- sub , UNDER, UP FROM UNDER: sub-struere, to build beneath; sub-dūcere, to lead up
- super, UPON, OVER AND ABOVE: super-fluere, to overflow.
[*] Note 1.--In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their crdinary force as prepositions, especially ad , in, circum , trāns , and govern the case of a noun: as, trānsīre flūmen, to cross a river (see § 388. b).[*] b. VERBS are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, which do not appear as prepositions in Latin:—
- amb- (am-, an-), AROUND: amb-īre, to go about (cf. ἀμφί, about).
- dis-, dī-, ASUNDER, APART: dis-cēdere, to depart (cf. duo, two); dī-vidĕre, to divide.
- por-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. porrō, forth).
- red-, re-, BACK, AGAIN: red-īre, to return; re-clūdere, to open (from claudō, shut); re-ficere, to repair (make again).
- sēd-, sē-, APART: sē-cernō, to separate; cf. sēd-itiō, a going apart, secession ( eō , īre, to go).
- per-fuga, deserter; cf. per-fugiō.
- trā-dux, vine-branch; cf. trā-dūcō ( trāns-dūcō ).
- ad-vena, stranger; cf. ad-veniō.
- con-iux ( con-iūnx ), spouse; cf. con-iungō.
- in-dex, pointer out; cf. in-dīcō.
- prae-ses, guardian; cf. prae-sideō.
- com-bibō, boon companion; cf. com-bibō, -ĕre.
- Of these, per- (less commonly
in-, not, ar regular,
and are very freely prefixed to adjectives:—
per-māgnus, very large. in-nocuus, harmless. per-paucī, very few. in-imīcus, unfriendly. sub-rūsticus, rather clownish. īn-sānus, insane. sub-fuscus, darkish. īn-fīnītus, boundless. prae-longus, very long. im-pūrus, impure.
- The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective that does not occur alone:—