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496. The Present and Perfect Participles are often used as a predicate, where in English a phrase or a subordinate clause would be more natural.

In this use the participles express time, cause, occasion, condition, concession, characteristic (or description), manner, means, attendant circumstances:

    volventēs hostīlia cadāvera amīcum reperiēbant (Sall. Cat. 61), while rolling over the corpses of the enemy they found a friend. [Time.]
  1. paululum commorātus, sīgna canere iubet (id. 59), after delaying a little while, he orders them to give the signal. [Time.]
  2. longius prōsequī veritus, ad Cicerōnem pervēnit (B. G. 5.52) , because he feared to follow further, he came to Cicero. [Cause.]
  3. quī scīret laxās dare iussus habēnās (Aen. 1.63) , who might know how to give them loose rein when bidden. [Occasion.]
  4. damnātum poenam sequī oportēbat (B. G. 1.4) , if condemned, punishment must overtake him. [Condition.]
  5. salūtem īnspērantibus reddidistī; (Marc. 21), you have restored a safety for which we did not hope (to [us] not hoping). [Concession.]
  6. Dardanius caput ecce puer dētēctus (Aen. 10.133) , the Trojan boy with his head uncovered. [Description.]
  7. nec trepidēs in ūsum poscentis aevī pauca (Hor. Od. 2.11.5) , be not anxious for the needs of age that demands little. [Characteristic.]
  8. incitātī fugā montīs altissimōs petēbant (B. C. 3.93) , in headlong flight they made for the highest mountains. [Manner.]
  9. mīlitēs sublevātī aliī ab aliīs māgnam partem itineris cōnficerent (id. 1.68), the soldiers, helped up by each other, accomplished a considerable part of the route. [Means.]
  10. hōc laudāns, Pompêius idem iūrāvit (id. 3.87), approving this, Pompey took the same oath. [Attendant Circumstance.]
  11. aut sedēns aut ambulāns disputābam (Tusc. 1.7) , I conducted the discussion either sitting or walking. [Attendant Circumstance.]

Note 1.--These uses are especially frequent in the Ablative Absolute (§ 420).

Note 2.--A coördinate clause is sometimes compressed into a perfect participle:—

    īnstrūctōs ōrdinēs in locum aequum dēdūcit (Sall. Cat. 59), he draws up the lines, and leads them to level ground.
  1. ut hōs trāductōs necāret (B. G. 5.6) , that he might carry them over and put them to death.

Note 3.--A participle with a negative often expresses the same idea which in English is given by without and a verbal noun: as, “miserum est nihil prōficientem angī(N. D. 3.14) , it is wretched to vex oneself without effecting anything.

Note 4.-- Acceptum and expēnsum as predicates with ferre and referre are bookkeeping terms: as,—quās “pecūniās ferēbat eīs expēnsās(Verr. 2.170) , what sums he charged to them.

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