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440. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used to express a concession. 1 The Present is used for present time, the Perfect for past. The negative is .
  1. sit fūr, sit sacrilegus: at est bonus imperātor (Verr. 5.4) , grant he is a thief, a godless wretch: yet he is a good general.
  2. fuerit aliīs; tibi quandō esse coepit (Verr. 2.1.37) , suppose he was [so] to others; when did he begin to be to you?
  3. nēmō is umquam fuit: fuerit (Or. 101) , there never was such a one [you will say]: granted (let there not have been).
  4. sit summum malum dolor, malum certē est (Tusc. 2.14) , granted that pain is not the greatest evil, at least it is an evil.

Note.--The concessive subjunctive with quamvīs and licet is originally hortatory (§ 527. a, b).

For other methods of expressing Concession, see § 527.

For the Hortatory Subjunctive denoting a Proviso, see § 528. a.

Optative Subjunctive

1 Many scholars regard the concessive subjunctive as a development of the Optative Subjunctive in a wish.

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