GENDER[*] 29. The Genders distinguished in Latin are three: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. [*] 30. The gender of Latin nouns is either natural or grammatical. [*] a. Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted: as, puer (M.), boy; puella (F.), girl; rēx (M.), king; rēgīna (F.), queen. nauta, sailor) usually though not necessarily male are always treated as masculine. Similarly names of tribes and peoples are masculine: as, Rōmānī, the Romans; Persae, the Persians. Paegnium , Glycerium .
[*] Note 3.--Names or classes or collections of persons may be of any gender: as, exercitus (M.), aciēs (F.), and agmen (N.), army; operae (F. plur.), workmen; cōpiae (F. plur.), troops<*> senātus (M.), senate; cohors (F.), cohort; concilium (N.), council.[*] b. Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual sex exists in the object. It is shown by the form of the adjective joined with the noun: as, lapis māgnus (M.), a great stone; manus mea (F.), my hand.
General Rules of Gender[*] 31. Names of Male beings, and of Rivers, Winds, Months, and Mountains, are masculine:—
- pater, father; Iūlius, Julius; Tiberis, the Tiber; auster, south wind; Iānuārius, January; Apennīnus, the Apennines.
- māter, mother; Iūlia, Julia; Rōma, Rome; Ītalia, Italy; rosa, rose; pīnus, pine; sapphīrus, sapphire; anas, duck; vēritās, truth.
[*] Note.--The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the terminations, according to the rules given under the several declensions. The names of Roman women were usually feminine adjectives denoting their gēns or house (see § 108. b).[*] 33. Indeclinable nouns, infinitives, terms or phrases used as nouns, and words quoted merely for their form, are neuter:—
- fās, right; nihil, nothing; gummī, gum; scīre tuum, your knowledge (to know); trīste valē, a sad farewell; hōc ipsum diū, this very “long.”