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521. In many sentences properly conditional, the Protasis is not expressed by a conditional clause, but is stated in some other form of words or implied in the nature of the thought.

a. The condition may be implied in a Clause, or in a Participle, Noun, Adverb, or some other word or phrase:—

  1. facile patererillō ipsō iūdice quaerenteprō Sex. Rōsciō dīcere (Rosc. Am. 85) , I should readily allow myself to speak for Roscius if that very judge were conducting the trial. [Present contrary to fact: quaereret , paterer.]
  2. nōn mihi, nisi admonitō, vēnisset in mentem (De Or. 2.180) , it would not have come into my mind unless [I had been] reminded. [Past contrary to fact: nisi admonitus essem .]
  3. nūlla alia gēns tantā mōle clādis nōn obruta esset (Liv. 22.54) , there is no other people that would not have been crushed by such a weight of disaster. [Past contrary to fact: alia fuisset .]
  4. nēmō umquam sine māgnā spē immortālitātis prō patriā offerret ad mortem (Tusc. 1.32) , no one, without great hope of immortality, would ever expose himself to death for his country. [Present contrary to fact: nisi māgnam spem habēret .]
  5. quid hunc paucōrum annōrum accessiō iuvāre potuisset (Lael. 11) , what good could the addition of a few years have done him (if they had been added)? [Past contrary to fact: accessissent .]
  6. quid igitur mihi ferārum laniātus oberit nihil sentientī (Tusc. 1.104) , what harm will the mangling by wild beasts do me if I don't feel anything (feeling nothing)? [Future more vivid: nihil sentiam .]
  7. incitāta semel prōclīvī lābuntur sustinērīque nūllō modō possunt (id. 4.42), if once given a push, they slide down rapidly and can in no way be checked. [Present General: incitāta sunt.]

Note.--In several phrases denoting necessity, propriety, or the like, the Imperfect, Perfect, or Pluperfect Indicative of esse is used in the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact, the protasis being implied in a subject infinitive (cf. 517. c):—

  1. quantō melius fuerat prōmissum nōn esse servātum (Off. 3.94) , how much better would it have been if the promise had not been kept! [prōmissum ... servātum= prōmissum nōn esset servātum.]
  2. morī praeclārum fuit (Att. 8.2.2) , it would have been honorable to die.
  3. sed erat aequius Triārium aliquid dissēnsiōne nostrā iūdicāre (Fin. 2.119) , but it would be more equitable if Triarius passed judgment on our dispute. [Triārium iūdicāre= Triārius iūdicāret.]
  4. satius fuit āmittere mīlitēs (Inv. 2.73) , it would have been better to lose the soldiers. [āmittere= āmīsisset.]

b. The condition may be contained in a wish (Optative Subjunctive), or expressed as an exhortation or command (Hortatory Subjunctive or Imperative):—

  1. utinam quidem fuissem! molestus nōbīs nōn esset (Fam. 12.3) , I wish I had been [chief]: he would not now be troubling us (i.e. if I had been). [Optative Subjunctive.]
  2. nātūram expellās furcā, tamen ūsque recurret (Hor. Ep. 1.10.24) , drive out nature with a pitchfork, still she will ever return. [Hortatory.]
  3. rogēs enim Aristōnem, neget (Fin. 4.69) , for ask Aristo, he would deny.
  4. manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria (Cat. M. 22) , old men keep their mental powers, only let them keep their zeal and diligence (§ 528. N.). [Hortatory.]
  5. tolle hanc opīniōnem, lūctum sustuleris (Tusc. 1.30) , remove this notion, and you will have done away with grief. [Imperative.]

Note.--The so-called Concessive Subjunctive with ut and often has the force of protasis (§ 527. a. N.): as,ut enim ratiōnem Platō nūllam adferret, “ipsā auctōritāte frangeret(Tusc. 1.49) , even if Plato gave no reasons, [still] he would overpower me by his mere authority.

c. Rarely the condition takes the form of an independent clause:

  1. rīdēs: mâiōre cachinnō concutitur (Iuv. 3.100) , you laugh; he shakes with louder laughter (=if you laugh, he shakes).
  2. commovē: sentiēs (Tusc. 4.54) , stir him up, [and] you'll find, etc.
  3. paupertāte agitur: multī patientēs pauperēs commemorantur (id. 3.57), we speak of poverty; many patient poor are mentioned.

For Conditional Relative Clauses, see §§ 519, 520.

Condition Omitted

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