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504. The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after nouns or adjectives, either as subjective or objective genitive:—
  1. vīvendī fīnis est optimus (Cat. M. 72) , it is the best end of living. [Subjective.]
  2. neque cōnsilī habendī neque arma capiendī spatiō datō; (B. G. 4.14), time being given neither for forming plans nor for taking arms. [Objective.]
  3. nōn tam commūtandārum quam ēvertendārum rērum cupidōs (Off. 2.3) , desirous not so much of changing as of destroying the state. [Objective.]

Note 1.--In these uses the gerund and the gerundive are about equally common.

Note 2.--In a few phrases the Infinitive is used with nouns which ordinarily have the genitive of the gerund or gerundive: as,—tempus est abīre, it is time to go.

a. The genitive of the gerund sometimes takes a direct object, especially a neuter pronoun or a neuter adjective used substantively:—

    nūlla causa iūsta cuiquam esse potest contrā patriam arma capiendī; (Phil. 2.53), no one can have a just cause for taking up arms against his country.
    artem vēra ac falsa dīiūdicandī; (De Or. 2.157), the art of distinguishing true from false.

Note.--The genitive of the gerund or gerundive is used (especially in later Latin) as a predicate genitive. When so used it often expresses purpose:—

  1. quae postquam glōriōsa modo neque bellī patrandī cōgnōvit (Iug. 88) , when he perceived that these were only brilliant deeds and not likely to end the war.
  2. Aegyptum proficīscitur cōgnōscendae antīquitātis (Tac. Ann. 2.59) , he sets out for Egypt to study old times.

b. The genitive of the gerund or gerundive with causā or gratiā expresses purpose (§ 533. b):—

    pābulandī aut frūmentandī causā prōgressī; (B. C. 1.48), having advanced for the purpose of collecting fodder or supplies.
    vītandae suspīcionis causā; (Cat. 1.19), in order to avoid suspicion.
    simulandī grātiā; (Iug. 37), in order to deceive.
    exercendae memōriae grātiā; (Cat. M. 38), for the sake of training the memory.

c. The genitive of the gerund is occasionally limited by a noun or pronoun (especially a personal pronoun in the plural) in the objective genitive instead of taking a direct object:—

  1. rêiciendī trium iūdicum potestās (Verr. 2.77) , the power of challenging three jurors (of the rejecting of three jurors).
  2. suī colligendī facultās (B. G. 3.6) , the opportunity to recover themselves.

Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive

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