[*] 521. In many sentences properly conditional, the Protasis is not expressed by a conditional clause, but is stated in some other form of words or implied in the nature of the thought. [*] a. The condition may be implied in a Clause, or in a Participle, Noun, Adverb, or some other word or phrase:—
- “facile mē paterer—illō ipsō iūdice quaerente—prō Sex. Rōsciō dīcere ” (Rosc. Am. 85) , I should readily allow myself to speak for Roscius if that very judge were conducting the trial. [Present contrary to fact: sī quaereret , paterer.]
- “nōn mihi, nisi admonitō, vēnisset in mentem ” (De Or. 2.180) , it would not have come into my mind unless [I had been] reminded. [Past contrary to fact: nisi admonitus essem .]
- “ nūlla alia gēns tantā mōle clādis nōn obruta esset ” (Liv. 22.54) , there is no other people that would not have been crushed by such a weight of disaster. [Past contrary to fact: sī alia fuisset .]
- “nēmō umquam sine māgnā spē immortālitātis sē prō patriā offerret ad mortem ” (Tusc. 1.32) , no one, without great hope of immortality, would ever expose himself to death for his country. [Present contrary to fact: nisi māgnam spem habēret .]
- “quid hunc paucōrum annōrum accessiō iuvāre potuisset ” (Lael. 11) , what good could the addition of a few years have done him (if they had been added)? [Past contrary to fact: sī accessissent .]
- “quid igitur mihi ferārum laniātus oberit nihil sentientī ” (Tusc. 1.104) , what harm will the mangling by wild beasts do me if I don't feel anything (feeling nothing)? [Future more vivid: sī nihil sentiam .]
- incitāta semel prōclīvī lābuntur sustinērīque nūllō modō possunt (id. 4.42), if once given a push, they slide down rapidly and can in no way be checked. [Present General: sī incitāta sunt.]
[*] Note.--In several phrases denoting necessity, propriety, or the like, the Imperfect, Perfect, or Pluperfect Indicative of esse is used in the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact, the protasis being implied in a subject infinitive (cf. 517. c):—
- “quantō melius fuerat prōmissum nōn esse servātum ” (Off. 3.94) , how much better would it have been if the promise had not been kept! [prōmissum ... servātum=sī prōmissum nōn esset servātum.]
- “morī praeclārum fuit ” (Att. 8.2.2) , it would have been honorable to die.
- “sed erat aequius Triārium aliquid dē dissēnsiōne nostrā iūdicāre ” (Fin. 2.119) , but it would be more equitable if Triarius passed judgment on our dispute. [Triārium iūdicāre=sī Triārius iūdicāret.]
- “ satius fuit āmittere mīlitēs ” (Inv. 2.73) , it would have been better to lose the soldiers. [āmittere=sī āmīsisset.]
- “ utinam quidem fuissem! molestus nōbīs nōn esset ” (Fam. 12.3) , I wish I had been [chief]: he would not now be troubling us (i.e. if I had been). [Optative Subjunctive.]
- “nātūram expellās furcā, tamen ūsque recurret ” (Hor. Ep. 1.10.24) , drive out nature with a pitchfork, still she will ever return. [Hortatory.]
- “ rogēs enim Aristōnem, neget ” (Fin. 4.69) , for ask Aristo, he would deny.
- “manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria ” (Cat. M. 22) , old men keep their mental powers, only let them keep their zeal and diligence (§ 528. N.). [Hortatory.]
- “ tolle hanc opīniōnem, lūctum sustuleris ” (Tusc. 1.30) , remove this notion, and you will have done away with grief. [Imperative.]
[*] Note.--The so-called Concessive Subjunctive with ut and nē often has the force of protasis (§ 527. a. N.): as,ut enim ratiōnem Platō nūllam adferret, “ipsā auctōritāte mē frangeret” (Tusc. 1.49) , even if Plato gave no reasons, [still] he would overpower me by his mere authority.[*] c. Rarely the condition takes the form of an independent clause:
- “ rīdēs: mâiōre cachinnō concutitur ” (Iuv. 3.100) , you laugh; he shakes with louder laughter (=if you laugh, he shakes).
- “ commovē: sentiēs ” (Tusc. 4.54) , stir him up, [and] you'll find, etc.
- dē paupertāte agitur: multī patientēs pauperēs commemorantur (id. 3.57), we speak of poverty; many patient poor are mentioned.