[*] 495. Participles are often used as Predicate Adjectives. As such they may be joined to the subject by esse or a copulative verb (see § 283):—
- “Gallia est dīvīsa ” (B. G. 1.1) , Gaul is divided.
- “locus quī nunc saeptus est ” (Liv. 1.8) , the place which is now enclosed.
- “vidētis ut senectūs sit operōsa et semper agēns aliquid et mōliēns ” (Cat. M. 26) , you see how busy old age is, always aiming and trying at something.
- nēmō adhūc convenīre mē voluit cui fuerim occupātus (id. 32), nobody hitherto has [ever] wished to converse with me, to whom I have been “engaged.”
[*] Note.--From this predicate use arise the compound tenses of the passive,—the participle of completed action with the incomplete tenses of esse developing the idea of past time: as, interfectus est, he was (or has been) killed, lit. he is having-been-killed (i.e. already slain).The perfect participle used with fuī etc. was perhaps originally an intensified expression in the popular language for the perfect, pluperfect, etc. At times these forms indicate a state of affairs no longer existing:—
- “cōtem quoque eōdem locō sitam fuisse memorant ” (Liv. 1.36.5) , they say that a whetstone was (once) deposited in this same place. [At the time of writing it was no longer there.]
- “ arma quae fīxa in parietibus fuerant, humī inventa sunt ” (Div. 1.74) , the arms which had been fastened on the walls were found upon the ground.