[*] 496. The Present and Perfect Participles are often used as a predicate, where in English a phrase or a subordinate clause would be more natural. In this use the participles express time, cause, occasion, condition, concession, characteristic (or description), manner, means, attendant circumstances:—
- volventēs hostīlia cadāvera amīcum reperiēbant (Sall. Cat. 61), while rolling over the corpses of the enemy they found a friend. [Time.]
- paululum commorātus, sīgna canere iubet (id. 59), after delaying a little while, he orders them to give the signal. [Time.]
- “longius prōsequī veritus, ad Cicerōnem pervēnit ” (B. G. 5.52) , because he feared to follow further, he came to Cicero. [Cause.]
- “quī scīret laxās dare iussus habēnās ” (Aen. 1.63) , who might know how to give them loose rein when bidden. [Occasion.]
- “ damnātum poenam sequī oportēbat ” (B. G. 1.4) , if condemned, punishment must overtake him. [Condition.]
- salūtem īnspērantibus reddidistī; (Marc. 21), you have restored a safety for which we did not hope (to [us] not hoping). [Concession.]
- “Dardanius caput ecce puer dētēctus ” (Aen. 10.133) , the Trojan boy with his head uncovered. [Description.]
- “nec trepidēs in ūsum poscentis aevī pauca ” (Hor. Od. 2.11.5) , be not anxious for the needs of age that demands little. [Characteristic.]
- “ incitātī fugā montīs altissimōs petēbant ” (B. C. 3.93) , in headlong flight they made for the highest mountains. [Manner.]
- mīlitēs sublevātī aliī ab aliīs māgnam partem itineris cōnficerent (id. 1.68), the soldiers, helped up by each other, accomplished a considerable part of the route. [Means.]
- hōc laudāns, Pompêius idem iūrāvit (id. 3.87), approving this, Pompey took the same oath. [Attendant Circumstance.]
- “ aut sedēns aut ambulāns disputābam ” (Tusc. 1.7) , I conducted the discussion either sitting or walking. [Attendant Circumstance.]
[*] Note 1.--These uses are especially frequent in the Ablative Absolute (§ 420).
[*] Note 2.--A coördinate clause is sometimes compressed into a perfect participle:—
- īnstrūctōs ōrdinēs in locum aequum dēdūcit (Sall. Cat. 59), he draws up the lines, and leads them to level ground.
- “ut hōs trāductōs necāret ” (B. G. 5.6) , that he might carry them over and put them to death.
[*] Note 3.--A participle with a negative often expresses the same idea which in English is given by without and a verbal noun: as, “—miserum est nihil prōficientem angī” (N. D. 3.14) , it is wretched to vex oneself without effecting anything.