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321. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs.

a. A Demonstrative or Relative adverb is often equivalent to the corresponding Pronoun with a preposition (see § 308. g):—

  1. [ = in ea] impōnit vāsa (Iug. 75) , upon them (thither, thereon, on the beasts) he puts the camp-utensils.
  2. mīlitēs impōnere (B. G. 1.42) , to put soldiers upon them (the horses).
  3. apud eōs quō [ = ad quōs] contulit (Verr. 4.38) , among those to whom (whither) he resorted.
  4. quī eum necāsset unde [ = quō] ipse nātus esset (Rosc. Am. 71) , one who should have killed his own father (him whence he had his birth).
  5. ō condiciōnēs miserās administrandārum prōvinciārum ubi [ = in quibus] sevēritās perīculōsa est (Flacc. 87) , O! wretched terms of managing the provinces, where strictness is dangerous.

b. The participles dictum and factum , when used as nouns, are regularly modified by adverbs rather than by adjectives; so occasionally other perfect participles:—

  1. praeclārē facta (Nep. Timoth. 1) , glorious deeds (things gloriously done).
  2. multa facētē dicta (Off. 1.104) , many witty sayings.

c. A noun is sometimes used as an adjective, and may then be modified by an adverb:—

  1. victor exercitus, the victorious army.
  2. admodum puer, quite a boy (young).
  3. magis vir, more of a man (more manly).
  4. populum lātē rēgem (Aen. 1.21) , a people ruling far and wide.

Note.--Very rarely adverbs are used with nouns which have no adjective force bat which contain a verbal idea:—

  1. hinc abitiō; (Plaut. Rud. 503), a going away from here.
  2. quid cōgitem obviarr itiōne (Att. 13.50) , what I think about going to meet (him). [Perhaps felt as a compound.]

d. A few adverbs appear to be used like adjectives. Such are obviam , palam , sometimes contrā , and occasionally others:—

    fit obviam Clōdiō; (Mil. 29), he falls in with (becomes in the way of) Clodius. [Cf. the adjective obvius : as, ille obvius futūrus nōn erat (id. 47), if he was not likely to fall in with him.]
  1. haec commemorō quae sunt palam (Pison. 11) , I mention these facts, which are well-known.
  2. alia probābilia, contrā alia dīcimus (Off. 2.7) , we call some things probable, others the opposite (not probable). [In this use, contrā contradicts a previous adjective, and so in a manner repeats it.]
  3. erī semper lēnitās (Ter. And. 175) , my master's constant (always) gentleness. [An imitation of a Greek construction.]

Note.--In some cases one can hardly say whether the adverb is treated as an adjective modifying the noun, or the noun modified is treated as an adjective (as in c above).

For propius , prīdiē , palam , and other adverbs used as prepositions, see § 432.

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