[*] 514. The principal or typical forms of Conditional Sentences may be exhibited as follows:— PARTICULAR CONDITIONS A. SIMPLE CONDITIONS (nothing implied as to fulfilment) Present Time Present Indicative in both clauses:—
- sī aderat , bene erat, if he was [then] here, it was well.
- sī adfuit , bene fuit, if he has been [was] here, it has been [was] well.
- sī adfuisset , bene fuisset, if he had [then] been here, it would have been well (but he was NOT here).
[*] Note.--The use of tenses in Protasis is very loose in English. Thus if he is alive now is a PRESENT condition, to be expressed in Latin by the Present Indicative; if he is alive next year is a FUTURE condition, expressed in Latin by the Future Indicative. Again, if he were here now is a PRESENT condition contrary to fact, and would be expressed by the Imperfect Subjunctive; if he were to see me thus is a FUTURE condition less vivid, to be expressed by the Present Subjunctive; and so <*>o, if you advised him, he would attend may be future less vivid.1 D. GENERAL CONDITIONS General Conditions do not usually differ in form from Particular Conditions (A, B, and C), but are sometimes distinguished in the cases following:— Present General Condition (Indefinite Time) a. Present Subjunctive second person singular (Indefinite Subject) in protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis:—protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis:protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apodosis:—protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apodosis:—
- sī quid dīceret , crēdēbātur, if he [ever] said anything, it was [always] believed (= whatever he said was always believed).
|A. 1. εἰ πράσσει τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει.||2. εἰ ἔπρασσε τοῦτο, καλῶς εἶχεν.|
|B. 1. ἐὰν πράσσῃ τοῦτο, καλῶς ἕξει.||2. εἰ πράσσοι τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν ἔχοι.|
|C. 1. εἰ ἔπρασσε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν εἶχεν.||2. εἰ ἔπραξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν.|
|D. 1. ἐάν τις κλέπτῃ, κολάζεται.||2. εἴ τις κλέπτοι, ἐκολάζετο.|