[*] 507. The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used (1) to express manner,1 means, cause, etc.; (2) after Comparatives; and (3) after the propositions ab , dē , ex , in, and (rarely) prō :—
- (1) “multa pollicendō persuādet” (Iug. 46) , he persuades by large promises.
- “Latīnē loquendō cuivīs pār ” (Brut. 128) , equal to any man in speaking Latin.
- “ hīs ipsīs legendīs ” (Cat. M. 21) , by reading these very things.
- “obscūram atque humilem conciendō ad sē multitūdinem ” (Liv. 1.8) , calling to them a mean and obscure multitude.
- (2) “nūllum officium referendā grātiā magis necessārium est” (Off. 1.47) , no duty is more important than repaying favors.
- (3) “ in rē gerendā versārī” (Cat. M. 17) , to be employed in conducting affairs.
[*] Note 1.--The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is also very rarely used with verbs and adjectives: as, “—nec continuandō abstitit magistrātū” (Liv. 9.34) , he did not desist from continuing his magistracy.
[*] Note 2.--The ablative of the gerund rarely takes a direct object in classic prose.